Imatges de pàgina


sought in all other fact.

written a verse in his life. The announcement of the his arms and legs, got up, shook himself, rubbed his


When flowers are brought into

a sitting-room, they fade because of the dryness of the play brought out an attack from Malone, one of the and then cried out-conceiving what had happened to be

air. The air of a sitting-room is usually something drier few who denounced the Ireland papers as forgeries, only part of the performance, and perfectly willing to go although it is to be feared that he was actuated more through the whole— Well, I wonder what the fellow than that of the garden, and always much more so than

that of a good greenhouse or stove. Flowers when gathby a bitter jealousy of the invaders of his province intends to do next.”Flowers of Anecdote.

[The merit of Voltaire's views on this subject will ered, are cut off from the supply of moisture collected for of collector of Shakspeariana than by any other mo

scarcely bear investigation. More probably, the intre-them by their roots, and their mutilated are far tive. He warned the public not to be imposed upon pidity of the English sailor is simply a result of physical from having so great a power of sucking up fluids as the by the spurious play, as he was just about to prove organisation : he belongs to a race possessing great mental

roots have. If, then, with diminished powers of feeding, the whole affair a tissue of forgeries. The elder Ire- activity and power, and favoured by local circumstances, they are exposed to augmented perspiration, as is the land defended the authenticity of the papers in a this has made him what he is. If Voltaire had taken a case in a dry sitting-room, it is evident that the balance pamphlet. The play was written, and shown to anti- trip to the Highlands, he would have seen a Celtic popu of gain on the one hand by the roots, and of loss on the quaries, and, even then, criticism continued completely lation seated on the shores of stormy seas, yet possessing other hand by their whole surface, cannot be maintained. at fault. The great theatres were both eager for the no taste for maritime pursuits. An enlightened philo- The result can only be their destruction. Now, to place play, and Drury Lane was the successful competitor, sophy teaches that situation and circumstances are of them in a damp atmosphere is to restore this balance; Sheridan being then at its head. James Henry Pye, little use when the native qualifications of mind are de- because, if their power of sucking by their wounded ends the Poet-Laureat, and Sir James Bland Burgess, confective. Voltaire knew nothing of this philosophy.]

is diminished, so is their power of perspiring ; for a damp

atmosphere will rob them of no water-hence they maintended for the honour of writing a prologue to the

tain their freshness. The only difference between plants piece, and the baronet carried the day; while another

Juan de Esquivel, the first governor of Jamaica, was

in a “ Ward's case” and flowers in the little apparatus Literary amateur wrote an epilogue. The 2d of April

, sent by Diego Columbus, son of the great Columbus, just described is this—that the former is intended for 1796, was the day appointed for the representation, in 1509, with about seventy men, to enforce his claim to plants to grow in for a considerable space of time, while and all London looked with eagerness to the event. the government. He was one of the few Castilians wlio, the latter is merely for their preservation for a few days;

But there was one man who knew Shakspeare too amidst all the horrors of bloodshed and infectious rapine, and that the air which surrounds the flowers is always well to be gulled like others around him, and that were distinguished for generosity and humanity. One charged with the same quantity of vapour, will vary with man was essential to the success of the pseudo-Shaks- eminent instance of this is related by Herrera. About the circumstances, and at the will of him who has the pearian play. John Kemble did take upon him the the time that he sailed from Hispaniola, to take pos- management of it. We recommend those who love to see part of Vortigern, but he took it at the command of session of his new government of Jamaica, his competi- plenty of fresh flowers in their sitting-rooms in dry his superiors, and did not hesitate to call the whole a tor, Ojeda, was on the eve of his departure to the con weather to procure it. The experiment can be tried by downright forgery. The author, in a published edi tinent. Ojeda violently opposed the intended expedition inserting a tumbler over a rose-bud in a saucer of water. tion of the play, ascribes to John Kemble's contempt find him at Jamaica, he would hang him up as a rebel.

of Esquivel, and publicly threatened that if he should --Gardeners' Chronicle. of his part the consequences that followed the repre- Ojeda in his voyage was shipwrecked on the coast


CRIME DURING THE FAIR WEEK IN GLASGOW. sentation. A house, crowded to excess, met to listen cuba, and in danger of perisling for want of food. He

We are gratified to observe from a report in a newsto the piece, and all, says the author, went on well, implored succour from the very man whose destruction paper, the - Scotch Reformers' Gazette,” that the number until John Kemble came to the line, he had meditated. Esquivel, thus acquainted with the

of offences--such as drunkenness, disorderly conduct, and “ And when this solemn mockery is o'er," sufferings of his enemy, sent an officer to conduct him to

assaults--committed in Glasgow during a certain week in which he pronounced (says the author still) in so

Jamaica, received him with the tenderest sympathy, July, called the “ fair week,” is on the decline. In the fair treated him with kindness, and provided him with the

week of 1841, the number of persons charged with offences pointedly scornful a manner, that an irrepressible means of a speedy and safe conveyance to Hispaniola. at the police court was 404, and in 1842 it was only 241. clamour commenced in the house, and settled for ever How truly might it be said, that under him “the ravages

Our authority observes on this subject, " It thus appears the fate of Vortigern. of conquest were restrained within the limits of huma

that there is a great diminution in the extent of crime, and The truth seems to be, that, whatever might be nity !"* It is pleasing to add, that Ojeda was not un

we are glad also to find that the most heinous offences the case with critics and antiquaries, the public were grateful to his benefactor.From a Scrup-Book.

have been much lessened—there being but few of those not in this case to be hoaxed. They knew the mettle

brutal and savage assaults now committed that were ENJOYMENTS.

formerly so common. of their illustrious and enduring favourite too well to

We must, in common justice, atbe deceived, and their award decisively closed the

Under this head we have to consider what it is diffi

tribute much of this desirable change, both as to the Ireland humbug. The eyes of the learned few were cult to detine in reference to people in general. Our number and character of offences, to the beneficial influ

ence of the temperance movement, to dull trade, and to opened by the plain common-sense of the illiterate physical as well as our mental tastes are almost as diffe

the more enlightened conduct of our lower native popumany, and all men cried out against the impudent rent as our faces and figures. Each is ready to exclaim,

lation towards their Irish brethren. But we would also forgery. Poor Samuel Ireland suffered grievously in much enjoyment in business-eternal business-night, give the

credit that is due to the judicious police regucharacter; and it was to protect his father, the son noon, and morning." Again, Mr A. says, “ Well, I won

sations now in force. We believe that, in addition to says, that he came forward and made a full confession. der how Mr B. can continue to live in what he calls a

the moral influence just spoken of, the improvement is The consequence of his misdeeds, he further says, was round of pleasure and amusement."

Each sees the mote attributable to the preventive nature of our present sysa life of voluntary yet painful exile, and the endur- in his brother's eye, but observes not the beam in his tem of police, by which the peace and good order of our ance of all manner of obloquy, for years in succession. own ; in other words, is tolerant of his own folly only community, even at such striking times as the fair,' The doom was certainly not altogether undeserved. Change or variety appears to be desired by all, unless by have been effectually preserved."

We have now had enough of this sad affair, which those labouring under a species of monomania. The tracertainly forms one of the most curious instances veller by occupation sighs for rest; while he, doomed

It is well known to the world at large that some capin literary history, of critical judgment thoroughly to drudge in the same locality, longs for the freedom of

tains of the Royal Navy possess three distinct natures. at fault. In this respect, it gives a lesson at once

a loose leg and change of scene. amusing and instructive. But it is unnecessary to

In truth, enjoyment is quite a relative idea, depending The first is called their “ manner afloat," which signifies dwell on the morale of the affair, which is so obvious upon a host of contingencies, such as age, temperament, under their command. The second is styled their that it may be safely left to the reader's own reflec- needs not a reference to the sacred Scriptures to prove when receiving orders or notice from superiors. The

peculiarities, &e. The influence of age or period of life duty," which they put on in the most obsequious form tions.

its well-known effects.
In childhood, manhood, and old age, we make a retro-

third is their “shore-going habit,” in which they array spect tête-à-tête with experience, not at all complimen- sent an honest, open-hearted, frank, though blunt good

themselves with a certain carelessness, meant to repreSCOTLAND: A SONG.

tary to the preceding stage ; and although we may cast The hills of my country are mantled with snow, a "longing lingering look” on boyhood's days, owing to

nature, a ready smile and an apparent cordial friendship Yet, oh! I but love them the more;

the pleasures they then afforded, yet still we do often for all; that is, for all who are beyond their power, and More noble they seem in the sun's setting glow, regret that so much time was idly spent. The objects and who fancy (poor deluded creatures !) that a captain

do not care one sixpence for their rank and epaulettes, Than all that the vales of the Southron can show, , When gay with the summer's whole store.

of ambition or avarice-unlike the straws and rattles of
childhood, or the finely

gilded toys of the emulation of on shore and a captain on his own quarter-deck are one Though brighter the landscape, and blander the air,

riper years—are persistent besetting delusions to the and the same person. They who think thus know little In climes that look straight to the sun, very last-even on a death-bed.

about the matter. Not that I mean that this is a uniThe dearest enjoyments of home are not there,

versal character, The chat and the laugh by the hearth's cheering glare, The conqueror still sighs after fame-darling fame

There are many perfect gentlemen, When day and its labours are done. that “nerved his arm and steeled his sword.” The many of the kindest hearts that ever beat, high in rank

in our service. But even these are forced to alter their And thus, like the snow-covered hills of their land,

miser hugs his money-bags, and petitions Death to spare Its sons may seem rugged and rude, him yet a little until he receive some valuable post-obits.

manners when in command. While there are some, as We have heard a great deal of how valueless the things and whose urbanity on shore is a mere matter of masque

I have above described, whose real nature is tyranny, Yet gentler in heart is each mun of the band, More kindly in feeling, more open in hand,

of this world appear to the dying man; but we have too
Than all whom the tropics include.
often seen the reverse, to give assent to this assertion as

rade.- Continental Literary Journal.
the rule, which forms but the mere exception; men
generally die as they have lived—" the ruling passion

strong in death."
On the subject of enjoyments, we can only say that

Fathers of families in England occasionally apply Voltaire has the merit of having discovered the cause each individual must determine upon what he likes best to us for information respecting boarding-schools for of the superiority of English sailors at sea. The natives in this respect, and act accordingly. The man who pays boys in Scotland, .“ which we can recommend as being of the south of Europe navigate smooth seas, those of most attention to the culture and discipline of his mind conducted on an improved routine of instruction, and the north are frozen up during winter, but the Eng- is laying the true and firm foundation for such a taste as at a moderate charge.” We regret that we are seldom lish seas are open all the year, and are navigated in will lead him to seek for enjoyment in moral and intel- able to answer such inquiries satisfactorily. We could long, dark, stormy nights, when nothing but great skilllectual pursuits-those that leave no sting behind. Re- point out one or two good boarding-schools, but only for and incessant exertion can preserve the vessel. Hence member that the pleasures of the sensualist and of the boys of a high class, and also two or three good public arises a degree of confidence in their sailors, which is voluptuary perish in the very enjoyment.-Hayden's schools, but these are in large towns, and therefore not almost incredible: the greater the danger, the greater is Physiology for the Public.

the thing required. What is wanted, as far as we their activity; instead of shrinking from toil, every man is at his post.' Having no faith in miracles for their de


can understand, is a boarding-school in some healthy liverance, they almost work miracles to deliver them It is now eighteen years ago since we first saw, in the country place, at which boys would be taught not selves ; and instead of preparing for death, strain every drawing-room of a gentleman now no more, in the hot only the elementary but those advanced branches of sinew to avoid it. Added to this confidence, they have dry weather of the dog-days, flowers preserved day after instruction which improved views of education sugalso in war that which arises from constant success. The day in all their freshness by the following simple con

gest ; such, for example, as the laws of matter and English sailor feels that he is master of the sea. What- trivance :-A flat dish of porcelain had water poured into motion, mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, electricity, ever he sees is to do him homage. He is always on the it. In the water a vase of flowers was set ; over the whole astronomy, geography, geology, chemistry, zoology, look-out, not with the fear of an enemy before his eyes, a bell-glass was placed with its rim in the water. This botany, physiology, political economy, liistory, and so but, like a strong pirate, with the hope of gain : and was a ** Ward s case" in principle, although different in on; also instruction in classical and modern lanwhen going into action with an equal or even superior its construction. The air that surrounded the flowers guages for those who wished to go that length. The force, he calculates his profits as certainly as if the enemy being confined beneath the bell-glass, was constantly whole routine, with board, and proper moral and rewere already taken. There," said the master of a moist with the water that rose into it in the form of ligious instruction, to be given at from L.30 to L.40 frigate, when the captain did not choose to engage a vapour. As fast as the water was condensed, it ran down per annum. If there has already been established superior French force, because he had a convoy in charge, the sides of the bell-glass back into the dish; and if means any such boarding-school on a respectable footing, we “there,” said he, with a groan, “there's seven hundred had been taken to enclose the water on the outside of the pounds lost to me for ever!” As for fear, it is not in their bell-glass, so as to prevent its evaporating into the air of mend it to public support.

shall be glad to hear of it, and, if satisfied, to recomnature. One of these men went to see a juggler exhibit the sitting-room, the atmosphere around the flowers his tricks: there happened to be a quantity of gunpowder would have remained continually damp. What is the in the apartment underneath, which took fire and blew explanation of this ? Do the flowers feed on the viewless LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by up the house. The sailor was thrown into a garden be- vapour that surrounds them? Perhaps they do, but the W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. hind, where he fell without being hurt. He stretched great cause of their preserving their freshness is to be

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars


T. S.






PRICE 11d.


creations of their fancy by the generic title of Irish- nobody else does. As for dirks and claymores, we can

man; and a name rejoicing in the prefix of Oʻ, with assure our southern friends that the terrific fighters of OUR social institutions, customs, manners, and amuse a plentiful scattering of ochs, souls, be-aisy's, and blun- | the stage have no prototypes among Scotsmen. A ments, are characterised, beyond question, by a great ders in their talk, has had the effect of causing the gully-knife, fit only to slice a skim-milk cheese, conmany features and peculiarities, which the force of strange personations of this class pervading our plays, stitutes the most deadly weapon which we have ever habit alone prevents us from viewing with ridicule, to be received as genuine sons of Erin all the world seen in the hands of the ploughman or shepherd of if not from repressing as gross outrages upon common over, by one generation after another. There might the Scottish dales. sense. This is a trite enough observation, it must be have been little else than folly merely in our so long Then, what a language do the approved Scotsmen confessed ; yet the marvel is, that often as it is made tolerating the application of the Irishman's name in of the stage emit, and what forms and names do they in reference to a variety of subjects of greater or this way, had it been understood that the appellation bear! Speaking through the nose seems to be deemed lesser consequence, our eyes are never the nearer being was but a useful conventional one for a class of cha- essentially characteristic of Scotsmen. A lumbering opened, and we are still contented to exercise our racters which the stage requires ; but this has not animal with a shock head of red-hair, which he vision through the dulling and deceiving film of habit been the case. The ridicule which was solely due to scratches perpetually, enters on the stage, and pours and conventionalism. Perhaps the operation of these the creature of the dramatists invention, was trans- forth, in a great measure through the organ mentioned, influences is nowhere more observable than in the case ferred to the real members of that community whose a gibberish composed chiefly of oichs, hoichs, tou's, ta's, of our dramatic and scenic exhibitions. Things are national name was so misused. “It passed (says Mr and mon's, and is deemed by his admiring auditory said, done, and shown in our theatres, which, when Carleton) from the stage into the recesses of private the veritable Scot. Twenty other personages may be one examines them without the spectacles of custom life, wrought itself into the feelings till it became a on the scene, equally Scottish in name and position on one's nose, appear certainly very strange and ri prejudice, and the Irishman was consequently looked with this single party, but they speak their best diculous;

and the more particularly do they appear in upon and treated as a being made up of absurdity and English, and are not deemed the true specimens of such lights when one remembers the pretensions of cunning—a compound of knave and fool, fit only to Caledonia. Now, we humbly assure our southern the stage to “ hold the mirror up to nature," and be punished for his knavery or laughed at for his readers that all Scotsmen are not red-haired, and that show « the very age and body of the time, its form folly.” This is certainly nothing more than the truth. in our talk we have no peculiar fancy for snivelling. and pressure.” Professed imitations are there habi- The stage, hitherto at least, has been one of the chief As little are we aware of the existence of any persons tually given of characters too absurd to have ever had instruments by which national character has been called Mac-Screws or Mac-Sawneys among us, as cerprototypes in human nature, and language is put into appreciated ; and from the senseless reception of the tain dramas would imply. Nor do we even believe their mouths such as man never spoke in real life ; stage-pictures of Irish character as genuine, a depre- that, leaving what is more especially called Scotland while people look on, and listen, and applaud, simply, ciatory feeling towards the actual Irish people has for the most remote nooks of the Highlands, we shall to all seeming, because their grandsires did so before been long fostered in the sister country. Many a there find any such personages, figures, names, or them. For proof of this, take note of the Irishmen worthy man must have suffered, for instance, both in modes of talk. We shall find Gaelic spoken in some and Scotsmen of the stage, or the creations of fancy interests and feelings, from the stigma conveyed in places, and in others a form of Scotch or English ; on which, from time immemorial, it has been the good the term “fortune-hunter,” which the drama has been but that chaotic mixture of these tongues which prepleasure of dramatic writers to bestow these designa- the chief means of fixing upon the children of the vails on the stage, is the proper dialect of no district tions. As regards speech, dress, manners, and other “emerald isle.”

or spot with which we are acquainted. It is a curious characteristics, these creations no more resemble the The professed representations of Scottish character truth, indeed, that in those parts of the Highlands Irishmen and Scotsmen of real life, past or present, and Scottish scenery and peculiarities on the stage, where the original Gaelic has been superseded, a diathan the latter are like to the natives of Dahomey or afford matter for laughter chiefly. We have heard it lect of the English tongue is spoken excelling in Ashantee in the colour of their skins. Shakspeare asserted, that very worthy people in London have the purity any to be found in most of the provinces, or began this series of ridiculous misrepresentations in firm belief that the citizens of Edinburgh wear the perhaps even the metropolis of England. Such is the the Captain Macmorris and Captain Jamy of his kilt universally, and that, on visiting England, they case at Inverary, for instance, and partly at and

Henry V.;" but for him there is excuse in the assume certain nameless articles of dress merely as a around Inverness. comparative ignorance which prevailed in his time mark of respect for the more civilised tastes of the Scottish readers may think it a work of supererogarelative to Ireland and Scotland. Imitating his faults south. Whether this be the London belief or not, tion for us thus seriously to deny that the shockwhen they could not imitate his beauties, dramatic certain it is that the stage, as far as Scottish matters headed, scratching, grunting, fighting animal in tartan, writers have never since produced play or farce (as are concerned, is practically conducted on that prin- is a fair specimen of the general population of ScotCarleton remarks in reference to his own country- ciple. To pourtray a Scottish scene there, a most land ; but in reality the belief that such is the case men) “ in which, when an Irishman is introduced, he unsparing allowance of mountain, rock, wood, and is widely spread among our southern neighbours, and is not drawn as a broad grotesque blunderer, every waterfall

, must be made ; and these natural features, even among the respectably educated of them. Arsentence he speaks involving a bull, and every act the to distinguish them from the same kind of scenery tists, who should and do know better, have fostered result of headlong folly, or cool but unstudied effron. elsewhere, require simply to be on a monstrous scale

. the notion by sticking men in kilts into all their pictery. I do not remember an instance in which he The painter, apparently, must keep in his mind's tures of Scottish soenery, even where these have refe

eye the “steep-frowning glories of dark Loch-na-gar," acts upon the stage any other part than that of the

rence to the banks of the Tweed or the Clyde, or other buffoon of the piece, uttering language which, where the written model of a Scottish scene to an English spots which never were trodden by limbs adorned with ever it may have been found, was at all events never mind. Then, again, every living thing introduced such a species of dress. The stage, we repeat, aided heard in Ireland, unless upon the boards of a theatre. into such a scene—man, woman, and child—must be by paintings, has been instrumental in giving EnglishThe Captain O‘Cutters, O'Blunders, and Dennis Bul- clothed in tartans. The women must have plaids, men most ridiculous ideas of Scotland. Not congrudderies, of the English stage, never had existence mantles, and snoods of that material ; and the men, ceiving it possible, we suppose, that men who wore except in the imagination of those who were as igno- be they kings, chiefs, caterans, or cow-herds, must kilts could possess any of the luxurious inventions of rant of the Irish people as they were of their language figure in tartan coats and kilts, and also display hose civilisation, a respectable London merchant lately and feelings. Even Sheridan was forced to pander to and buckled shoes, with blue bonnets and swinge- asked a friend of ours if we had gas in Edinburgh ; and this erroneous estimate and distorted conception of ing feathers therein. It is almost needless to say he exhibited a most humiliating degree of surprise on our character ; for, after all, Sir Lucius OʻTrigger was further, that a dirk and purse are also essential to learning that we had actually advanced so far in prachis Irishman, but not Ireland's Irishman.” Mr Carle- the Scot of the stage ; and moreover, and above all, tical science as to manufacture and use that article. ton forcibly exposes the long-lived absurdity of im a claymore of fearful length and strength, with which As in the case of the conventional Irishman and puting to the Irish any special propensity to bulls or a “terrific combat,” as the bills have it, is always ef Scotsman of the stage, so is it with its Frenchmen, blunders, and shows that the foundation of that idea fected amid the hills and cataracts aforesaid. The its Italians, its Spaniards, its Germans, its negroes, lay simply in the imperfect comprehension which the terrific combat” is an element of the Scoto-scenic and others. They are not human beings of varied Irish long had, and have even yet, of the English exhibition never to be omitted.

character, such as Shakspeare introduced into his language.

The good people who swallow these things as cha- plays when he laid the scenes abroad. They are În reference to the Irishman of the drama, the racteristic of Scotland proper, are much in need of respectively but reiterations of one character, which truth seems to be, that, a buffoon being a necessary being set right in their ideas. On the streets of Lon- it has pleased dramatists to constitute the stage-model character for many of the purposes of the stage, don, tartans and kilts are as common a sight as in of an entire national community. For example, the our dramatists have deemed it proper to call such | Edinburgh. Tourists must know this, but apparently Frenchman introduced into the English drama is uni.



Dersally but the shrugging, monkey-looking Canton of the powers of each individual performer. But though when the more intelligent classes lose their liking and "The Clandestine Marriage," or the Monsieur Mor- he may thus far have acted prudently, as histrionic respect for the drama, others must soon adopt the same bleu of "Monsieur Tonson,” dished up over and over matters at present stand, the end of this entire system views. Shakspeare and Jonson ranged human nature again, with no difference in essentials, though thrown, is, that our dramatic pieces have become, more and in search of new, proper, and varied subjects for the it may be, into situations varied in some little degree. more completely, but a hashing up of the same stage. Modern dramatists seem to have but a set See one stage-Frenchman, and you see all. Is nature things over again. We find in them endless old admi- number of puppet figures, which they shake together, thus limited in her power of varying character, with rals (performed by the old-men-obstinate), who speak as it were, in a bag, and present in the slightly-varied a great nation to work upon! Surely the mirror is like barking dogs, quarrel with everybody, and always positions assumed by them, without changing, hownot held up to her here.

have nephews or nieces whom they want to marry to ever, one iota of their aspect or attire, much less of Classes of men have the same kind of conventional some hateful or hated person or another. As all must their intrinsic characters. representatives on the stage as nations have. See one end well at last, we find these ancient blockheads sailor, and you see all that the modern drama ever usually wheeling round at the last moment, without

SANATORY CONDITION OF THE LABOURshows to you of that class. When a tar is promised the shadow of a reason, and giving their consent to

ING POPULATION. to you in any piece, you may feel assured of beholding the identical match which they have all along opposed. a man with blue jacket, white trousers, straw hat, pig. Such a personage uniformly concludes with a “ Well, tail, and buckles, who dances a hornpipe, chews to you young dog, I suppose you must have her. So, take The fourth section of Mr Chadwick's remarkable bacco, mouths a host of boisterous sentences relative my blessing"—and hereupon he pulls out his white work adverts to the comparative chances of life in to the honour of old England, bans the French, and handkerchief, and snivels considerably. There are, so different classes of the community." This is a subject garnishes his dialogue with a most multitudinous far as we have observed, no beings in human nature which has already been investigated, to very curious amount of " avasts," lubbers,” “ swabs,” “ what resembling these old-obstinates. As great a libel upon results, by M. Villermé of Paris. Inquiries amongst cheers,” and good set phrases of the like kidney. Now, youthful humanity is the lover-gentleman of such ourselves come to precisely the same effect, namely, though all the sailors that ever sailed the salt seas pieces, who can do little else than exclaim, " Adorable that the severity of the pressure of disease and morwere marked by these features of exterior and manners, Julia !" and cane his servant (the knowing valet)—for tality is generally in proportion to the poorness of cirsurely the drama should present something more than which latter act, by the way, the valet in real life cumstances. The difference is much greater than mere outward forms, in order to hold up the mirror would assuredly either knock his master down, or could well be believed, except upon the most powerful to nature, and show vice and virtue their own image. summon him before the police-magistrate, or perhaps evidence. Mr Chadwick states, that in some districts As things are managed at present, dramatic authors do both. The “ adorable Julias” of the light modern of a city the deaths are only 1 for every 57 of the seem to hold that they accomplish all when they give drama, again, are intolerable pieces of insipidity, with-, population annually, while in other districts of the little more than externals, according with the set rules out enough of intellect to sew the A BC upon a samp- same city they are 1 for every 28, being more than and practices of the stage established by their prede- ler. They can but lisp perpetually “Pa” and “Ma," twice the former amount. He has with great industry cessors. Variety of character is never dreamed of, and “Dear Charles;" and they speak of elopements collected a series of returns from different manufacapparently; though, being men, sailors must vary in for life as they would do of taking a morning walk. turing towns and districts in England, showing the a thousand respects like other men. Even as regards Can anybody feel rational interest in the fate of average age of the individuals deceased within a certheir characteristic manners, it is absurd to suppose such bib-and-tucker heroines as these, or have any tain time of three classes of society, namely~1. that they are all as much alike as peas or pigeons' wish but to see them well chastised by their gover- Gentry and professional persons ; 2. Tradesmen and eggs. Nor can every Jack be disposed to dance horn. nesses, and sent to bed supperless ?

their families; and 3. Labourers, mechanics, and serpipes everlastingly, in season and out of season. We must not dwell too long on these points, how- vants ; from which it invariably appears that the

Sailors form but a specimen of the sort of class-con- ever, and must trust it to the reader bimself to make average age of the first class is much above that of ventionalisms to which we allude. If a lawyer, a

a more extended application of the preceding hints. the two others, and that the average age of the second country squire, a barber, an auctioneer, a village. But there is one other point to which we would ad-class is much above that of the third. In Truro, for mayor, or almost any professional or official person vert before closing these observations on dramatic the three classes respectively, it is 40, 33, and 25 whatever, appear in the list of personages in a modern matters. While following not, or incapable of follow- years ; in Leeds, 44, 27, and 19; in Liverpool, 35, 22, drama, any one who has the slightest acquaintance ing, our elder dramatists in their vivid and varied de- and 15; in Whitechapel, 45, 27, and 22; in Kensingwith such matters may prognosticate with certainty picting of actual, living, breathing human nature, many ton, 44, 29, and 26-the two last exhibiting, it will be what the dress, manners, mode of speech, and other modern dramatists seem to think that they attain to observed, a more favourable average to the third class peculiarities, will be in every individual case. They the style, at least, of the Augustan age of the English in a city district occupied by the upper ranks, than will all be found in accordance with the conven- drama, by interlarding their attempts plentifully with in a mean district an effect probably, in part, of the tional stage rules, in each instance specially laid such phrases as “ i' faith," "marry," " my masters,” good condition in which the servants of the upper down and provided. And to augment the sameness and the like. These things have accordingly become classes are kept. When we go into a simply rural resulting from this state of things, the actual repre- a part of the laughable conventionalisms of the stage. district, where the third class is mainly composed of senters of character upon the stage have become We may perhaps best make the reader understand us agricultural labourers, we find the return for that moulded and modelled, upon similar principles, into here by throwing few of these stereotype phrases class much more favourable than in dense manufaccertain forms, unchanging and unchangeable. His into a sort of speech for the nonce. Suppose a gentle- turing cities. For instance, in Rutlandshire, the trionic companies, now-a-days, are for the most part man, or say nobleman, to behold another approaching, numbers respectively are 52, 41, and 38—the last composed of individuals who have trained themselves, into whose eyes he wishes to throw a little pulverulent class thus showing better chance of life than the not to the personation of such varied characters as matter. He will then probably speak on the stage second does in any of the places above mentioned. nature presents, but to perform each a stated species of course-after the following sort. The stock phrases This is a very instructive fact, particularly when we of character, out of which they cannot step for the are in italics :

bear in mind that the wages of the agricultural lac lives of them. In every company, for example, there Ha! can I trust mine eyes ? No!-yes ! "Tis he!

bourers of Rutlandshire average barely one-half of the is a performer who plays the dandy or puppy parts,

Now must I smooth my tongue.-Bul hush! he comes. (To the other).

wages of the third class in the large manufacturing and can play nothing else. There is your enacter of Ha! by the mass, it glads me to the core, sir,

towns. Mr Chadwick has had maps of Leeds and of mysterious bandits and Blue-beard counts. There is

To note how excellent well thou bear'st thine years.

Bethnal Green parish constructed, to show, by com

Marry, my good lord, i' th' olden days, your old-man-obstinate performer, or one who repre I do remember me, thou look'dst it bravely;

parative depth of colouring, the liability of various sents hot-headed admirals and hard-hearted fathers. And yet, i' failh, methinks old grandsire Time

districts to contagious disease and cholera ; and the

That comes me rudely in to pluck men's beards, There is your old-man-virtuous, or he who plays dis

And plant you white hairs where your black have been, deep colours are invariably upon the dense mean distressed merchants and ancient faithful servitors; your Hath scarcely touched thy honourable visage.

Nay, never shake thy head-gentle, my lord.

tricts occupied by the humbler classes. He requested knowing valet ; your comic Irishman; and so on. So

Go to, man; by this light, I say, 'tis 60.

from the medical authorities of Aberdeen a similar completely does an actor belong to one part, and one My masters, judge ye, an I speak not truly,

map of that city, desiring at the same time that they

Note well this, worthy sir! By'r lady, friends, part to him, that it is common to say such an actor

He is my junior but by some few years,

would distinguish the streets occupied by the differis a “capital villain,” a “first-rate scoundrel.” The And mark the difference between us now.

S'blood, that same wielder o' the crooked scythe

ent grades of society. “They returned a map so lady-performers are arranged in like manner into the

Hath nsed me vilely. A' brought us to the light

marked as to disease, but stated that it had been old-woman-tragic and old-woman-comic; the young A'most at once; and lo! you here, my masters,

How plain his marks on me, while on my friend

thought unnecessary to distinguish the streets inhawoman-sentimental, and young-woman-chambermaid

His hand hath fall'n as soft as even dew.

bited by the different orders of society, as that was ish; and so on. The confinement of performers thus Well, there be some well used, and others not.

done with sufficient accuracy by the different tints to one walk, though it may have been originally

Afore me, an it go not nigh to anger one.

representing the degrees of intensity of the prevalence caused by the adherence of dramatic writers to set And so on. Such phrases as these, with a broken line of fever.” conventional rules, reacts upon the efforts of these in now and then, with breaches in rhythm, and a few “ An impression is often prevalent,” says Mr Chad. turn, and increases the mischief. Seeing the manner words thickly consonanted (such as “foul-mouth’dst” wick,“ that a heavy mortality is an unavoidable conin which histrionic companies are usually arranged, and the like), plentifully bestrew the more ambitious dition of all large towns, and of a town population in the modern dramatist looks not to nature for his con- dramas of the present day. The constructors of them general. It has, however, been shown that groups of ceptions. He draws every character and arranges think not the quality of the metal ; the antique cottages on a high hill, exposed to the most salubrious every phrase exactly as he thinks they will best suit setting seems to be all in all.

breezes, when cleanliness is neglected, are often the the people who are to represent and utter them. He In conclusion is there not to be found in the pre- nests of fever and disease as intense as the most writes a part for the puppy-performer, a part for old-valence of these dramatic conventionalisms a partial crowded districts. The mortuary returns of particuobstinate, a part for old-virtuous, a part for knowing reason, at least, for the declension of the stage from lar districts prove that a high degree of mortality valet, parts for miss-sentimental, miss-chambermaid- its high position in past days ? Educated spectators, does not invariably belong to the population of all ish, old-woman-comic, and the rest, the thread of a and they are now numerous, cannot but distinguish towns, and probably not necessarily to any, even where plot which ties the whole together being a matter of the artificial and unnatural cast of the scenes and the population is engaged in manufactures. The proextremely little moment in his eyes.

characters presented to them, and therefore fail to take portion of deaths appears in some of the suburbs of The dramatist is certain of some measure of success, that interest in the spectacle, or in the fates of the per- the metropolis (as at Haekney), and of Manchester by taking this direct and secure way of bringing out | sonages represented, which it is essential to excite ; and 1 and Leeds, to be lower than amongst the highest

classes in two of the agricultural counties.” It is also population of the borough were only 19 years ; whilst the care of a pupil of the master who had charge of to be remarked that, in some generally unhealthy dis- in the county of Wilts, where the labourer's family the children from the wynds. After a trial for a tricts of towns, there are streets of a better class, and would not receive much more than half that amount of sufficient time, the more experienced master acknowrice versa ; and it has been found, when minute in worth in money and produce together,

we find the ave his inability to keep them up to the pace of the better

wages in money, and perhaps not two-thirds of money's ledged the comparative inferiority of his pupils, and quiry was made, that these exceptions showed the rage chances of life to the labouring classes 32 years ?" bodily conditioned children. respective differences of mortality which were to be The population of Guanaxuato, in Mexico, where the The facts indicated will suffice to show the importexpected. Mr Elwin, reporting from Bath, says, deaths are 1 in 20 annually, and the births 1 in 16, is ance of the moral and political considerations, namely, “ The average [age) among the labourers was greatly ceives that it' resembles " the wretched population of and bodily condition of the population, and act as ob

sunk in filth, vice, and misery. Mr Chadwick con- that the noxious physical agencies depress the health diminished by the returns from some notorious courts, the worst parts of Glasgow,

Edinburgh, London, and stacles to education and to moral culture ; that in and raised again to a still higher proportion by dis- Bath, and the lodging-houses throughout the country." abridging the duration of the adult life of the worktricts which appertained rather to the country than He adds—“Seeing that the banana (with the plantain ing-classes, they check the growth of productive skill, the town." This gentleman found the average for a or maize) is the chief food of the inferior Mexican and abridge the amount of social experience and steady good district depressed by a colony of shoemakers. populace, their degraded condition has been ascribed moral habits in the community ; that they substituto “My attention,” he says, “ was called to this circum- large proportion of

our population has been ascribed struction and is steadily progressive, a population that

to the fertility of that plant, as the degradation of a for a population that accumulates and preserves instance by the clerk incidentally remarking that more to the use of the potato ; whereas a closer examina- is young, inexperienced, ignorant, credulous, irritable, shoemakers were married at his office, and were uni- tion would have shown the fact of large classes living passionate, and dangerous, having a perpetual tenformly more dirty and ill-dressed, than any other industriously and virtuously chiefly on simple food, dency to moral as well as physical deterioration." class of persons. The proneness to marriage or con- and preferring saving money to better living ; and It is necessary to guard against an impression very cubinage in proportion to the degradation of the that, if a bigh and various meat diet were the cause apt to be formed from the fact of the higher chances parties is notorious, and I anticipated from the fact of health,

industry, and morality, those virtues should of life being found amongst the upper classes, namely, an abundant offspring, afterwards to be carried off by houses, for more meat and varied food is consumed in This is by no means the case. The probability rather

stand highest amongst the population of the lodging- that expensive modes of living are essential to health. premature disease. Accordingly, I went with this those abodes of pestilence than amongst the industri- is, that the higher classes are comparatively healthy, view through several of the registers, and the result ous population of the village. In Manchester, where not in consequence, but in spite of, expensive modes was, that, while the average of death amongst the we have seen that the chances of life are only 17 of living, which too often involve indulgence in what families of labourers and artisans in general was years, the proportions

and varieties of meat consumed is positively deleterious. The working classes in the [1 in] 24 and 25, that of shoemakers was [1 in) 14." by the labouring classes are as their greater amount of great seats of manufactures bave far more rich, varied,

It would be a very erroneous inference from the wages, compared with the meat consumed by the la- and stimulating diet than the rural labourers, yet they above facts, that, of equal numbers of grown persons of bouring classes in Rutlandshire, whose

mean chances have been shown to be much less healthy. The diet the three classes, the chance of life was in the proporrior health in Rutlandshire is as little ascribable to observation amongst the medical persons superintend

of life are 38 years. But I apprehend that the supe in prisons is very light ; yet it is matter of common tions indicated. It is upon the young and infantine their simpler food, as the greater amount of disease ing them, that the health of the inmates is generally that the weight of adverse physical circumstances amidst the town population is ascribable to the greater much higher than that of almost any part of the surchiefly falls. In Manchester, of 1000 children born, proportion of meat which is there consumed. It is rounding population. “ Notwithstanding the depress570 die before they complete the fifth year of their probable, indeed, that the standard of vitality in Rut- ing influence of imprisonment, the effect of cleanli, age. In 1840, of the children in their first year, landshire might be raised still higher by improve- ness, dryness, better ventilation, temperance, and 23 per cent., or nearly a fourth, perished. It ap- ments in the quality of their food. There are abun simple food, is almost sufficient to prevent disease pears as a general fact, that more than half of the dant reasons to render it desirable that the food of arising within the prison, and to put the prisoners in children of the working classes die before they are

the population should be varied; but it is shown a better working condition at the termination than at five years old, and only one-fourth of the children of introducing any other food, will not banish disease."" Glasgow bride well, the prisoners are weighed, at

that banishing the potato, or discouraging its use, or the commencement of their imprisonment. At the the gentry. Such seems to be the case wherever

The fifth section of the report is on the “ pecuniary their entry and at their discharge, and it is found that, there is a large mortality; and it is also found as in- burdens created by the neglect of sanatory measures on the average, they gain in weight by their imprisonvariably that, where there is a large mortality, there but it has a somewhat wider application. It must be ment.”. Mr Chadwick might have added, what we is a still greater fecundity, always keeping up society at sufficiently obvious as a general fact, that it is better, ascertained and stated in this paper a few years ago, * its full number, or even increasing it

. In Manchester, other circumstances being equal, to have a population that the mortality in the Edinburgh Charity Workwhere the deaths are 1 in 28 annually, the births are in which there is a just and natural proportion of all house, where the diet is light, was strikingly less than 1 to 26: in Rutlandshire, where the deaths are only ages, than one containing a great proportion of the in the Manchester workhouse, where it is compara1 in 52, the births are 1 to 33. Even marriages are and other dependants on the bounty of the rest, which from an ample variety of facts collected

in modern young and unproductive classes, or of widows, orphans, tively rich and substantial. Indeed, it appears plain, more numerous where the deaths are greatest. The is the kind of population

inevitably resulting where times, that the medical authorities which preach city of Geneva has had an accurate system of regis- there is a great mortality, and its attendant, a rapid slenderness of diet as best for health are in the right; tration for three centuries. In that time, it has reproduction. Mr Chadwick enters into a variety of and that what is strictly called want, the evil so much slowly increased its population from 13,000 to 27,000, statements showing the actual burden thrown on the held up to dread and pity by the poets, should in reality To persons not accustomed to inquiries of this kind, poor-rates in England in consequence of the prema- be assigned but a secondary rank amongst the ills it would appear rather strange, that, although the ture deaths of working men. T'he evidence is of a which afflict human kind. it may be that Mr Chad. population of Geneva has always been increasing more intricacies. To'many the pecuniary part of the ques- conditions on which his report throws so much light

striking nature; but we cannot well follow it in all its wick ascribes too much importance to the physical and more rapidly, the proportions of marriages and tion will be of less interest than another which

he ad -we incline to believe that he does—but it seems imbirths have been constantly decreasing. The fact is, verts to in this section. Much is represented by the possible to doubt that to a very great extent, to an that the population has increased, not by a greater single remark, that in the ten registration districts of extent far beyond what would be supposed at all pronumber of births, but by a smaller number of deaths: Leeds, while the mortality prevalent in them varies bable even by those who have their eyes open to such the expectation of life of a child at birth is now 45 coincidently with their physical condition, the reck investigations, the comfort and happiness of our comyears; but in the seventeenth century it was only 13.lessness and immorality, as shown in the proportion of ille munity are affected unfavourably by mere misarrange

Mr Chadwick remarks—“An impression of an un- gitimate births, increases in a greater proportion than the ments as to health which are capable of remedy. defined optimism is frequently entertained by persons proportion of men of experience and staid habits in a subsequent article.

mortality.After giving some tables, showing the How the remedy is to be applied, we shall see in a who are aware of the wretched condition of a large healthy population, he goes on to remark to what an portion of the labouring population ; and this impres- extent the young predominate in Manchester and sion is more frequently entertained than expressed, some other physically unfavourable districts. It was

AN INCIDENT AT BOULOGNE. as the ground of inaction for the relief of the preva- found, on some occasions of turbulence in that town, The custom which our fashionable Englishmen have lent misery from disease, that its ravages form the that the turbulent were the young exclusively : the of flying to the coast of France, when

debts and the natural or positive check, or, as Dr Short terms it, mature were peaceable, and disposed to repress the like mishaps render their own country somewhat too a terrible corrective,' to the pressure of population turbulent, but they were a feeble minority, in con- hot to hold them comfortably, causes Boulogne and on the means of subsistence. In the most crowded sequence of the thinning of their numbers by prema: other

towns forming the chief places of rendezvous on districts which have been the subject of the present overbearing all the social influence of their seniors.

In such occasions, to present, for the most part, a strangely inquiry, the facts do not justify this impression ; they London mobs, it is also observed that the great majo- assorted society, and to witness

, at times, very curious show that the theory is inapplicable to the present rity are young.

We do not precisely ask our readers to becircumstances of the population. How erroneous the It has been found that, in recruiting in one of the lieve the following romantic story in all its details. inferences are in their unrestrained generality, which physically depressed districts, a smaller proportion of though there is nothing very improbable in any part assume that the poverty or the privation which is those who enlist proves fit for service. In the metro- of them. sometimes the consequence is always the cause of politan police, of the candidates who come forward

Sir George Tindal was a young baronet of good the disease, will have been seen from such evidence for admission, it is rare that one from Whitechapel or English family, who came to Boulogne a few years

Spitalfields is found suitable. The criminal classes ago, under rather peculiar circumstances. He had as that adduced from Glasgow and Spitalfields, prov. are generally stunted in stature and of inferior strength. been left very young with command of a good paing that the greater proportion of those attacked by "I might adduce," says Mr Chadwick,“ the evidence of trimonial estate, but had given way so far to the disease are in full work at the time; and the evidence the teachers of the pauper children at Norwood, to fashionable follies of the young in high life, as to from the fever hospitals, that the greatest proportion show that a deteriorated physical condition does in allow nearly the whole of it to fly away on the turf of the patients are received in high bodily condition. fact greatly increase the difficulty of moral and intel- as fast as race-horses could carry it. He had still If wages be taken as the test of the means of subsist- lectual cultivation. The intellects of the children of good expectations, however. A maternal relative, a ence, it may be asked, how are such facts to be recon- such inferior physical organisation are torpid ; it is merchant, and one of the richest in the metropolis, was ciled as these, that at a time when wages in Man comparatively difficult to gain their attention, or to likely, in the due course of things, to leave Sir George chester were 10s. per head weekly on all employed in sustain it; it requires much labour to irradiate the his fortune, as his nearest heir. He was fond of the the manufactories, including children or young per- countenance with intelligence, and the irradiation is young man, but had been greatly and perilously sons in the average, so that, if three or four members apt to be transient. As a class, they are comparatively alienated by the conduct and reverses of the latter, of a family were employed, the wages of a family irritable and bad tempered. The most experienced It was while meditating on this subject that an idea would be 30s. or 40s. weekly, the average chances of and zealous teachers are gladdened by the sight of struck the nearly ruined baronet. « How successful,” life to all of the labouring-classes were

only 17 years; well-grown healthy children, which presents to them thought he, “my uncle has been by his speculations whilst in the whole of Rutlandshire, where the wages better promise that their labours will be less difficult in the funds! Might not I have a chance that way, were certainly not one-half that amount, we find the and more lasting and successful. On one occasion a also ? Might not I cast in my poor remnant of means mean chances of life to every individual of the lowest comparison was made between the progress of two into that great lottery, and pull out a prize ? I may class were 38 years? Or, to take another instance, sets of children in Glasgow, the one set taken from as well try it : all that I have now is scarcely worth that whilst in Leeds, where, according to Mr Baker's the wynds, and placed under the care of one of the thinking twice about. I shall try at least.” report, the wages of the families of the worst-condi- most skilful and successful infant schoolmasters, the Poor Sir George! He forgot that though some tioned workers were upwards of L.1, 1s. per week, other a set of children from a more healthy town disand the chances of life amongst the whole labouring | trict, and of a better physical condition, placed under * Inquiries

ing Food, Nos. 366 and 368


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seas may be deep, there are others which cannot be gallant major, and a certain warlike colonel, to per- | him at Boulogne ; had contrived the overturn at his sounded at all ; that however deep one may be in the mit them to bear me company, and I think I must door, and made his acquaintance. She had only mire, there is a chance of getting deeper. He did really consent some day." How could a lover forbear thought of the fishing scheme through a spice of venture his all in the stocks. He was successful once, to intreat permission to occupy the place of these romance in her temperament, and that she might get and even twice. Getting inspirited by his good for- rival suitors ? Sir George could not. He begged him to England, where she might have his debts paid. tune, he thought he had but to venture further and and sued, and the fair lady gave her consent that he They wedded, and lived happily, like all lovers in win more. Alas ! he was a novice, merely, in the hands should accompany her next morning on one of her stories; and we wish all were as true as the present of veteran gamblers. Some of the very worst mem odd excursions to sea. bers of the body who speculate in these matters got The day proved beautiful, and the pair went aboard him into their hands; and knowing well what his at sunrise. They sailed, however, far out to sea, and expectations were, and where they lay, they led him along the coast, ere any desire for fishing was shown DEPLORATIONS ON A DOMESTIC EVIL. on by a nibble or two, until, by a series of ruses, con- by the lady. The water was not favourable, she said. The world has been torn by the contending claims of sidered not infamous only on such a field of transac- at one place, and then she declared that she had no tions, they at length got him placed under a load of fancy, on this morning, for the exercise. Sir George rival razor-strops ; why has British genius never been debt which even all his uncle's means would with was rather pleased with this disinclination, which was applied to the production of some equally ready and difficulty lighten. Holding him bound by signatures owing, he flattered himself

, to her being absorbed by sure means of sharpening carving-knives ? The hapand bonds, they then waited coolly for his accession to his own conversation;

and she, on her part, seemed piness of domestic life depends to a degree, far beyond his prospective inheritance, knowing well that the only to think of charming him by sweet discourse. same prospect would keep their victim also within | At length a slight shower fell, and the baroness

what could have been previously supposed, on the reach of their grasp


asked her lover to enter a small rude cabin, where a good serviceable condition of this article of conveSir George wandered about town for some months glass of wine and cake were offered to him. Here niency. That famous conjunction of grievances, a after these mishaps, like a man with a rope around the pair sat, hour after hour, the lady enchanting smoky house and a scolding wife, is not complete his neck. During that time he had many reasonings her lover with talk that caused him to forget all but without a blunt carving-knife. It is an evil which with himself on an important point. This point af- her present self. At length, he pulled out his watch fected his whole prospective fortunes. The young and started up. “What?" cried he, “ the day is far every one possessing that important essential, meat to baronet was naturally possessed of good sense ; he was advanced, and I don't think they have ever put carve, must have felt to be among the most frequently well educated, and it may be said that his heart was about !” The wind, too, was blowing nearly direct occurring, and in quality one of the most vexing, good, and his intentions fair towards all men, under from the coast. “ Come, madam, if you fish at all to- which he has ever known. ordinary circumstances ; but his course of life, and day, it is surely time to begin.”

In a state of collapse from hunger, you hear the the associations he had formed, had relaxed his moral The answer startled the poor baronet. “I have principles. This acquired defect came now into play. angled,” said she quietly ;“ and, what is more, I have announcement of dinner. You pass with ill-mainThe point which he canvassed with himself was, whe- caught my fish.” “What mean you?” cried Sir George. tained deliberation to the table where the viands are ther or not, after having most distinctly ascertained “What fish have you caught?”. “Twenty thousand spread. You think to be satisfied without delay; that he had been the dupe of his creditors, his engage-pounds,” answered the lady, with coolness. Sir George but, lo! you find your carving-knife totally disquaments with them were binding upon him. His good grew pale, and stept hurriedly on deck. “Distracsense said yes, for they had acted within the law; his tion !" cried he, as soon as he had looked around. lified for its duty. You have to wait ten minutes in sense of honour said the same, for they had his bonds; “ Put about instantly, pilot ; that is Margate !-we an agony of appetite and vexation till some hurried " but then,” said other internal arguers, “they got are off England !” “Exactly so, Sir George,” said and imperfect remedy has been applied, after which these by base means, and they have not lost a shilling the lady at his back. He turned round and looked you once more try to carve, and perhaps now partially by me. The article experience was what my folly at her. “ Your purpose, then, is to take me" succeed. But the thwarting and delay have put you bonght from them at the price of a fair fortune, and "To London, Sir George," said the lady, interrupting out of humour with yourself, your dinner, and your with it came no penny out of their pockets. Besides, him with calmness, though a gratified flush was on her if I pay these harpies, I shall be beggared.” The cheek. Sir George turned to the sailors. “My purse !" wife ; and that food which was designed to comfort end of the whole was, that the uncle of Sir George said he ; “twenty-five louis for you, if you

put about and sustain you, is deprived of one-half of its value. died; the young baronet was left heir ; and within a for Boulogne !" "Twenty-five louis !” said the lady, Ten to one you don't get into a tolerable conceit with few hours almost after being put in possession of his disdainfully, “when twenty thousand pounds are in the general frame of things in this world for the fortune, which was the portable one of an old monied the other scale !" “ Barbarous, treacherous woman !"

whole evening. hoarder, the young baronet was on his way with it to cried the infuriated baronet, as he looked around, Boulogne. The creditors stormed and vowed revenge; with an eye that threatened peril to all, if he had but

Or I shall suppose you entertaining a choice selecbut they at first knew not whither he might fly, and bad the means to inflict it; but the baroness gave a tion of your friends at dinner. The broad sirloin is there are great difficulties attending the recovery of signal, and in an instant his arms were pinned to his before you. Almost everybody eats beef, for the real money from creditors on the continent in any case. side by two pair of brawny arms. The baronet has been discovered to be a little underdone. The

Sir George fixed himself in a small country house struggled, but in vain ; a cord was produced, and he demand is incessant. You are told that Mrs S. will near Boulogne. He had been able to carry thither was only saved from the ignominy of being bound, by trouble you ; that Miss D. wishes a slice rather rare ; a sufficiency for permanent maintenance — above giving his assurance that he would remain in quiet twenty thousand pounds, nearly the amount of his durance in the cabin. It seemed to him that he had that Mr T. is waiting ; and much more to the like funded embarrassments, after what he called “fair nothing for it but to submit.

purpose. But it seems that wait they must, all of debts” were privately settled. He lived for some time Sir George, reduced to this condition, looked with them. The knife is in its usually inept condition. in great seclusion, only occasionally appearing in pub- indignation at his captor. She had checked the lic. The society which he then met

was not of a cha- sailors for harshness in their usage of him ; but other Your attempts to penetrate the crisp cartilage at the racter to trouble itself much about what he had done, wise she expressed no visible emotion. “ Betrayed by top prove all in vain. You toil, you struggle, you or was doing, or was about to do, so long as he main- you !" said the captive," you whom I loved so much!" groan in secret. You try a common knife, without tained a fashionable appearance and a gentlemanly You loved me !" “Yes; well you knew it!" an- in the least improving the case. A steel is brought, deportment. So Sir George led a very quiet and un- swered Sir George. “Since you are an adventuress, and you hastily endeavour to give a tithe of that disturbed existence for a time, always excepting some little twinges from a sense of violated honour, until hand, have better paid you than a miserable hire ?» sharpness which ought to have been deliberately conlove, the universal busy-body, came in the way to The lady spoke not in reply, and Sir George also held ferred by the powers of the scullery in the course of overthrow the runaway's repose. A lady made her a scornful silence from that moment, until he landed the morning. But you have been disconcerted and appearance in Boulogne, bearing the name and style in the Thames. He was here put into the hands of heated, and your hand has become unsteady. The of the Baroness d'Estival. Report said that she was the sailors, and conducted to an hotel, on giving his an English woman by birth, and the widow

of a foreign solemn promise that he would not attempt to escape. consequence is, that the slices which you send away noble ; and she was young, beautiful, and reputed rich. Believing all to be lost in any case, he was glad to

are rude and ungainly masses, quite unworthy of your Ere long, such attractions brought all the danglers of be relieved

from the confinement of a jail, though it skill and experience as a carver ; and the dinner is dangling Boulogne into subjection to the baroness; and might be but till his creditors were warned of his eaten half cold, which might have been eaten warm. among the rest, our baronet saw and admired the capture.

All the time, you are compelled, by the tyrannical lady. For a time, however, he was undistinguished It was night when this landing in the Thames took laws of society, to maintain a smiling and cheerful by her, nor did he make any marked advances on his place. Sir George spent a wretched night, moaning, front, while secretly mortified to the last degree. own part. An accident brought round an eclaircisse- over that fate which his conscience told him was not ment.

A blunt carving-knife is sufficient to give a fatal By a peculiar piece of awkwardness, as it unmerited. In the morning he drew up an act, briefly seemed, on the part of her servant, the caleche of the giving up all to his creditors. He had scarcely finished turn to the whole current of a life. An amiable baroness was nearly overturned 'near Sir George's this when a visiter was announced. It was his be- youth, of retiring manners, loved a young lady who door. The young baronet sprung out ; and the lady trayer, the baroness. “Wretched woman, what seek was thought to be pretty equally balanced between appearing faint and terrified, he intreated her to you?” said he sternly. “ Is not your task done? I him and a rival somewhat his senior. One day it was alight for a few moments. She complied. It was have now to do with others.” “ With none but me," contrived by a benevolent hostess that he was placed the hour of lunch, and they lunched together. Sir said the lady in a low voice, and with a timidity of next the fair damsel at dinner. He was asked to George begged her to view his garden, and they walked manner most unlike her previous deportment. “What carve a fowl opposite to him, and amongst those whom together. When the lady was at last about to de- do you mean, madam ? asked Sir George. "I am he had to help was his mistress.

He tried to show part, Sir George begged leave to take the reins out your sole creditor," said the lady; and she placed in of the hands of the awkward servant, and escort her his hands some papers, which he at once saw to be his his skill, of which he really had some portion, by home in person.

The result of all was, that the own redeemed bonds. He looked up in amazement. carving the fowl in an easy, genteel fashion ; but baronet became an established visitant of the ba

“ You had a cousin once, Sir George," said the lady, either some supernal power, unfavourable to his suit, roness; and having declared his passion, received an with her eyes on the floor. "I had-Anne Fulton," had previously blunted the knife, or it had become answer which left him much to hope, while at the said Sir George ; “ we were playmates in childhood.” blunt through mere ordinary use, and had not been same time it promised nothing positive.

“She went abroad, when a child, with her family?" sharpened when it ought. He drew the dish nearer; Sir George could not be long acquainted with the continued the lady; "She did," said the baronet; he began to look anxiously for joints ; he strained, fair baroness without discovering that she had one re-and, I have heard, was married to a very wealthy he perspired, he became excited. Still

, he was baffled markable and somewhat eccentric taste. distractedly fond of angling, a perfect female Walton. to hear it, for we loved each other

even when infants." in all his endeavours. Meanwhile, he felt that the She had hired for the season a large yawl, something "She wedded against her will,” continued the lady ; eyes of Emmeline were upon him, and that to have between a fishing-boat and a yacht, and every morn “ for she, too, remembered old days. She is now a wi-detached the wing which she wanted, and laid it upon ing, when the weather was good, she rose with the dow.” A light had been gradually breaking upon Sir her plate, would have been worth untold gold. Alas ! sun to amuse herself off the coast with the rod. “I George's mind. He started hastily forward, and took in one last, desperate effort, he caused the whole fowl cannot comprehend the pleasure you take in this oc hold of the lady's hand, almost throwing himself at to fly into her lap! Reader, only think what must cupation,” said Sir George to her one day. “ It is a her feet. “You are" “ I am your cousin Anne," have been the feelings of this unfortunate youth, as charming recreation," answered she gaily'; "and, be- said the lady. sides, my physicians have recommended to me to take

It is needless to carry our tale beyond the point he forked up the errant hen from the lap of his lady. as much air and exercise at sea as possible. I ac- when the imagination of the reader can do all that re- love, while all eyes were bent upon him and her, and quired the taste through this cause. It is sometimes mains to be done. The lady had returned to England waiting-maids were flying in all directions to give the dull, to be sure, for the sailors and my servants are a rich widow; had learned the situation and embar- assistance that was altogether in vain for the great no company. But I have been pressed by a certain | rassments of her well-remembered cousin ; had seen object. Is it to be wondered at that Emmeline pro

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