Imatges de pÓgina
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season.

A LATE INCIDENT.

eminence called the Kirchet, which we mounted by a tible cascade, for it descends in a fine smooth sheet of | pected to meet this priest and his flock as constituent zig-zag path leading through pleasant forests of pine, water, casting forth a prodigious quantity of foam; members of the establishment of the hospice on my rich in underwood and wild flowers. We then de- but it is lost in the close vicinity of Handeck. The return, but I saw nought of them, and it was a mysscended on the river Aar, which cuts its way right singular effect produced by the latter must be owing tery to me where they could be hidden. through the centre of this hill. Of all the wild gla- to the vast quantity of the water in proportion to the Å table d'hote is held at the hospice every evening cier torrents we had yet seen, this was the most re breadth of the stream. Though I had very insufficient at 7 o'clock, constituting a fashionable dinner for the lentless and ruffian-like. Attempts had been made data for coming to any conclusion on the subject, I English, and a supper for the continentals. Between to keep its torrent within bounds by moles or broad could not help being of opinion, that the Aar at this thirty and forty of us sat down together ; men of pier-like walls, made of gigantic blocks of granite. It spot conveys as large a body of water as the Tay at many nations and languages, and evidently all pedeswas wonderful how human industry could rear such Perth.

trians-for there was a certain air of rough handling works in such a spot. A great city might have been There is a small inn at Handeck, where we took about all of us, and there did not appear in the proud of running such bulwarks out to sea, for the some refreshment. There was an item in the charge neighbourhood of the hospice a single mule, the only protection of her costly fleets. But the Aar had which we could not exactly comprehend ; and while means by which any one could have been conveyed paid no respect to this wonder of enterprise. In the landlord with his Swiss Gerinan was endeavour to the spot. Though the guide-books speak slightmany places its iron clasps were wrenched as if they ing to make it very plain to us, a young foreigner who ingly of the fare afforded to the traveller in this lofty had been straw, and the great blocks of granite were was, like ourselves, a guest, volunteered an explana- place of entertainment, I am bound to say that the scattered like gravel along the margin of the perpetu- tion in these words_" That is the water, for you have meal laid before us was both abundant and choice. ally foaming and roaring river. We were now in the seen fall." We could not but thank the gentleman The peculiar structure of the place was strikingly vale of upper Hasli, smaller, more sterile, and more for his kindness : to show how much we appreciated exhibited as we retired to our sleeping apartments ; rocky than its namesake below, and singularly se- it, we acknowledged ourselves satisfied ; and it was it is that of an hospital, each bed-room being a ward, cluded in its aspect. After commencing the ascent not until we had gone on our way meditating, that it separated only by a deal board from the next one. of the pass, we lost sight of almost all vestiges of in- occurred to us how our host had made the cataract of We heard that a servant remains in the house all habitancy, though we did not immediately escape from Handeck an item in his bill.

winter, to attend to those who cross the pass at that the persecution of guides offering their services; and The character of the scenery changed soon after we

What a life for a human being to lead ! 80 deep an impression had their importunity made had left the fall. The trees, in place of the lofty pines The Bell Rock Lighthouse would be a gay residence upon our minds, that when we had got within the that had been waving over our heads, were tlat, in comparison, being excited by an occasional shipwild precincts of the gorge, and were amusing ourselves gnarled, and stunted, with trunks covered over with wreck. The servant has for companions on his dreary with shouting aloud to the winds and waters, we sud- lichens of every colour. We encountered, too, sundry watch a couple of the majestic dogs known as the denly stopped with the reflection, that it was a dan- patches of snow of considerable size, and one of them St Bernard's breed. It is impossible to look on these gerous experiment, that we were in a sort of enemy's made a mound across the bottom of the defile, the animals without feeling something approaching to country, where we knew not what ambuscade might Aar plunging into it, and disappearing for a time be- veneration both for their physical and moral qualistart up, and that we must avoid exposing ourselves neath it as if making an attempt to assuage, in the ties. They are not, however, it must be admitted, to the risk of calling forth some 'persecutor in the wil midst of this cooling mass, the fierceness of its career. very engaging animals ; they do not positively repel derness.

The perilousness of the path attracted our attention attention, but they receive it with a calm and digniWe had repeatedly to cross the Aar by aërial-look at this point. It passed over a shelf of granite at an fied abstraction, as if they chose to convey to the ing stone bridges, the parapets of which curved to the acute angle, worn smooth by avalanches. Notches mind of the stranger an impression, that their duties semicircle of the arch. This form of bridge is gene- were cut here and there for the feet, but they offered are too serious to admit of the interchange of trifling rally to be found spanning the torrents of mountainous apparently a slender means of advancement.

courtesies. regions, and though it be not much respected by the As we ascended still farther, the gnarled pines dwinengineers who carry turnpikes over the sedgy rivers of dled away at last, and we had nothing about us but

THE FLOWER-GIRL OF MADRID. England, it is adapted with great skill to its own loca- granite rock, turf, and snow. In this class of scenery we lity: No parapet-wall could for a moment hold out found the hospice of the Grimsel, a large strong built against the Aar, when swollen by the melted snows, granite house, with a multitude of very small windows. The unhappy state of Spain-that land where ardent and those arches have the best chance which present it stood on the margin of a black lake, and it had feeling makes every disagreement, personal or polithe smallest surface to the current. In the previous nothing to show in the way of pleasure-ground besides tical, assume an aggravated and embittered formparts of our tour, our views of precipices had been the said lake, abundance of snow, and a like quantity drove many of the inhabitants, within these few past somewhat distant, but now we were among them, and of granite; it was undoubtedly the most dreary spot years, to the neighbouring territory of France. In had an opportunity of experiencing the terrible subli- I had ever seen. When we presented ourselves at Bordeaux alone, as many as twenty thousand Spamity of one of the higher alpine passes. The path the door, the landlord, a sturdy massive man, who niards fixed their residence during the struggles bewas narrow and broken, fit only, as it seemed to us, looked as if he had been hewn out of the granite twixt the Carlists and Christinos. The natives and for pedestrians ; but we were told that the sure-footed rocks he was surrounded by, shook our hands warmly the strangers managed, on the whole, to do very well mule could be trusted on it. I should not have felt with his large horny fist, and in German pronounced a together; and many permanent connexions were comfortable, however, on the back of any mule or sort of solemn benediction, and

a congratulation on our formed in consequence of their being associated in one other animal, however high its character, on such a having escaped the dangers of the pass. The house, place, by the accidents of fortune and war. road. It was in some places the narrowest possible though to English travellers it is purely an inn, is In 1834, the Countess de Villa Fuente came to live groove in the face of the rock, which sunk below us nominally a religious house of refuge för wayfarers, in Bordeaux. It was known that she came from like a straight wall to the edge of the hungry torrent, and the landlord wished to support its reputation. Madrid ; but few or none seemed to be acquainted and curved over our heads far into the heavens. IWe arrived about four o'clock, and it was with some with her private history, or with the causes of her reflected here on the grave statement of Cornelius difficulty that we prevailed on ourselves to pass the exile. No one accompanied her, with the exception Nepos, that Hannibal levelled a path for himself afternoon at the hospice, instead of crossing the pass, of an infant boy, on whom she lavished the most across the Alps, by shattering the heated rocks with and taking our chance on the other side. After hav- tender cares, and in reference to whom the character cold vinegar; and it occurred to me, that if he had ing secured our means of accommodation, we wandered of a widow was very generally assigned to hier, despite been able to accomplish the levelling of such as pass about, each individually taking his chance of what na of her youth and unimpaired beauty. She appeared as this, the contract for the vinegar must have been a ture might throw in his path in this wild spot. I was rich, and kept up a handsome establishment, so that prodigious job to some great house in Carthage. anxious to obtain the best possible view, and therefore the best society of Bordeaux was open to her at all

Our expectation was raised to a high pitch of ex- I climbed the ascent in front of the hospice for some times. But though not shunning company altogecitement as we neared the fall of Handeck, which is hundred feet. I contemplated reaching the summit, ther, she lived on the whole in a retired manner, and reckoned the second in point of grandeur in Europe, but found that would be impossible before nightfall.* the most uncharitable could attach no impropriety to Terni being the first. As one approaches a waterfall, I therefore sat down under the shadow of a large her name, although she was a single and unprotected the ear generally listens greedily for the first indica- stone, lit my pipe, and, as its fumes gradually ascended, woman, and though more than one suitor fluttered tion of its hollow rumbling; but it seemed useless to contemplated the scene around me. The sun was set- around her and sought her good graces. listen on this occasion, for the river, bellowing at our ting from the valleys, but every peak of rock was still Such was the state of matters during the first three feet, filled the ear nearly full with its own roaring ; bathed in his warm evening rays, and here and there years of her stay in Bordeaux. At the end of that yet we did at last hear a sound that rose even over the snow that either clung to the sides of the higher time, the countess, without any known cause, assumed this, and through the foliage of the trees we caught peaks, or lay in valleys not too deep to be visited all the outward marks of deep mourning, and threw a glimpse of the white foam of the cataract. To ob- by the departing sun, displayed a rich pink colour, her establishment into the same sable colours. Within tain a view from below, we required to scramble along which I had never before seen equalled in transpa- a month or two afterwards, it was noticed by obsera narrow ledge of rock, rendered slimy by the spray rency and brilliancy. Far beneath me stood the hos- vant eyes that she seemed to distinguish more than from the fall. The level from which it afforded us a pice, on the brink of its dark lake, which lay as black usually a certain Monsieur Longpré, a wealthy genview might be about half way up the fall, which it as a drop of ink. The sun had left the hospice and its tleman of Bordeaux, who had pursued her with unaenabled us to see in full perfection. From this spot, lake, but the atmosphere around them was singularly bated ardour for three years, in spite of all her rehowever, we had no view of the abyss into which it clear; and if it had not been for the material diminu- serve, and even her coldness. The alteration in her precipitates itself—not the least interesting feature tion of every object, I could not have believed that I manner to him was sufficiently pointed to lead people of a cataract ; and so we delayed not to mount to a had risen some eight hundred feet above the spot. to conclude, that he would prove the happy man in higher level. The time and trouble of the ascent While thus looking forth in meditative mood, a priest due time. But his own thoughts about the matter showed us how considerable was the height of the marched out from the hospice, accompanied by a num were very unsettled, as the following words from fall, but we had no means of precisely estimating it. ber of boys dressed in white blouses. They walked his lips will partly prove. Seizing an occasion to press At the top we found a wooden bridge, from which we down—a set of pigmies, as they seemed to me--to the his suit, when the countess allowed him the honour could look straight into the gulf. The effect from this edge of the dark pool, and having there amused them- of an interview, he broke forth at length in half-repoint was different from what I had seen in any other selves for a short time, marched back again. I ex- proachful tones—“ I nesilla, why prolong this state of waterfall. The water, instead of descending in a com

suspense, so torturing to me? Unless I deceive pact mass, and throwing up a cloud of foam, seemed, as

* [The Grimsel is a lofty pass on the Bernese Alps, admitting myself, you favour me above others around you ; yes, it were, broken into pieces, which, dispersed through travellers from the central part of Switzerland into the

valley of you love me. lown I have this happy belief. What, the dark gaping pit, absorbed the sight before it could the Rhone on the south. Murray, in his admirable lland-Book, then, causes your hesitation, since you are a widow penetrate to the bottom. It was thus that, gazing gives the following anecdote respecting this dismal wilderness : and free! Is it not so? If you are moved by any downwards,

we could not see whence the stream came, for some time upon the top of the Grinter, and during their stay feelings respecting your child, you know that I love nor whither it went, but merely that the great pit gutted the hospice, using every morsel of wood-work for fuel

. him, and for your sake will love him always." we stood above was a caldron, where a chaos of Every attempt of the French general Lecourbe to dislodge them The countess, at these words, rose from her seat, waters was tossed about and tortured by some unseen

failed, when a peasant of Guttanen, named Nägeli, offered to walked to where her guitar lay, and ran heedlessly agency. A waterfall has its pulsations, and here they self, to the rear of the Austrian position, on condition that the conduct a detachment by a circuitous path, known only to him

over its strings for a few moments. She then turned were visible in such a partial separation of the par- mountain he was about to cross should be given to him as his re

to the little boy who was playing near her, and said to ticles as enabled the eye to see for a moment farther ward. This being agreed to, a party, commanded by General him, “ Juanito! Juanito ! go and drive your huminto the darkness of the gulf. The sun was shining Gadin; led by Nägeli over the Doltithorn and the glaciers of Ghet ming-top elsewhere; the noise gives me a headache.” bright among the waters ; and as we shifted our posi- which they occupied. They were seized with a panic, and fled at

The boy came and sought a caress, and then ran tion from time to time, its effects were visible in diver- unco-many in the direction of the glacier of Aar, where escape cheerfully away. After his departure, there was a sified groups of little rainbows, which gambolled about was hopeless; and those who were not shot by the French perished pause for a minute or two, which the countess broke in all their finery on the surface of the broken waters. in the rents and chasms, where human bones, rusty arms, and in upon by saying, “Let us talk, M. Longpré, on a It is a strange feature in the Handeck, that a smaller tattered clothes, are even now met with, and attest their miser subject different from the last. This guitar has recataract falls into it at right angles, just where it shoots mountain, remaining a9 poor as before he became possessed of it,

minded ine of Spain—of Madrid--and of Manuela, from the brow of the rock. This is of itself no contemp- | but it has since been called after him, Nägeli's Gratli.")

a poor girl there. Her story is an interesting one ;

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listen, and I will tell it to you—that is, if you choose dying flower-girl. • Manuela, cried she, “this child

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when we look down the long lists of to hear it.”. Though the lover was by no means shall never be parted from me while I live. Manu- forgeries. common means of detection pointed out, pleased at this evasion of the subject which he had so ela ! Manuela !" continued she in tones of the deepest ) is the inferior execution of the spurious notes and much at heart, there was so much of grave sweetness sympathy, 'live for your child and Don Miguel-he the wrong spelling of names. Take the following in the tones with which the countess made the re- shall be restored to you ; mine he is not, and never extract as an example, referring to a 1 dollar note:quest, that he at once expressed his willingness to hear shall be! Ah, help! she dies !' the story.

While Dolorès was thus engaged, Don Miguel con

1 dollar, letter A, dated Oct. 1, 1810. Cashier's name, Daniel

Ebbetts, is not spelled right, one t being omitted. The figure of “ There lived at Madrid, fire years ago,” began the tinued to press for admittance; and by this time, either

Washington on the vignette on the right is tall, and the eyes countess, “ a merchant named Moralès, whose fortune through the noise, or by reason of the bride's absence, small, and the one in the centre of note badly done." was so considerable, that his only daughter was deemed a whisper had gone through the mansion that some

Or, the following of a 20 dollar note on the same bank: one of the best matches in the city. Dolorès, as she thing was amiss. Moralès, with a number of the party,

** 20 dollars, letter A, payable to H. Cott, dated Oct. I, 1840. was called, joined to her pecuniary advantages a coun left the ball-room, and came to the door of his daugh- May be detected by the names of the engravers in the genuine, tenance and form which the young men of Madrid ter's chamber. My child,' cried he, 'it is I. Open to Caesleur, Durand, Burton, and Edmonds; in the counterfeit, declared to be of superior beauty. A cavalier, the flower me; if anything be amiss, let your father be with Edmonds is spelt Edmons." of the noble youths of Spain, saw and loved her. Iyou. Open to me.'

The following, among several others, is given under will spare you, my friend, an account of all the con On hearing her father's voice, Dolorès, who was the head Cattskill Bank :certs and serenades by which Don Miguel sought to tenderly wiping the foam from the convulsed lips of “ 10 dollars, dated Nov. 1, 1836., lett. A, signed H. Hill, cash. excite a reciprocal passion in the heart of Dolorès. Manuela, roused herself, and gave orders for the open Thos. B. Cooke, pres., purporting to be engraved by Cardu, Young, noble, accomplished, and rich, he soon made the ing of the chamber-door. • Let all enter,' she said Durand, Austin, and Edmonds-a very close imitation of the desired impression, and, no obstacles being interposed, firmly. Her command was obeyed ; and the first genuine. The engraving is rather coarser, note larger, paper

thicker, and the margins are broader--the cashier's name a fac he was received in the house of Morales as an ac person who rushed forward was Don Miguel. What simile-president's not so good.” cepted suitor. Like others of her race and sex, Dolorès was his amazement and horror, when, upon the bridal

There are many hundreds of notices of the above was jealous of possessing love where she gave love; bed of Dolorès, he saw the pale countenance of one kind ; and a not less frequent description of forgeries and again and again, to please her, Don Miguel vowed but too well known to him. Manuela had not yet seems to be the alteration of certain words or figures that the daughter of Moralès was the only woman expired. At the instant of his advance, she opened on genuine notes, so as to make them pass for larger who had ever touched his heart, and that she should her eyes, and a flash of fire shot across their enfeebled sums than those for which they were actually issued. be his last love, as she was his first. The marriage- lustre. She slowly raised her finger, and directing it The following are examples of this ingenious roguery. day of the happy pair was fixed; it came ; and before towards him, she said, Miserable man, I pardon theo! The first is the alteration of 5 into 50 on the notes of the priest and her friends, Dolorès gave her hand to But beware of my father—he till kill thee!'. As she the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company :Don Miguel. spoke, Manuela sank backwards, and died almost in

“ 50 dollars altered from 5 dollars easily detected if you obA ball followed in the evening. It was yet early, stantly in the arms of Dolorès.

serve the insertion of the word fifty in place of the word fire--the when Dolorès, overpowered by the warmth of the The dying woman, her words, and the sight of the former word being also smaller than the word dollars, with which dancing-rooms, and agitated by the all-important infant, formed but too full an explanation of this it should correspond." event of the day, retired for a few minutes with some scene to all who had entered the chamber. Con. The following is under the head “ Mechanics' Bankof her female friends, in order to rest herself and calm science-struck, at least for the moment, Don Miguel | ing Association :"her spirits. She was still seated in her chamber with fled from the spot. The affair made a great noise in " 5 dollars altered from 2 dollars. The vignette of the true 5

dollars is a group of four human beings and a lion--in the 2 her companions, when a footstep was heard at the Madrid, but none could condole with Dolorès on the

dollars, and of course in the altered 5 dollars, a single figure of door of the apartment. • You cannot enter-do not subject, as, on the morning after the event, she had enter, Don Miguel ! cried one or two of the ladies, quitted Madrid with the child of Manuela. She fled. 20 dollars altered from 3 dollars, so well done as to pass with starting up from the easy postures into which, fa- Can you guess who she was, and whither she fled ?" some of the city brokers. These altered notes can readily be de. tigued by the dance, they had thrown themselves. I can I see her before me!"

tected by holding up the bill to the light. The bank has iseued

no such denomination." They conceived that Don Miguel had missed Dolores “ You are right. I fled, in the first instance, with from the dance, and had come to inquire after her. the child of Manuela to a convent, where my father

Another species of fraud consists in altering the But when, in spite of their exclamation, the door of visited me, and where we concerted measures to pre- name of a broken bank into the name of a solvent the chamber was opened, they beheld-not Don Mi- vent the assertion by Don Miguel of those marital one ; and the number of places of the same name guel, but Manuela, the flower-girl. rights, which worlds would not have tempted me now

favours the deception. For instance, there are perManuela, the flower-girl, was so remarkable for her to concede. It was deemed best that I should go to haps a dozen places with the names of Franklin and beauty and handsome figure, that few who were in France. I did so, and was never molested by Don Monroe, and unless the state, or some other local the habit of walking on the Prado were unacquainted Miguel while he lived: but within the past year the distinction, be added, it is difficult to know which with her by name and appearance. But when she words of Manuela were fulfilled. Her betrayer fell Franklin or Monroe is meant. The Monroe Bank, entered the chamber of Dolorès on the marriage by the hand of her father.

Rochester, has, it appears, suffered from this cause. evening of the latter, very unlike her usual aspect was Now, M. Longpré,” continued the countess, “ you Under the head of that bank the following occurs :

“ Bills of the broken bank of Monroe, Michigan, have been so that presented by the flower-girl. Her long black wish me to be your wife. 1-I own I esteem-I love

altered as to resemble this bank. Hold up the bills to the light, hair hung in disorder around her pale face, and her you; but my heart trembles at the recollection of and you will readily detect the cheat." dark eyes Aamed with feverish excitement. She bore the past, for believe not that I escaped without suffer- There is a similar fraud on the Commercial Bank of before her, by a strap, her flower-basket, in which lay, ing. Assure me on this point, and my hand is yours. Baltimore bedded upon flowers, an infant of two months old. I well believe that you would not insult me by payWhere is the bride?' demanded Manuela, hoarsely, ing addresses while bound by other legal engagements; Bank of New York having been issued. The word New-York

" 5 dollars struck from the old 5 dollars on the Commercial as soon as she entered.

but assure me that none can renew in your case the has been extracted, and Baltimore substituted in its place." • Manuela ! cried Dolorès, trembling she knew not death-scene of Manuela—that the vows paid to me What a state of commercial affairs and moral dewhy, yet endeavouring to seem at ease, 'I am the are not violations of the actual though unacknow- pravity does all this disclose ! bride ; and you shall bear my bouquets to court.' ledged rights of any other-and I am willingly, gladly • You the bride ? exclaimed Manuela, who knew yours.”

NATIONAL ANTIQUITIES. and was known to Dolorès ; ‘is it you whom he is to M. Longpré, need we say, eagerly gave the assur The “Literary Gazette”—a paper which seems ever marry ?'

ance required. Nor did he deceive her. When their ready to encourage improvements connected with Whom he is to marry, Manuela ?' answered Do- marriage-day came, as it soon did, the happiness of taste—has the following in a late number :lorès ; • say whom he has married! Hath not Don Dolorès suffered no alloy from the cause which she “ In the House of Commons on Monday evening, Miguel sent you-sent you to strew our nuptial way had long feared, and her marriage-day afforded only a Mr Wyse gave notice of a motion for next session of with flowers?'

specimen of the uninterrupted felicity of many after Parliament, to which we most earnestly wish the ut• The traitor!' cried Manuela. Behold that in years.

most success. It is to pray her Majesty to direct the fant! it is his—it is mine_it is ours !' The tears of

establishment, under efficient management and conthe flower-girl here burst forth in torrents ; but she

OCCASIONAL NOTES.

trol, and on a scale commensurate with the dignity of checked them, and continued— Ah! if you knew all

the country, of a National Museum for the reception bis treachery-all his wickedness. a poor girl

and preservation of objects connected with the Hissought to avoid him ; but he married me-yes, he We have lately seen a very remarkable document, tory and Antiquities of the British Islands. Thoumarried me, and the marriage was a false one? I received by a friend from New

York. It is a large sands of interesting specimens of British, Celtic, discovered his deceit ; but he came to my father, and octavo sheet of sixteen pages, each page containing Roman, Danish, and other antiquities, would be conto my mother , and he calmed them by renewing all three closely-printed columus, and is entitled, Days tributed from private possessions and collections

. The his protestations and his promises. It is two months New York Bank - Note List, and Counterfeit De Society of Antiquaries" might

find a proper place for since my child was born he was with me then, but tector:" it purports to have been established in 1919; the reception of many curious matters now buried in I knew not, though I know now, that it was but to being the oldest paper of the kind, and to be published its narrow

and confused repositories. All similar deceive me the more fully. He already loved you— date September 16, 1841. "The matter of the sheet earth or ancient buildings would at once be taken to

once a fortnight. The copy shown to us is of the things hereafter recovered from the bowels of the already.' Here the poor flower girl fell down in an exhausted consists of lists of banks in the various states of the their fitting home, and be preserved for ever.

Even state. She was tenderly cared for by the agitated bride Union; the whole, according to a rough calculation, from foreign parts we might expect the return of oband her friends, and recovered somewhat her strength. amounting to about twelve hundred in number ; and jects belonging to our isle in days of old ; and, in "Only to-day, about two hours since, I learnt that Bon along with the name of each of these banks is given short, we should have a national museum worthy of Miguel was to wed another. Then I thought, in my the current value of its notes, and a short description the prince and the people.” madness, of killing him ; but I grew more calm. Poor of the forgeries upon them. In some cases, only the

To these propositions there can be no reasonable obchild ! what would have become of him—his father name of a bank is given, along with a single word, or jection ; but we beg to state what we think is a very killed his mother poisoned !'. The fainting condition two fractional figures, significant of the value of, or general opinion, that the establishment of great muof the flower-girl explained her words. She had not discount on,

paper : thus

seums in London-as this one, we suppose, is to be—is avenged herself on Don Miguel-but, unable to live,

“ Merchant's Bank, Norwich,

not the only way of promoting national improvement. she had taken poison. «Take my child,' said she to but, more commonly, to the name of the bank is ap- If the preservation of objects of antiquity be of use, the bride, as she grew momentarily weaker; 'protect pended a list of forgeries upon its different notes. we should, by all means, recommend that means be him, watch over him, be a mother to him. If you sometimes a bank appears to be exposed to not fewer adopted by the nation at large to preserve, on the can still love Don Miguel after his cruel abandonment than twelve different kinds of forgeries of its notes ; spots where they rest, all architectural or archaiologiof his child and me, the poor flower-girl shall not be the average is not less than six, and, multiplying the cal remains calculated to throw light on past manners in your way. But, oh! promise, to a dying mother, 1200 banks by this number, we find that there is or history. Within this category might be included that you will take care of her child !'

not fewer than 7200 rarieties of forged bank-notes the preservation of town-crosses, watch-towers, fragDolorès had rather signed than spoken the desired in circulation. How many notes of each variety are ments of city and Roman walls, feudal keeps and promise, when a knock was heard at the chamber- issued, we are presented with no means of judging: castles, abbeys and cathedrals, bridges of ancient condoor. Dolorès instantly caused it to be fastened with. To meet this seemingly universal depreciation and struction, Druidic stones and tumuli, cairns, &c., all, in. The knocks were then repeated, and the voice of forgery, the sheet we allude to is published. It may in as far as such could be accomplished at a moderate Don Miguel was heard desiring admittance. You be considered an indispensable pocket-companion for expense, and consistently with modern convenience. cannot enter,' answered one of the women. The every individual carrying on business, and also every We trust that antiquarian societies, wherever estabbridegroom addressed himself to Dolorès, and, seeming workman—a kind of dictionary, which requires to be lished, will make a move at the proper time on this te believe her ill, besought admittance. The passion- consulted on almost every occasion that a note is pre- subject. Civic authorities, with their usual disregard ate words of affection which he poured out for the ear sented in payment or exchange.

of taste, have seldom had any respect for antiquities, of the bride fell unheeded. Dolorès hung over the The necessity for such a remembrancer becomes however curious; and as, in a number of places, they

THE BANK-NOTE SYSTEM OF AMERICA.

/

have removed town-crosses for no rational purpose, we began to doubt whether the pleasure of keeping a dog | nection would go. Other people overwork themselves, should hope that the restoration of these interesting compensated for the pain inflicted by the said dog's and so must

. Iand ornamental objects will not be lost sight of.

One night last week I was returning from a lec-
occasionally taking it into his head to bite his master.
THE USE OF THE TERM ESQUIRE.
Now, dear reader, perhaps you may laugh at this ture, when I was startled by a groan close to me. I

spot whence the sound Till a recent period, this term was affixed to the story of an idiot in a northern town; and, having appeared to proceed, and discerned, by the light of a names of men of birth and professional persons only. done so, let us try to extract something useful from neighbouring gas-lamp, a man lying at full length in Men of inferior importance had Mr prefixed to their it, and ask ourselves whether there be not many idiots the gutter. He had put his hat under his head for a names, and thus a distinction between the two classes in other towns, northern, southern, eastern, and west- pillow, and was snoring with such, vehemence as to was kept up. “Esq." to the names of the better class of tradesmen, ern, who would despise the simplicity of Jamie, and endanger the repose of every inhabitant of the street.

I was willing to give him the chance of securing a when they are addressed as private persons. It is a yet who do the very same thing themselves ; who pay better resting-place, and therefore shook him by the trifle, yet it might have been better if the old rule as much deference to the foolish doings of “other shoulder. This only succeeded in rousing him parhad been adhered to ; for, in the first place, the exten- people ;" who, like him, keep a dog merely because tially. He drew a long sigh, rolled over on his other sion of the term is grammatically wrong, seeing that it is only applicable to men entitled to bear arms; and their friends and neighbours keep dogs ; and who, like side, and muttered drowsily, “More gin!"

It would have been in human in the extreme to allow in the second, if there is any honour in the appella- him, get well bitten for their pains. Yes; the mass him to lie there. I once more, therefore, applied mytion, it is right that the superior class should have it, of mankind is made up of “ Jamies ;” and Jamie's self to the pleasing task of benevolence, and adminisin which case it would serve as one of the incentives town may represent the world.

tered a kind but smart kick, which was so far effective which work upon the ambition of the mercantile

Old Potts gives, once every year, a grand party of that the inebriated individual opened his eyes, sat up classes, prompting them to the industry which leads seventy people, with chandeliers, a quadrille band, ices, in the gutter, and stared around him with an air of

. It appears, however, that the tendency of honour- | and champagne. Why he did so, I could never conceive,

“ Come, get up,” said I, “or you'll find this bed able terms is ever, like that of glaciers, downward. In as he is a merry widower, free from family cares, and, rather too damp for your rheumatism! You'll kill the seventeenth century, in Scotland, the term Mr above all things, partial to a quiet rubber. On a late yourself!" was reserved for clergymen, barristers, and other per- festive occasion, as I stood fixed tightly in a doorway,

“ What's the matter? Who are you ?" exclaimed sons of consequence, while the mercantile classes only the master of the revels came towards me through the the inebriated individual, rubbing his

eyes, and not yet mercantile classes, from whom it is now going to the throng, looking exceedingly uncomfortable, and wip capable of appreciating the

exact condition of affairs.

* Never mind who I am,” said I. “Get up, unless better class of working men. So, also, Sir, which ori- ing his forehead with a huge white mouchoir.

you want to end your days in a gutter. How came ginally signified a lord (sihor, Gothic), has gradually

“ Ah !” exclaimed he, noticing me in the throng. you to be in this state, you dissipated character?" descended till it is applied to nearly every reputable “ Hot work. Isn't it? I'm as tired as if I had been

“ Why, master," exclaimed the man, “what's the person. walking twenty miles.”

odds of getting up? It's a good enough place to APPLAUDING MACHINE.

" It is very kind of you to take so much trouble on sleep in. You an't one of them temperance set, I When attending public dinners, at which the staple account of your friends,” said I, feeling that I ought 'spose, as wants us to live on bread and water. A drop business generally consists in giving and receiving to say something, and not knowing exactly what to

of gin can't hurt nobody! Besides, you should do as

the rest of the world does-that's what I always say! toasts, we have often thought it would be a great say,

Other people drinks-and, in course, I may !" improvement if a machine were invented to applaud, “ Ah !” said Potts, bending towards me in a confi

Now, tell me, reader, is not the mass of mankind and thus save the company from the very arduous dential manner; “ I hate these crowds, my dear young made up of “ Jamies ; and may not Jamie's town duty of "giving the honours.” It might be advan- friend—I hate them! Nothing like a snug party of represent the world. tageous if the machine could be made to utter a

six or eight !" few set terms, such as “ Once, twice, thrice, hurrah

“ Then why ask sixty or eighty?” said I, reciprohurrahı !" with a thundering sound to resemble a

THUROT, TIE NAVAL PARTISAN. clapping of hands at each of the intervals, or to give cating the tone of confidence. the equally common terms—“Hip, hip, hurrah!”, Any his head; you don't understand these things.

“Ah, my dear young friend,” said Potts, shaking Francois Thuror, an adventurer of the Paul Jones way would do, and, indeed, the machine would be

By class, whose career presents some remarkable points invaluable, if it only gave such

sounds as clapping of and by, when you keep house, you'll know better. i of interest, was born in the year 1727, at Nuits, in hands, rutting on the table, and the hurrahing, the invite a crowd, now and then, and cram, my small Burgundy. According to the best accounts

, his paspeaking part being left to the performance of the rooms, because it's the custom— because it's the cus

ternal grandfather was an Irishman of the name of toast-master. As the company at a public entertain-tom--nothing more! Other people do so, you know, Farrell, a captain in the Irish army of James II., and ment is usually called on to give the honours perhaps and not to be singular, so must I ?"

one of the exiles who followed that monarch's fallen not fewer than twenty times in the course of an even

The neighbourhood of Square is thrown

fortunes. While attached to the establishment of ing, the work is rather fatiguing in warm weather, in- into a constant fever of excitement by the incessant dependently of the tiresomeness of going through the pianoforte practice of Miss Isabella Hawkins, the James at St Germains, Captain Farrell gained the same performance so frequently. An applauding ma- youngest and the most musical of four sisters. I made affections of Mademoiselle Thurot, niece to a member cline appears to us, therefore, to be a decided desi

a morning call there the other day, and was ushered of the Parliament of Paris, and wedded her, to the

into the drawing-room, where I found Miss Isabella great indignation of her relatives. The latter discounthe active geniuses of the age who are looking about alone, and hard at work on the “ Mose in Egitto" tenanced the pair in every way ; and it was only on for objects on which to employ their talents. The fantasia of Thalberg. It was a trying situation ; and the decease of both that their son was adopted by his machine could not fail to pay," as it might be pa- that I had not interrupted practice--to beg that she Thurot. In the course of his mature years, this indi

I thought it better, under the circumstances, to hope mother's friends, and received their family name of tented, and licenses sold for its use. No company, would proceed-that there was nothing I was fonder vidual was three times married, and his second wife surely, would grudge ten shillings being added to the of than music. Accordingly, she favoured me with brought him the son whose history we are about to rebill for the loan of a good applauding apparatus.

the entire fantasia from beginning to end-from the late. She died in giving the child birth ; and while he

first mysterious whisper to the final spirit-stirring was being carried to the font, the mother was receiving “ O T H ER PEOPLE."

bang. I heard it without wincing, and at the conclu- the last offices of humanity in the adjoining place of

sion was profuse in compliments and thanks, as in sepulture. An incident of some importance to the I REMEMBER once to have heard the following story duty bound : the only qualification to my pleasure boy at a future period, was the consequence of this

In a certain northern town lived a worthy man being a fear that the fatigue had been too much for somewhat striking circumstance. It was customary who had an only son. This son was universally set her.

at that time for ladies of rank to go to the churches down by the townsfolk as an idiot : the father called in a state of palpitation ; “ particularly as I don't like any

of the children that might be brought there for

“Why, it is a great exertion,” said she, leaning back about Christmas, and offer themselves as sponsors for him reak. One morning as his father sat in his study music. Of all things on earth, I detest pianoforte baptism, with the charitable view of doing some good busily employed, Jamie rushed in, and stood with his practice most.”

to them in their after lives. One Madame Tallard face glowing, his hands working, his feet uneasily “ You not like music?" exclaimed I ;“you who play offered in this way to be sponsor for young Thurot; moving backwards and forwards, and every gesture so delightfully ?”.

and being led to inquire into the cause of his father's evincing that he had something important to commu

It was the genteel thing to say this, you know ; but obvious and unusual grief, she was so much moved by

the fact is, she plays but tolerably-misses half the what she heard as to make the boy a handsome prenicate, and was too nervous to communicate it.

notes, and “fudges” the other half. Still, she insists sent, and to promise to do something for him in suc“ Well, Jamie,” said his father, encouragingly, “what on playing Thalberg, and her friends are expected to ceeding years. The promise, it will be found, was not is it?” listen.

forgotten. “I want something, father," answered Jamie.

“I assure you I care nothing for music,” she re The English memoir-writers say that all these “ Well, Jamie, and what is it you want ?"

peated; " and as for the piano, I hate it, I hate the things took place at Boulogne, but the French Bio

very of it !”—and she looked quite viciously at graphical Dictionary informs us that the Thurot “I want a dog, father," answered Jamie. the poor instrument

family were at this time resident in Burgundy, and “A dog ?” exclaimed the astonished parent ; " and “ I wonder that you practise so hard then ?" said I, that Francois was sent by his father to the Jesuit what can you want with a dog ?” innocently.

school of Dijon, in order to learn the art of surgery. “ I just want it,” said Jamie, twirling his thumbs, mation_“ mamma makes

me, or I never would touch boy showed an unconquerable passion for adventure,

“ Mamma makes me !" said Isabella, with great ani- | We are also told, by the same authority, that the and looking down. “ But what for?" again asked his father.

it from year's end to year's end! Oh, you can't think and military or rather naval affairs, and that he ran

how cross she is if I don't practise every morning ; off, when about fifteen years old, to the seaport of Dun“ Well, I don't exactly know,” replied Jamie, still and nothing under three hours will do. "I'm sure í kirk. Either at the latter place, or at Boulogne, he aptwirling his thumbs ; " but I want it.”

wish the piano in the fire! But what's the use of pears to have become acquainted with one Farrell, an « Tell me what you want with a dog, and you shall wishing ? Other people practise, she says ; so must I!" Irishman, who followed the profession of a smuggler. have one,” said the father ; “ but I certainly should rants, and raisins, and matters of that sort. Smith's man and young Thurot, in consequence of which the

The name of Farrell led to an acquaintance between this not like to trust you, unless you show that you have life is very mercantile and stupid. He leaves his latter was induced to make a voyage to Ireland, being some object in view.”

house at Brixton Hill every morning by a quarter told that the O'Farrells were still a flourishing house “ Everybody in our town keeps a dog but me!” past eight, and arrives at his counting-house in the in Connaught, and that he might there get into the cried Jamie, indignantly, and beginning to whimper. city by a little past nine. Here he toils until the way of advancing his fortunes. After voyaging as far “ There's Sandy Donaldson, and Willie Allison, and evening, and then, riding home again, he eats a hearty as the Isle of Wlan with his Irish cousin, the highRob Gordon, and Wattie Campbell, all keep dogs ! no constitution can stand this irrationality, and Smith dinner, and tries to digest it until bed-time. Of course, spirited lad took some offence at his conductor, and

chose to stay on the island behind the vessel. Other people keep dogs, and why mayn't I keep a is often very ill, and never at all well. “But, then,"

world was now before him where to choose;" and dog too ?”

as he says, “ how is it to be avoided? The physician his first thought was to enter on board of any vessel It was impossible to resist laughing at, or granting tells me to apply less to business, to take more exer that came in the way. But none touched at the time a request backed by so exquisite a reason. The father cise, to indulge in relaxation of mind; sir, it can't be at the island, and Thurot was glad to earn his bread by had his joke, and Jamie had his dog ; but within a there till six ; and it would never do for me to lose done.' I must be at my desk by nine, and remain becoming servant to a gentleman from Anglesey, of the

same disreputable profession with Mr Farrell. The week Jamie was laid up with a lacerated leg, and I time by walking. If I flagg for an instant, my con- | Anglesey smuggler was indeed old in the trade of “run

“ The

SECOND NOTICE.

ning goods,” and, taking a fancy for the handsome, and it was so unusual for French captains to meet distinction. His death secured the glory he always active French youth, employed him in various com them on anything like terms of equality, much less of sought.” missions betwixt Man and the Anglesey coasts. Here superiority, that Thurot, at this time (1758) but a Our readers will see a striking resemblance beThurot learned the English tongue, and acquired man of thirty years of age, was received almost with twixt the career of Thurot and that of Paul Jones, as that strong taste for naval adventure which cha: triumphal honours at the French court, and became well as between the characters of the two men. They racterised him through life, as well as that skill and the lion of the hour. Seeing every other seaman exhibited skill, courage, and humanity, in no ordiexperience in contraband trading no less character baffled by the enemy, the government turned to Thu- nary degree ; and both evidently possessed those chaistic of his after years. Growing wearied of his posi- rot as to an anchor of hope, and sought his advice on racteristics which go to the composition of the Nelsons tion, Thurot seized an opportunity afforded to him the conduct of their naval affairs. Like Paul Jones and the Napiers. Large opportunities for proving of visiting Dublin, probably having some curiosity in later days, he was impressed by a knowledge of the their endowments were not granted to either--for our about his Irish relations. Being furnished, at his ar- unfortified state of the coasts and towns of Britain ; country we may perhaps say happily so, since they rival, with only eleven shillings, he soon fell, as may and, like him also, he boldly counselled a descent on were her enemies. be imagined, into a state of distress, and found him the island. The advice was taken. Intending to act self obliged to enter the family of Lord B-, in the on several points at once, the government gave Thurot capacity of valet. The handsome Frenchman, how- five frigates, of 168 guns in all, with a complement of LIEBIG'S ANIMAL CHEMISTRY.* ever, excited some unpleasant suspicions in that 700 sailors and 1270 soldiers, to attack the Irish family, and was forced to shift into that of another coasts. The British ships, with the aid of winds and nobleman, who dwelt in a country situation by the weather, ultimately defeated the other parts of the Qur author having discussed the source of animal sea-side. For a time Thurot was here occupied in scheme, but the indefatigable Thurot vindicated his heat, which consists in the mutual action between the rural sports ; and entering into them with his usual repute to a certain extent in the fulfilment of his own elements of the food and the oxygen conveyed by the energy, acquired much celebrity for activity, skill, and task. No longer a contraband trader or unauthorised circulation of the blood to every part of the body, proutility as a caterer for amusement to his master and privateer, but an honoured servant of his country, he ceeds to show how the heat of the body is sustained in friends. But numerous smugglers frequented that sailed from Dunkirk in October 1759, and got safe to correspondence with the surrounding atmosphere. It portion of the coast ; and, ere long, our hero involved Ostend. But in attempting to pass around the north is remarkable that the heat of the blood is the same himself deeply with these people, among whom his of Britain, the channel being avoided as filled with in the arctic regions as at the equator ; and to account dexterity and experience speedily raised him to be British ships, the French frigates were met by a ter- for this fact, he states that whatever heat is lost by a leader. His generosity in distributing teas, bran- rible storm, and one of them was so much injured as radiation in cold climates, is restored within the body dies, and stuffs of value, among his friends and fa- to require being sent home., At length the squadron with great rapidity. There is a compensating process, vourites, at length betrayed him, and his smuggling reached the Derry coast, but ere they could land, and the compensation takes place more rapidly in associates were watched by the revenue officers. Se were again driven to sea, and another ship was per- winter than in summer, more at the pole than the veral laden boats were taken ; but Thurot, who had manently separated from the number. Thurot's men

equator. gone on board of one, contrived to escape with it, and had now begun to suffer greatly from fatigue and Liebig here describes the nice adjustment between made his way to Scotland. His share of the saved want of provisions, and the other captains intreated the temperature of the atmosphere, the appetite for cargo amounted to one hundred and fifty pounds ; him to return to France; but he was unsubdued in food, and the support of an equable heat in the body. and with this sum he made a figure for a short time spirit, and firmly refused. In order to procure re Every body knows from experience that nothing so in Edinburgh. Ultimately, a gentleman of French freshments, he anchored, on the 16th of February; effectually keeps out cold as good eating ; but few are extraction met with him, and was induced to give or off Islay, and, being able to enforce his will, obtained acquainted with the precise philosophic reason for get for him the mastership of the sloop Annie, with supplies, for which, however, to his honour, he paid this. “In order to keep up in the furnace [of the body) which Thurot went to London on an honest com- punctually, and even most liberally. The state of a constant temperature, we must vary the supply of mercial trip. But the sloop was accidentally burned his men, after only four months of the sea, may be fuel according to the external temperature, that is, on the Thames, and its late master was again left guessed from the fact, that, on getting ashore, they according to the supply of oxygen. In the animal without regular employment.

ate grass with avidity. Here, too, Thurot heard of body the food is the fuel ; with a proper supply of For the next four years (betwixt 1748 and 1752), the failure of the rest of the invading squadron ; but oxygen wo obtain the heat given out during its oxiThurot passed frequently betwixt London and France, still he persisted in his course, and, with his scanty dation or combustion. In winter, when we take exhaving devoted himself to his old employment of stores, moved for Carrickfergus, determined at least to ercise in a cold atmosphere, and when, consequently, smuggling. In 1752, he went to reside at Boulogne, wipe so far away, by one retaliative descent, the me the amount of inspired oxygen increases, the necessity and continued in the same line. By his daring, skill, mory of some of ihe many similar insults inflicted by for food containing carbon and hydrogen increases in and success, as well as by the extraordinary genero- Britain on France. On the 21st, he anchored in Car- the same ratio ; and by gratifying the appetite thus sity and humaneness of character which he displayed, rickfergus Bay, and, about three in the afternoon, excited, we obtain the most efficient protection against he had now made himself the king of the smugglers. landed his soldiery, now reduced to about 600 men, the most piercing cold. A starving man is soon frozen His boats ran an immense quantity of goods between along with 200 or 300 sailors. Carrickfergus was then to death ; and every one knows that the animals of the French and English coasts, usually succeeding in surrounded by an old and ruinous wall, and its castle prey in the arctic regions far exceed in voracity those carrying out and in nearly L.20,000 worth annually. by one equally old and ruinous. The place was garri- of the torrid zone. English and French revenue-coasters might some- soned with four companies of men, but they were In cold and temperate climates, the air, which times seize a cargo ; but in vain did they attempt to poorly furnished with ammunition. Therefore, though incessantly strives to consume the body, urges man capture or check Thurot in his expeditions. The the commandant, Captain Jennings, made a defence, to laborious efforts in order to furnish the means of French writers also say that he was a bold and most Thurot soon forced the gates and entered the town. resistance to its action, while, in hot climates, the successful privateer. At length the French govern- He then marched along the streets, keeping up a fire necessity of labour to provide food is far less urgent. ment ordered the president of the province to take with the garrison, which was retreating to the castle. Our clothing is merely an equivalent for a certain up all persons suspected of smuggling at Boulogne, Here an incident took place which shows the humane amount of food. The more warmly we are clothed, and Thurot had the ill luck to be one of the first character of the assailing party. A little child, in the less urgent becomes the appotite for food, because seized. He was carried to Dunkirk, and evidence thoughtless play, ran between the combatants, when the loss of heat by cooling, and consequently the was gathered against him sufficient to convict him a French officer started forward, and, taking up the amount of beat to be supplied by the food, is dimicapitally ; but now the sponsorship of Madame Tal- child tenderly, carried it to the next door, which nished. lard proved his safeguard. The president just men. chanced to be the paternal one. Unfortunately, the If we were to go naked, like certain savage tribes, tioned was the son of that lady, and he was induced gallant man exposed himself too much, and was shot. or if in hunting or fishing we were exposed to the so to exert himself that the life of her godson Thurot Thurot continued to press on the castle after the same degree of cold as the Samoiedes, we should be was spared.

garrison had entered, and quickly compelled them to able with ease to consume 10 lbs. of flesh, and perhaps This seeming check in the roving career of Thurot capitulate.

a dozen of tallow candles into the bargain, daily, as was, in reality, the means of advancing him to Master of the town, he now demanded supplies of warmly-clad travellers have related with astonishment honours and rank far above his wildest hopes; and he stores, which the magistrates most imprudently hesi- of these people. We should then also be able to take had ever shown a spirit of ambition that soared above tated to comply with. In consequence, the town was the same quantity of brandy or train oil without bad his ordinary employments. The president Tallard plundered, Thurot telling them that the fault was effects, because the carbon and hydrogen of these had represented, it is probable, the possibility of his their own. After taking what he could, tha French substances would only suffice to keep up the equilibeing made a highly useful man to his country. He commander, satisfied with what he had done to sus-brium between the external temperature and that of was sent for to Paris ; and being examined respect- tain his character, resolved immediately to quit the our bodies." ing the smuggling trade, he gave such proofs of his coast. But the career of the brave adventurer was It now, therefore, appears to be a natural law that skill

, experience, and daring in naval matters, that drawing near its close. The news of has descent had the quantity of food must be strictly regulated by the the government resolved to employ him in the event spread, and ere he could leave Carrickfergus Bay, degree of cold in which we are placed, just as if we of a renewal of the war with England. The war did three British frigates, under Captain Elliott, had ar should require to regulate the brilliancy of a lamp by break out in 1755, immediately afterwards, and rived to encounter him. Nothing daunted, however, the degree of darkness to be overcome. Thurot received the command of a sloop of war. But Thurot prepared for action ; nor could the issue of “No isolated fact,” proceeds our author, “can affect this was an instrument too petty for his views, and the contest have been, with any certainty, pronounced the truth of this natural law. Without temporary he asked and obtained leave to join the privateers of beforehand. The vessels were equal in numbers on or permanent injury to health, the Neapolitan cannot Dunkirk. It was at this time that, by his brilliant both sides; and though the French crews were more take more carbon and hydrogen in the shape of food exploits, the subject of our memoir made his name numerous, they and their ships were in a very worn than he expires as carbonic acid and water; and the truly terrible to the merchants of Britain. He took out condition, while the British seamen were unspent Esquimaux cannot expire more carbon and hydrogen many ships, and deeply injured their commerce in by toil, and their vessels a little heavier in metal than than he takes into the system as food, unless in a state the channel. Attracted by his increasing celebrity the others. The engagement commenced with great of disease or of starvation. Let us examine these as a naval partisan, the French court again sent for spirit on both sides. Thurot maintained his charac- states a little more closely. The Englishman in Jahim in 1757, and he was nominated to the command ter for seamanship and courage, and fought without maica sees with regret the disappearance of his appeof the frigate Friponne. In this he continued so to flinching or retrograding one inch. The well-manned tite, previously a source of frequently recurring distinguish himself that Marshal Belleisle got him guns of the British covered his decks with dead bodies; enjoyment; and he succeeds, by the use of Cayenne appointed to the command of a little squadron of two a shot struck his own ship under water, and the sea pepper and the most powerful stimulants, in enabling frigates and two corvettes, and he was sent to the rose high in the hold ; yet still Thurot struggled for himself to take as much food as he was accustomed northern seas to intercept a large convoy of British a chance of victory. Its sun smiled not then upon to eat at home. But the whole of the carbon thus merchantmen from Archangel. Thurot had now him. He was not destined, however, to become the introduced into the system is not consumed ; the means somewhat commensurate with his abilities and captive of a mortal enemy : he fell dead amid his temperature of the air is too high, and the oppressive comprehensive views. After taking nearly ten mer- companions on the deck ; and, after a contest of an heat does not allow him to increase the number of chantmen, and cruising a long time, he fell in with hour and a half in all, the French ships became the respirations by active exercise, and thus to proportion four English vessels of war, two of them larger than prize of the British.

the waste to the amount of food taken ; disease of his own, and an obstinate engagement ensued, in Thus perished, in the prime of manhood, a man of some kind, therefore, ensues. which Thurot was the victor. Ile subsequently took whom his national enemies had learned to think with On the other hand, England sends her sick, whose to Christiansand, in Norway, not fewer than four- esteem and respect." The public (says the “ Annual diseased digestive organs have, in a greater or less teen captured ships. He issued thence again, ap. Register” for 1760, the year following the event above degree, lost the power of bringing the food into that proached the Scottish coasts, and took one brig of related) lamented the death of the brave Thurot, who, state in which it is best adapted for oxidation, and eighteen guns, with a number of large merchant- even while he commanded a privateer, fought less for

* Animal Chemistry, or Organic Chemistry in its Applications inen, and returned to the port of Dunkirk, after plunder than honour ; whose behaviour was on all a restless and brilliant course of two years.

to Physiology, by Justus Liebig. Edited by W. Gregory, ProfesThe occasions full of humanity and generosity; and whose

sor of Medicine, Aberdeen. London: Taylor and Walton, Upper British were deemed sn completely masters of the seas, undaunted courage raised him to rank and merited | Gower Street. 1842.

therefore furnish less resistance to the oxidising condition. We have space for only a few passages. I his numerous family papers, and there (said the youth) agency of the atmosphere than is required in their “A nation of hunters, on a limited space, is utterly had the deed been found. The gentleman had prenative climate, to southern regions, where the amount incapable of increasing its numbers beyond a certain sented it to the fortunate discoverer, but, being a very of inspired oxygen is diminished in so great a propor- point, which is soon attained. The carbon necessary retiring and diffident person, and knowing the stir tion ; and the result, an improvement in the health, for respiration must be obtained from the animals, of which would be made about the matter, he had bound is obvious. The diseased organs of digestion have which only a limited number can live on the space the other solemnly to the concealment of the giver's sufficient power to place the diminished amount of supposed. These animals collect from plants the con name. This statement of young Ireland, in place of food in equilibrium with the inspired oxygen ; in the stituents of their organs and of their blond, and yield meeting with discredit, was most readily swallowed, colder climate, the organs of respiration themselves them, in turn, to the savages who live by the chase and even threw a deeper interest over the affair ; and would have been consumed in furnishing the neces- alone. They, again, receive this food unaccompanied the cry of all enthusiastic antiquaries was for morem sary resistance to the action of the atmospheric by those compounds, destitute of nitrogen, which, more signatures—more deeds ! The Honourable Mr oxygen. In our climate, hepatic diseases, or those during the life of the animals, served to support the Byng, Sir Frederick Eden, and a great number of arising from excess of carbon, prevail in summer; in respiratory process. In such men, confined to an ani- other literary amateurs, unanimously declared, that, winter, pulmonic diseases, or those arising from excess mal diet, it is the carbon of the flesh and of the blood where this one deed had been found, the identical of oxygen, are more frequent. The cooling of the which must take the place of starch and sugar. But mass of papers beyond doubt existed which had been body, by whatever cause it may be produced, in- 15 lbs. of flesh contain not more carbon than 4 lbs. of long sought for in vain by the commentators on creases the amount of food necessary. The mere starch ; and while the savage with one animal and an Shakspeare. exposure to the open air, in a carriage or on the deck equal weight of starch could maintain life and health Young Ireland, urged on all hands to continue his of a ship, by increasing radiation and vaporisation, for a certain number of days, he would be compelled, researches, ere long gratitied the expectations of the increases the loss of heat, and compels us to eat more if confined to flesh, in order to procure the carbon curious by producing, one after another, “Shakspeare's than usual."

necessary for respiration, during the same time, to Profession of Faith,” a “ Letter to Lord SouthampSuppose that a person expires less carbonic acid, consume five such animals.

ton,” a “ Letter to Anne Hatherwaye” (the poet's wife), and otherwise loses less material, than the oxygen he It is easy to see, from these considerations, how “ Five Poetical Stanzas” to the same lady, a “ Letter absorbs, then disease commences ; he becomes loaded close the connexion is between agriculture and the to Queen Elizabeth,” and several notes of hand and with fat. Now, begin to starve this person, and multiplication of the human species. The oultivation other minor documents, all of them apparently either he will lose the fat he has accumulated. Go on starv- of our crops has ultimately no other object than the in Shakspeare's own hand-writing or signed by him. ing him, and he will lose the muscular fibre. He is production of a maximum

of those substances which These documents were laid before the first antiquaries gradually consumed by the action of the atmosphere are adapted for assimilation and respiration, in the and men of letters of the day, and were received by all, * Towards the end, the particles of the brain begin smallest possible space. Grain and other nutritious with the exception of a very few persons, without susto undergo the process of oxidation, and delirium, vegetables yield us, not only in starch, sugar, and picion. Not even the production of a “ Deed of gift to mania, and death, close the scene ; that is to say, all gum, the carbon which protects our organs from the William Ilenry Ireland,described as the friend of the resistance to the oxidising power of the atmospheric action of oxygen, and produces in the organism the poet, and as liaving saved his life on the river Thames, oxygen ceases, and the chemical process of erema- heat which is essential to life, but also, in the form of brought any discredit on these wonderful discoveries, causis, or decay, commences, in which every part of vegetable fibrine, albumen, and caseine, our blood, though certainly the production of such a deed, with the body, the bones excepted, enters into combination from which the other parts of our body are developed. such names, was a pretty sharp trial of the swallow of with oxygen. The time which is required to cause Nian, when contined to animal food, respires, like the antiquarian world. Among the noted men who death by starvation depends on the amount of fat in the carnivora, at the expense of the matters produced saw and implicitly believed in the authenticity of the the body, on the degree of exercise, as in labour or by the metamorphosis of organised tissues ; and just as Shakspeare papers, Dr Samuel Parr may be mentioned exertion of any kind, on the temperaturo of the air , the lion, tiger, and hyæna, in the cages of a menagerie

, in the first place. The doctor drew up and signed a and, finally, on the presence or absence of water. are compelled to accelerate the waste of the organised certificate, stating that “the undersigned had in

Through the skin and lungs there escapes a certain tissues by incessant motion, in order to furnish the spected the Shakspeare papers, and were convinced of quantity of water; and as the presence of water is matter necessary for respiration, so the savage, for their authenticity.” The name of Parr was followed essential to the continuance of the vital motions, its the rery same object, is forced to make the most by those of Herbert Croft, the Earl of Lauderdale, dissipation hastens death. Cases bave occurred in laborious exertions, and go through a vast amount of Valpy, and many others. James Boswell was among which a full supply of water being accessible to the muscular exercise. He is compelled to consume force the subscribers; and “previous to signing his name, sufferer, death has not occurred till after the lapse of merely in order to supply matter for respiration. he fell upon his knees, and in a tone of enthusiasm, twenty days. In one case, life was sustained in this Cultivation is the economy of force. Science teaches thanked Heaven that he had lived to witness this disway for the period of sixty days.

us the simplest means of obtaining the greatest effect covery, and exclaimed, that he could nou die in peace !" In all chronic diseases death is produced by the with the smallest expenditure of power, and with Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King at Arms, Jonathan same cause, namely, the chemical action of the atmo- given means to produce a maximum of force. The Hewlett, translator of the Old Temple Records, and sphere. When those substances are wanting whose unprofitable exertion of power, the waste of force in several of the principal English heralds—men accusfunction in the organism is to support the process of agriculture, in other branches of industry, in science, tomed to minute examinations of ancient documents, respiration ; when the diseased organs are incapable or in social economy, is characteristic of the savage were also among the vouchers for the antiquity of the of performing their proper function of producing state or of the want of cultivation.”

Shakspeare papers. But perhaps the most remarkable these substances ; when they have lost the power of We have now, we think, presented a sufficiently name in the list was that of John Pinkerton, the histransforming the food into that shape in which it ample review of the able work before us, leaving, torian and antiquary, whose experience in antique may, by entering into combination with the oxygen however, much to be examined by the reader on the writings may be held to have exceeded that of any of the air, protect the system from its influence-then subjects of animal motion, theory of disease, and other man of his day. It is needless to go farther the substance of the organs themselves, the fat of the other departments of this extensive subject. We may into the list, after mentioning such names as these. body, the substance of the muscles, the nerves, and afterwards advert to Liebig's views on the theory of The strange truth respecting these papers must now the brain, are unavoidably consumed. The true cause disease, but meanwhile recommend the work to the be told. Can the reader hear without wonder and of death in these cases is the respiratory process, that patient study of all who take delight in philosophic amaze, that the papers under notice, asserted to be is, the action of the atmosphere. A deficiency of investigation.

two hundred years old, had been fabricated, in most food, and a want of power to convert the food into a

instances, not many hours previous to their production part of the organism, are both, equally, & want of

before the eyes of these experienced and admiring anresistance ; and this is the negative cause of the

THE SHAKSPEARE HOAX.

tiquaries ! And they had been fabricated, moreover, cessation of the vital process. The flame is extin- ALLUSIONs being often made to the Shakspeare or by a lad of eighteen, totally unskilled beforehand in guished, because the oil is consumed ; and it is the rather Ireland forgeries, while the generation familiar the art of copying ancient writing! oxygen of the air which has consumed it.

with them is nearly passed away, it becomes in some According to the confessions of young Ireland, Respiration is the falling weight, the bent spring, measure necessary, for the sake of the general reader which were published in 1805, his original motive which keeps the clock in motion ; the inspirations of the present day, that an account of that extraordi- for the execution of these forgeries was simply to and expirations are the strokes of the pendulum nary imposture should be presented.

give pleasure to his father. Ile had long sought for which regulate it. In our ordinary time-pieces, we Mr Samuel Ireland, who became deeply mixed up an autograph of Shakspeare to present to the latter, know with mathematical accuracy the effect pro- with the “ Shakspeare Forgeries,” was a person of and being unable to find one, at length bethought duced on their rate of going by changes in the length excellent private character, and of some eminence him, in an evil hour, of producing a spurious copy. of the pendulum or in the external temperature. in the world of letters, being the author of various le did so, and his father was rendered happy. In Few, however, have a clear conception of the influ- antiquarian and topographical works, published about departing thus far from the straight path, the young ence of air and temperature on the health of the the end of last century. He was particularly distin- man foresaw none of the consequences which really human body; and yet the research into the condi- guished among his friends for his devotion to the followed. lle conceived, he says, that his father tions necessary to keep it in the normal state is not memory of Shakspeare. The slightest scrap of an would be pleased, and " there an end.” But the inmore difficult than in the case of a clock."

cient writing, referring even indirectly to that great quiries made compelled him to fabricate a story reOur author next adverts to the metamorphosis of name, was to Samuel Ireland a treasure of priceless garding their source ; and the demand for farther food into animal tissues, particularly in the young, worth, and an autograph of the bard himself was a Shakspearian relics led him on, according to the and to the peculiar modifications of the food in car- thing meriting almost the reverence of idolatry. Un- common law in morals, from lie to lie, and from the nivorous and graminivorous creatures. Milk, he ob- fortunately, however, only two or three seraps of production of paper after paper, until he had coiled serves, is precisely the kind of food which affords a Shakspeare's writing had descended to posterity, the around himself a mesh of deceit which he might well superabundance of oxygen to increase the bulk of the signature of his will being the most certainly authen- tremble at the thought of unweaving. How could he young mammalia. “ The continued increase of mass, tic of these. In such circumstances, the delight and venture to confess his forgeries, after having led such or growth, and the free and unimpeded development triumph of Mr Ireland may be imagined, when, in men as Joseph Warton and Samuel Parr to commit of the organs in the young animal, are dependent on 1795, his own son, Samuel William Henry Ireland, themselves by the most extravagant eulogies of the the presence of foreign substances, which, in the a lad of eighteen years of age, not only announced his pseudo-Shakspearian compositions ?.“We have many nutritive process, have no other function than to pro- discovery of a deed bearing the sign-manual of William fine things,” said one of these individuals, “in our tect the newly formed organs from the action of the Shakspeare, but at the same time placed that very deed church service, and our litany abounds in beauties ; oxygen. It is the elements of these substances which in his father's hands. The father was almost beside but here, sir, here is a man who has distanced us all.” unite with the oxygen ; the organs themselves could himself, in fact, with joy, and called around him, on This said of the hurried composition of a smart lad not do so without being consumed; that is, growth, the instant, all the antiquaries and Shakspearian en- of eighteen! Parr afterwards tried to back out of or increase of mass in the body, the consumption of thusiasts of London, in order to astonish them with his the scrape into which he had fallen; but he was unoxygen remaining the same, would be utterly impos- prize. The relic, which purported to be a mortgage- deniably, and grossly, and egregiously deceived at the sible. The preceding considerations leave no doubt deed betwixt Shakspeare and one Michael Fraser and outset of the affair. Our faith in taste and criticisin as to the purpose for which nature has added to the his wife, was viewed with such rapturous and soul-en- receives a sad shoek from such circumstances as these. food of the young of carnivorous mammalia substances grossing veneration, that only after the lapse of several Pushed and pushing onwards in his course, young devoid of nitrogen, which their organism cannot em- days diů some individual grow calm enough to inquire Ireland at length announced the discovery not only ploy for nutrition, strictly so called, that is, for the where the document had been found. Young Ireland, of the manuscript originals of many of Shakspeare's production of blood; substances which may be entirely the discoverer, was at that time in the office of a Plays, but also of a new and hitherto unknown one, dispensed with in their nourishment in the adult state. conveyancer, but deeds of such antiquity were not with the title of “ Vortigern and Rowena." A new In the young of carnivorous birds, the want of all likely, it was apparent, to have existed there. Ac- drama by Shakspeare ! The literary world was wild motion is an obvious cause of diminished waste in cordingly, when referred to, the young man assigned with expectation. And all the while, according to his the organised parts ; hence, milk is not provided for a different source to the precious relic. He had be- own account, the youth of eighteen, who had ventured them."

come acquainted, he said, with a gentleman of ancient upon this daring announcement, had not penned one He now brings his views to bear on man's social | family, who had permitted a search to be made among line of the promised piece, and, indeed, had never

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