Imatges de pÓgina
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According to the experiments of Lavoisier, an in the same proportion ; in Sweden more than in another pleasure, or which is necessarily mixed up adult man takes into his system, from the atmo- Sieily; and in our more temperate climate a full eighth with, or followed by, a greater pain. Now, what sphere, in one year, 746 pounds-according to Menzies, more in winter than in summer.

caused your illness, pray? Why, your violation of 837 pounds-of oxygen ; yet we find his weight, at the Even when we consume equal weights of food in both these maxims. "You secluded yourself eternally beginning and end of the year, either quite the same, cold and warm countries, infinite wisdom has so ar to read, as if reading were the highest pleasure in the or differing, one way or the other, by at most a few ranged, that the articles of food in different climates world ; and you read with such infatuated eagerness pounds.

are most unequal in the proportion of carbon they as to ruin your health. Was this eonduct worthy of What, it

may be asked, has become of the enormous contain. The fruits on which the natives of the south a rational being ?” weight of oxygen thus introduced, in the course of a prefer to feed do not, in the fresh state, contain more “ I plead guilty to the second count of your indictyear, into the human system?

than 12 per cent. of carbon, while the bacon and train ment," said Walter, “but not to the first. I did This question may be answered satisfactorily : no oil used by the inhabitants of the arctic regions con- read to excess, I own ; but reading itself is, certainly, part of this oxygen remains in the system, but it is tain from 66 to 80 per cent. of carbon.

to use your own words, a pleasure in its nature of the given out again in the form of a compound of carbon It is no difficult matter, in warm climates, to study highest and purest." or of hydrogen.

moderation in eating, and men can bear hunger for a “Wait a little,” said Lucy, “I have not half done The carbon and hydrogen of certain parts of the long time under the equator; but cold and hunger with you yet. I maintain that you injured your body have entered into combination with the oxygen united very soon exhaust the body.

mental more than your bodily health, and have actu. introduced through the lungs and through the skin, The mutual action between the elements of the food ally rendered yourself incapable of distinguishing beand have been given out in the forms of carbonic acid and the oxygen conveyed by the circulation of the tween the different degrees of pleasure. You have gas and the vapour of water.

blood to every part of the body is the source of animal read until you can relish nothing but reading. Your At every moment, with every expiration, certain heat.”

highest pleasure has become-the consideration of quantities of its elements separate from the animal The author proceeds to show how food is the fuel the means to arrive at pleasure. You have chased a organism, after having entered into combination, that is constantly required to feed the animal heat; desired thing so long, that you prefer the chase to the within the body, with the oxygen of the atmosphere.' and his observations on this and other interesting possession of the object chased. I accuse you of being

If we assume, with Lavoisier and Séguin, in order parts of his subject will engage our attention in a a mere pleasure-seeker, a self-denying pleasure-seeker, to obtain a foundation for our calculation, that an concluding notice of his work.

who, with what he seeks within his grasp, seizes it adult man receives into his system daily 32} ounces

not at once, but vainly schemes how to seize it in the (46,037 cubic inches = 15,661 grains, French weight)

THE PLEASURE SEEKER.

cleverest way; or how to seize something else more of oxygen, and that the weight of the whole mass of

distant, and therefore more attractive. You do not his blood, of which 80 per cent. is water, is 24 pounds, (From Bizarre Fables, a small and amusing work which take the best, you know, but must first ascertain that it then appears, from the known composition of the

we lately recommended to notice.)

it is the best existing. Whilst common mortals are blood, that in order to convert the whole of its car At the close of a sultry day in August, when the enjoying, you are reasoning about enjoyment.” bon and hydrogen into carbonic acid and water, 64,103 sunlight was slowly fading from the sky, and yielding «Go on, Lucy !” said Walter, smiling, but faintly. grains of oxygen are required. This quantity will be to the mild splendour of the full harvest moon ; when Lucy continued :—“You have worn out your eyes, taken into the system of an adult in four days five the refreshing coolness and delicious calmness of the bent your shoulders, and confused your brain, by hours.

evening invited all who had sound limbs to walk the thinking, and the study of others' thinking; And for Whether this oxygen enters into combination with earth, and all who had sound lungs to breathe the air ; what? To be confuted by an untaught girl—even by the elements of the blood, or with other parts of the at this time, and in a spot surrounded by the most your own poor Lucy! Ah!' my dear philosopher, be body containing carbon and hydrogen, in either case beautiful scenery in England, a young man lighted advised. Do what I tell you, and you will never do the conclusion is inevitable, that the body of a man his lamp, closely shut his window, drew the curtain, wrong!" who daily takes into the system 324 ounces of oxygen and, opening a book, sat down at the table to read. “And what is that, Lucy ?" inquired Walter. must receive daily, in the shape of nourishment, as This young man did not consider himself mad— “Pronounce, my pretty instructress, for pupil I must much carbon and hydrogen as would suffice to sup- neither was he considered so by others. Let me, then, call you no longer." ply 24 pounds of blood with these elements ; it being account for these mad proceedings,

“Thus stands the case,” said Lucy, deliberatelypresupposed that the weight of the body remains un Some three months before, he had been conveyed “you have been laid up ill in this cottage for three changed, and that it retains its normal condition as to to the cottage where he now resided, in so wretched a months, and are now much recovered. The pleasure health. This supply is furnished in the food.”

state of health that life could hardly be said to in- which I recommend to you, then, is the enjoyment It appears that a man, taking moderate exercise in spirit him. By quiet, fresh air, and simple fare, he of this charming evening: It is a pleasure great in the open air, requires 37 ounces of oxygen daily. Since had been restored nearly to perfect convalescence ; but itself, and one that will be followed by no atoning no part of this large supply of oxygen “taken into langour and dejection still remained-the residue of pain. You should walk out, if circumstances allowed the system is again given off in any other form but the utter mental and bodily prostration which had so it; but this I do not recommend, because you are that of a compound of carbon or hydrogen--since, lately passed away.

weak, and the injury caused by walking might be further, the carbon and hydrogen given off are re

Walter Everett, the invalid, was by profession a greater than the benefit.” placed by carbon and hydrogen supplied in the food Thinker, and had brought on his illness by the exer Logically put !” exclaimed Walter. “Say on, it is clear that the amount of nourishment required by cise of his profession. He had committed the double wisest of thy sex !” the animal body must be in a direct ratio to the quan- other bodily organ, and the penance he suffered was The evening air being good for you and membicing

Well," continued Lucy, “what is the inference ? Two animals, which in equal times take up by severe in proportion. Reading and meditation car- unable to go out at the door to meet it, the rational means of the lungs and skin unequal quantities of ried to excess are as destructive, and quite as foolish, course is, that it should come in at the window to oxygen, consume quantities of the same nourishment as other modes of dissipation.

meet you. In other words, you must be careless and which are unequal in the same ratio.

On this particular evening, for the first time since happy, instead of meditative and miserable. Here The consumption of oxygen in equal times may be his illness, he resolved to study as of old. The are two chairs by the window. You will sit in one, expressed by the number of respirations ; it is clear brightly-burning lamp, the shining white page, again and I will sit in the other; the casement shall be that, in the same individual, the quantity of nourish- were before him, and all his former feeling of subdued opened, and the book shall be shut ; the lamp shall be ment required must vary with the force and number enthusiasm came back with the familiar appearances. put out, and the moonlight shall be let in. Instead of the respirations.

The shaken nerves, the dim eyes, were forgotten ; and of looking on wearying letters, you shall look on trees, A child, in whom the organs of respiration are the study which had made them so was remembered and grass, and flowers; and you shall talk love to me, naturally very active, requires food oftener than an only for the benefits it could yield.

and not think philosophy to yourself. Is it agreed, adult, and bears hunger less easily. A bird, de

But was there no one near to mark this rash self. Walter ?" prived of food, dies on the third day; while a ser- will, and gently to remonstrate ? Lucy, who had “No, no, Lucy!" exclaimed Walter; “ you have pent, with its sluggish respiration, can live without sympathised with him in sickness and recovery--who painted the picture very temptingly, but I cannot food three months and longer. The number of res had attended on and cheered him like a ministering realise it. We will not sit in the chairs by the winpirations is smaller in a state of rest than during exer- angel-was near. She no sooner witnessed the closing dow; the casement shall not be opened ; the lamp cise or work. The quantity of food necessary in both of the window, the lighting of the lamp, and the shall not be put out; I will not look on trees, and conditions must vary in the same ratio. An excess opening of the book, than she stole softly behind his grass, and flowers ; and, hardest yet, I will not talk ot of food is incompatible with deficiency in respired chair, and bringing her pretty face over his shoulder, love." oxygen, that is, with deficient exercise ; just as vio- looked on the page with a playful, scornful air. “What “What do you bet that all these things will not lent exercise, which implies an increased supply of is this, Walter ?" said she ;“ philosophy! nonsense ! come to pass ?" said Lucy, with an arch look. food, is incompatible with weak digestive organs.' In Shut up your philosophy: we want none this evening." “ Bet " exclaimed Walter ; “I am sure they will either case the health suffers. But the quantity of “ And why not this evening, dear Lucy?"

not!" oxygen inspired is also affected by the temperature “ Because I am determined that you shall not bring “ But what do you bet ?" repeated Lucy, pertinaand density of the atmosphere.

on a return of your illness,” replied Lucy. “You ciously. The capacity of the chest in an animal is a constant have not studied now for six months, and you must “Oh, anything !” said Walter, "anything! and I quantity. At every respiration a quantity of air enters, begin this evening, forsooth! I'll not allow it.” will give as long odds as you like. Against this emthe volume of which may be considered as uniform ; * You are peremptory, Lucy !" said Walter, with a broidered note-book of yours, I will stake--let me see, but its weight, and consequently that of the oxygen smile.

what shall it be a first-rate double-action Errard it contains, is not constant. Air is expanded by heat, “ Peremptory!” exclaimed Luey ;“ yes, it is enough harp; will that do? It is a most magnanimous bet, and contracted by cold, and therefore equal volumes to make any one peremptory. Tell me," continued considering that I am quite determined to win.” of hot and cold air contain unequal weights of oxygen. she demurely, “have you not often declared that the “Done !" said Lucy; and “Done !" said Walter, In summer, moreover, atmospherical air contains great object of existence to a rational being is the dis The word had scarcely passed his lips, when Lucy, aqueous vapour, while in winter it is dry; the space covery of the means of producing pleasure and the with a sudden and violent expiration, extinguished occupied by vapour in the warm air is filled up by air means of producing pain-the adoption of the first, the lamp ; with a turn of her finger she closed the itself in winter; that is, it contains, for the same vo- and the rejection of the last ; moreover, that a plea- book ; and when he started from his soat, angry and lume, more oxygen in winter than in summer. sure which is evidently inferior to another pleasure, astonished at this conduct, she threw her arms round

In summer and in winter, at the pole and at the or which is necessarily mixed up with, or followed by, his neck, and pulled him gently towards the window. equator, we respire an equal volume of air; the cold a greater pain, should be avoided, and that only en Here was the Gordian knot most ridiculously and air is warmed during respiration, and acquires the joyed which is in its nature of the highest and purest. ingloriously cut at once. It was impudent ! it was temperature of the body. To introduce into the lungs Have you not declared all this, and more than this ; unbearable ! Walter struggled to release himself, a given volume of oxygen, less expenditure of force a great deal more than I can either remember or un and uttered various unpleasing exelamations of rage is necessary in winter than in summer; and for the derstand ?”

and defiance. But he could not hurt those tender same expenditure, more oxygen is inspired in winter. “ Granted !" replied Walter, laughing. * Proceed, arms ; and a silvery laugh was so catching, and a It is obvious, that in an equal number of respira- most philosophical madam !"

charming and dearly-loved girl so irresistible, that he tions we consume more oxygen at the level of the sea “ Then, most unphilosophical sir,” exclaimed Lucy, fairly gave in, yielded himself to his fate, and joined than on a mountain. The quantity both of oxygen in- " I charge you with acting against your own doctrine. in the laugh with right good will. Lucy placed him spired, and of carbonic acid expired, must therefore You have done so habitually, and, undeterred by ex. in one chair by the window; then she drew the curvary with the height of the barometer. perience, you wish to do so now."

tain, opened the casement, and sat herself down in The oxygen taken into the system is given out again “Ha, Lucy !" exclaimed Walter ; "that is a seri- the other chair. The moonlight streamed in and disin the same forms, whether in summer or in winter; ous charge, indeed! Explain, my dear girl, explain !" played the trees, and grass, and flowers without. hence we expire more carbon in cold weather, and when “I will," said Lucy; " and undertake to convert Whether Walter talked love to Lucy, I know not ; the barometer is high, than we do in warm weather ; you before I finish my discourse. A pleasure is not but I suspect that the wager was won in every par and we must consume more or less carbon in our food to be enjoyed, you say, which is evidently inferior to ticular, as Lucy certainly retained her note-book, and

CASE OF HARRISON AND THE PERRYS.

was shortly afterwards presented with a first-rate to be murdered, he knew likewise by whom it was their execution, which was on Broadway Hill, within double-action Errard harp.

done. He acknowledged he did ; and being urged to sight of Campden, the mother (being reputed a witch, Moral.- When pleasure hovers about your dwell- confess what he knew concerning it, affirmed, " That and to have so bewitched the sons, that they could coning, open your casement in welcome ; for it is most it was his mother and his brother that had murdered fess nothing while she lived) was executed first. After shy and capricious, and never fails to resent any sign his master.” The justice of peace then advised him which, Richard, being upon the ladder, professed, as of inhospitality.

to consider what he said, telling him that he feared he had done all along, that he was wholly innocent of he might be guilty of his master's death, and that he the fact for which he was then to die ; and did with

should not draw more innocent blood upon his head ; great earnestness beg and beseech his brother, for the CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE.

for what he now charged his mother and brother satisfaction of the whole world and his own conscience,

with might cost them their lives; but he affirming he to declare what he knew concerning him ; but John, In the interesting collection of papers made by Har- spoke nothing but the truth, and that if he were im- with a dogged and surly carriage, told the people he ley, Earl of Oxford, and well known under the title mediately to die he would justify it, the justice de- was not obliged to confess to them. Yet, immediately

sired him to declare how and when they did it. before his death, he said that he knew nothing of his of “ The Harleian Miscellany," a pamphlet, of date John Perry then stated, that his mother and bro- master's death, nor what was become of him, but that September 1676, is found, containing an account of ther had long urged him to steal money for them; they might hereafter possibly hear. the mysterious disappearance of a man denominated and that at length, on the evening when his mistress Such, nearly, in his own uncurtailed language, is William Harrison, and the unhappy consequences sent him to meet his master, he met his brother in the statement of Sir Thomas Overbury relative to the that resulted therefrom. The narrative is authenti- the street, and consented to aid him in robbing and fate of the Perrys. Unhappily, the assertions of John cated by the name of the writer, Sir Thomas Over- murdering Mr Harrison. They watched the latter Perry, whatever might be his motives for making bury, nephew to the ill-fated gentleman of the same accordingly, and the brother, after being joined by them, were proved to be utterly false, when it was too designation, who was so barbarously assassinated in the mother, attacked him ; at which he (John) told late to rectify the error, by the return of William the year 1613. We here abridge the details of the his brother he hoped he would not kill his master; Harrison to Campden, about two years after his disaffair of Harrison, which were derived by Sir Thomas who replied, “ Peace, peace ; you're a fool,” and so appearance. His written statement to Sir Thomas from minute inquiries made on the scene of the oc- strangled him. This done, the brother took a bag of Overbury accounted for his mysterious removal in currence.

money out of his pocket, and threw it into his mother's the following manner -“On my return home (from William Ilarrison was steward to Viscountess lap; and then he and his brother carried his master's Charringworth to Campden, he means), I met among Campden of Campden, in Gloucestershire. On Thurs. dead body into the garden adjoining to the Conygree, Ebrington furzes one horseman, who said, Art thou day the 16th of August 1660, he left Campden to where they consulted what to do with it, and at there?' and I, fearing he would have rid over me, walk on foot to Charringworth, about two miles dis- length agreed to throw it into the great sink, by struck his horse over the nose ; whereupon he struck tant, in order there to receive his lady's rents. Har- Wallington's Mill, behind the garden; and being at me with his sword several blows, and run it into rison was a man of about seventy years of age, yet asked whether it was there, John Perry further said my side, while I, with my little cane, made my defence hale and healthy, and had been accustomed frequently he knew not, for that he left it in the garden, and as well as I could. At last another came behind me, to take similar journeys. On the evening mentioned, his mother and brother said they would throw it in and run me in the thigh, laid hold on the collar of my however, he did not return at the usual time, and there ; and if it were not there, he knew not where doublet, and drew me to a hedge near that place, Mrs Harrison, between eight and nine o'clock’ that it was, for that he returned no more to them, but where a third party joined them. They did not take evening, sent her servant John Perry to meet his went to the court-gate which goes into the town, my money, þut mounted me behind one of them, drew master on the way from Charringworth ; but neither where he met with John Pierce, with whom he went my arms about his middle, and fastened my wrists Mr Harrison nor his servant John Perry returning into the field, and again returned with him to his together with something that had a spring-lock to it, that night, the next morning early, Edward Harrison master's gate ; after which he went into the hen-roost, as I conceived, by hearing it give a snap as they put (William's son) went towards Charringworth to in- where he lay till twelve o'clock that night, but slept it on; then they threw a great cloak over me, and quire after his father. On the way, meeting Perry not; and having, when he came from his mother and carried me away.” coming thence, and being informed by him that his brother, brought with him his master's hat-band and In this manner, according to the statement of the father was not there, they went together to Ebring- comb, which he laid on the hen-roost, he carried the old man, his captors hurried him along, incapable of ton, a village between Charringworth and Campden, said hat-band and comb, and threw them, after he resisting through the severity of his wounds, until, on where they were told by or Daniel that Mr Harrison had given them three or four cuts with his knife, in Sunday morning, "they brought me (he says) to a had called at his house the evening before, in his re- the highway, where they were afterwards found. And place by the sea-side, called Deal, where they laid me turn from Charringworth, but did not stay. Then being asked what he intended by so doing, he said he down on the ground ; and one of them staying by me, they went to Paxford, about half a mile thence, where did it that it might be believed his master had been the other two walked a little off, to meet a man, with hearing nothing of Mr Harrison, they returned fo- there robbed and murdered; and having thus disposed whom they talked ; and in their discourse I heard wards Campden ; and on the way, learning that a hat, of his hat-band and comb, he went towards Charring- them mention seren pounds, after which they went a band, and comb, had been taken up in the highway worth, &c., as hath been related.

away together, and about half an hour after returned. between Ebrington and Campden, by a poor woman Upon this confession and accusation, the justice of The man, whose name, as I after heard, was Wrenthen working in the field, they sought her out, and peace ordered the apprehension of Joan and Richard shaw, said he feared I would die before he could get with her found the hat, bánd, and comb, which they Perry, the mother and brother of John Perry, and me on board. Then presently they put me into a knew to be Mr Harrison's ; and being brought by the for searching the sink where Mr Harrison's body boat, and carried me on ship board, where my wounds woman to the place where she found the same, they was said to be thrown ; which was accordingly done, were dressed." there searched for Mr Harrison, supposing he had but nothing of him could be there found. The fish Harrison recovered slowly from his wounds on been murdered, the hat and comb being hacked and pools in Campden were likewise drawn and searched, board, and, after a time, was put into a Turkish rescut, and the band bloody ; but nothing more could but nothing could be found.

sel, as if by arrangement, and was taken to Smyrna, be there found. The news hereof coming to Campden Saturday, August the 25th, Joan and Richard where he was sold as a slave. “ It was my chance to so alarmed the town, that men, women, and children Perry, together with John Perry, were brought be be chosen by a grave physician of eighty-seven years hastened in multitudes to search for Mr Harrison's fore the justice of peace, who acquainting the said of age, who lived near to Smyrna, who had formerly supposed dead body, but all in vain.

Joan and Richard with what John had laid to their been in England, and knew Crowland in Lincolnshire, Mrs Harrison's fears for her husband were now charge, they denied all, with many imprecations on which he preferred before all other places in England.” much increased ; and the circumstance of Perry themselves if they were in the least guilty of any. For a year and some months Harrison romained being sent out the evening before to meet his master, thing of which they were accused. But John, on the here, decently treated, and moderately worked, by his and not returning that night, caused a suspicion other side, affirmed, to their faces, that he had spoken master. That personage was at length seized with a that he had robbed and murdered him. Perry was nothing but the truth, and that they had murdered mortal illness, and, before his decease, told Harrison the next day brought before a justice of peace ; his master ; further telling them, that he could never that he was free to look after himself. Possessed of a and being examined concerning his master's absence, be at quiet for them since he came into his master's silver bowl, he got secretly on board of a vessel bound and his own staying out on the night when he went service, being continually followed by them to help for Lisbon, by bribing two sailors with it; and when to meet Mr Harrison, he made a rambling statement them to money, which they told him he might do by in the Portuguese capital, found some Englishmen, relative to his fears of travelling in the dark, which giving them notice when his master went to receive who procured him a passage to England. had led him to sleep in the hen-roost, he said, till the his lady's rents ; and that he, meeting his brother The deplorable end of the three Perrys, and the moon rose, after which he went towards Charring. Richard in Campden town the Thursday morning his strange nature of this whole story, caused much specuworth, but, in consequence of a mist, was obliged to master went to Charringworth, told him whither he lation to be exercised on the subject. Notwithstand. lie down under a hedge, and did not get to the village was going, and upon what errand. Richard confessed ing the excellent character ever borne by William till the morning came. He only heard then that his he met his brother that morning, and spoke with him, Harrison, many had “ hard thoughts” of the old man, master had been there, and had received twenty-three but nothing passed between them to that purpose; but suspicion could fix upon no reason, of the slightest pounds on the previous day. Four persons who had and both he and his mother told John he was a villain plausibility, for a voluntary disappearance. One conseen Perry confirmed his account of his own move to accuse them wrongfully as he had done. But John, jecture was made, to which some probability attached; ments on the night and morning in question.

on the other side, affirmed that he had spoken nothing and this was, that Harrison's own son was the author Notwithstanding this account which Perry gave of but the truth, and would justify it to his death. of his abduction. “Some believe,” says Sir Thomas his staying out that night, it was not thought fit to The morrow being Sunday, they remained at Overbury," that the hopes of the stewardship, which discharge him till further inquiries were made after Campden, where the minister of the place, design- the young man afterwards, by the Lord Campden's Mr Harrison ; and accordingly he continued in cus- ing to speak to them (if possible to persuade them to favour, enjoyed, might induce him to contrive his tody at Campden, sometimes in an inn there, and repentance, and a farther confession), they were father's removal ; and this they are the more consometimes in the common prison, from Saturday the brought to church ; and in their way thither, passing firmed in by his misbehaviour in the office." Sir Thomas, 18th of August to the Friday following, during which by Richard's house, two of his children meeting him, however, a man of good heart, thinks that the son time he was again examined at Campden by the afore- he took the lesser in his arm, leading the other in his would not, in case of personal guilt, have prosecuted said justice of peace, but confessed nothing more than hand, when suddenly both their noses fell a-bleeding, the Perrys so bitterly as he did, nor have procured before, nor at that time could any further discovery which was looked upon as ominous.

the suspension of John Perry in chains, at a spot be made what was become of Mr Harrison. But it At the next assizes, held in the spring follow where he could daily see the body. But as such hath been said, that, during his restraint at Campden, ing, John, Joan, and Richard Perry were tried by the violence to a father presupposes a spirit of the most he told some, who pressed him to confess what he then judge of assize, Sir Robert Ilyde, knight, upon wicked order, we fear that the conduct of young Harknew concerning his master, that a tinker had killed the indictment of murder, and pleaded thereunto, rison to the Perrys only rendered the presumption him; and to others, that a gentleman's servant of the severally, not guilty ; and when John's confession greater of his being the criminal party in the first neighbourhood had robbed and murdered him ; while before the justice was proved rica roce by several instance. He, alone, as has been said, appeared to to others, again, he told that Mr Harrison was mur witnesses who heard the same, he told them he was have any interest in the commission of such an act. dered and hid in a bean-rick in Campden. But there then mad, and knew not what he said. The other The conduct of John Perry in some measure justisearch was in vain made for him.

two, Richard and Joan Perry, said they were wholly fies the extremity to which the law proceeded against At length Perry mentioned that were he again car- innocent, and that they knew nothing of Mr Harrison's himself, his brother, and his mother. Whether his ried before the justice, he would discover to that gen- death, or what was become of him ; Richard also said behaviour sprung from motives of revenge, or was the tleman what he would discover to nobody else. And that his brother had accused others as well as him of result of insanity, it is impossible now to say. Happily, thereupon he was (Friday, August the 24th) again having murdered his master ; which the judge bidding now-a-days, the production of the body would be debrought before the justice of peace, who first examined him prove, he said that most of those that had given manded by the law in the absence of direct ocular teshim, and asked him whether he would yet confess what evidence against him knew it ; but naming none, not timony, ere criminality should be decisively assumed. was become of his master? He answered," Mr Har- any one spoke to it, and so the jury found them all The hope which Sir Thomas Overbury expresses, rison was murdered, but not by him.” The justice of three guilty.

that in due time light would be thrown on the dark the peace then told him, that if he knew his master Some few days after, being brought to the place of portions of this story, was never fulfilled.

SWISS WATCHMAKERS.

the watchmaking districts [of Switzerland). A great ON THE COMPLETION OF THE THAMES deal of the work is done in the mountains ; and nearly all

TUNNEL. From Mr Adam Thomson (25, New Bond Street, Lon the rough work is done there by women, the finer work

BY CAMILLA TOULMIN. don), a gentleman known as the writer of a useful treatise by men. The wages earned are very low, considering the

Joy to thee, brave Brunel !--thy task is done, on Time and Time-keepers, we have received a letter, in nature of the work; but the fact is that there is no

Th'immortal wreath of fame is nobly won ! which we are charged with injustice in lately speaking of scarcity of that skill and sobriety, and steadiness of hand

Not thine the warrior's stain'd and tear-dew'd crown, and eye, essential to this class of work. There is no Thou hast a loftier and more pure renown. the watchmaking trade of Neuchatel. monopoly of capacity for it, as there is in London. It is

Joy to thee, brave Brunel !-thou hast been tried “Speaking of Swiss watchmakers, you say, “They are

highly-paid work there, and the English watch-workmen By the world's ordeal, and success hath dried untaxed, live in a simple manner, possess a finer taste, possess the means of indulging in drink, not unfrequently The well-springs of Distrust, whose waters deep and, from their temperateness of living, have a greater without enough of moral principle and intelligence to Engulf such precious things or coldly steep

The heart of genius, until warped aside, delicacy of hand than the generality of English work- resist the temptation. It is sometimes the case that

Or piecemeal rotted, by that ebon tide, men.' That the Swiss are untaxed, that their tithes are they get into difficulties before their work is done, pawn

Its might and majesty alike are past : voluntary, and that they live in a simple manner, is true, their lathe and tools, and finish and spoil it with inferior

But thine, Brunel, was of too stern a cast; but the latter part of your remark is incorrect. The instruments. Drink soon impairs the nerves, and they

Though round thee long had flowed those turbid wares, lose their steadiness of hand. There is, therefore, a con Bearing upon their crests the ready glaives French excel us in taste, from having had the advantage stant scarcity of first-rate hands in London. This is not Of ignorance-the bitter taunt and jest of a national school of design ; and the Swiss watch, in the case in Switzerland; the moral and primitive habits That folly, in its mischievous unrest, size and appearance, is but a copy of that of the French. of the people extend the sobriety essential to the perfec

Seizes with vacant laugh, and blindly flings

At dazzling genius on her soaring wings. In England, when utility was preferred to ornament, tion of the art over the whole community. It is in-door

And yet, methinks, Distrust's dark icy stream there was never sufficient demand to encourage the ma- work, and suits them during the long continuance of

Did to thy noble heart through long years seem nufacture of mere toys. In the reign of George IV., our weather too inclement in the mountains to permit of

More fearful than old Father Thames that rollid

In loud defiance o'er thee; who, controllid aristocracy first set the fashion which has now descended open air occupation. It is surprising how few are the

By the strong spell of science, meekly now to all grades, the greater cheapness of the foreign pro tools

, and how delicate the use of them by the artisan

peasantry who carry on this manufacture in Switzerland. Learns in obedience to thy will to flow! duction having increased the demand. Have these futile Carouges and Geneva are the great marts of the trade,

Oh! how much greater art thou, brave Brunel ! ornaments ever advanced science or bettered the condi- and thence work is given out to the surrounding villagers ;

Than Persia's king, who, as old histories tell,

Came with his millions, and but strove in vain tion of mankind? What country first gave the mariner they must work hard to earn two francs a-day, and

With all his might one rebel wave to chain. a machine to guide him in his uncertain way? Have not the majority do not average more than 30 sols (150).”

Was there a mind like thine in all his train ? the labours of Graham, Harrison, Arnold, Earnshaw, and

And do not at such thoughts quick mem'ries throng,

Worthy a nobler bard and loftier song, Mudge, past members of this now sinking art in England,

THE THAMES TUNNEL.

To tell how dark those wild and barbarous ages, done more for science and commerce than all the makers The tunnel has now completely reached across the When warrior's deeds fill'd up the historian's pages ? of handsome and curious watches in Europe ?

river-a distance of 1200 feet; and the projector and en Now doth at least a twilight dawn; men pay The Swiss workman cultivates his own acre of land, gineer had the gratification, a short time since, of being

With fame's bright garlands, not alone who slay, and feels himself of some importance in his native coun the first who walked from bank to bank, to the shaft on

But them who save and serve. Joy, brave Brunel!

The new “ world's wonder" is achieved, and well try; and it is true that the man who lias to struggle with the London side. Those shafts on both sides of the

By its own self is thy great soul repaid ; poverty can scarcely attain such a moral dignity; but river which are intended for foot passengers are really

And yet wert thou as great, ere yet arrayed

With the world's halo, that success has cast English watchmakers, as a class, are remarkable for their grand things. They are a succession of staircases going

round a vast circular excavation, between seventy and Around thee (for mankind are just at last); 'temperateness of living,' their industry and intellect; eighty feet deep, and when they shall be all lighted with Thou wert as great when this • world's wonder" dwelt their • nimble fingers' ply their vocation as industriously gas, will be among the most extraordinary parts of the

Yet unembodied in the mind that felt as those you describe, and sometimes (so pressing are whole structure. Even now, they strongly realise the

Its power to do and dare. Did it then rise

In grand perfection to thy spirit's eyes, their necessities) even on that day which a kind Provi- poetic conception of the descent into the caverns of the

Conceived one moment and matured the next dence set apart as much for bodily relaxation as for mental | Egyptian mysteries ; and the view of the interior, nearly

(As Wisdom's goddess in the heathen text, improvement.

a quarter of a mile in extent, lighted with a long succes Sprung forth all armed from the Thunderer's brain)?

sion of melancholy flames, would probably have suggested Or was it link by link, the perfect chain With regard to your assertion, that English workmen

to a Greek the image of an entrance into Tartarus. The Of thy so wonderful design was wrought lave less delicacy of hand,' I can only say that, in an

expense of the stone bridge is enormous. Waterloo In the mind's mazes of most tangled thought? extensive connexion with both French and Swiss watch-Bridge cost upwards of a million-London bridge about as

Whiche'er, it matters not, for then, as now, makers (some of whom were not unwilling to arrogate to much more. Westminster and Blackfriars Bridges, which

As great thou wert, the thoughtful feel and know;

When thou didst take a lesson from the worm themselves a little more than their due), I never met were built at a cheaper rate and in cheaper times, so

The strange secureness of thy work to form, one who even hinted at such a distinction; on the con constantly demand repairs, that they probably have cost

And show the precept men are slow to learn trary, they admit that their best watches are those more than either of the modern ones ; but the tunnel has Nought God has made is low enough to spurn; which most resemble the English, and that our inven- the advantage of giving a passage from side to side of the That loftiest science most acutely feels tions and improvements are adopted in their best manu- | Thames, where, from the breadth of the river, a stone How vast the lore great Nature's law reveals. facture. Watchmaking is essentially English, deriving bridge would have probably cost nearer two millions than Thou wert as great-yea, greatest in those years its principles from the researches of Newton, Hooke, one, and where no bridge could be thrown across without Of silent grief and watching, whon dark fears, Harrison, and Graham. Why, then, is this branch of blocking up the most important part of the Thames, that

Methinks, must oft have dimm'd or hidden quite

The cheering rays of hope's exceeding light. industry leaving us ? Not from want of delicacy of portion which may be called the great wet dock of Lon

The seven years ! in which no workman's stroke hand,' but because the English mechanic, to procure the don. Yet the expense of the whole has not amounted to

Those arches' mute forgetful echoes woke. bare necessaries of life, requires at least 35 per cent. more than L.400,000, and even this is to be remembered But hark! they have a tongue again, and dwell more for his labour than his foreign competitor.

as an expense greatly increased by the utter novelty of the No more in “cold obstruction"_brave Brunel! As your article cannot fail in having a prejudicial experiment, by difficulties unforeseen in the commence Unquench'd by the dull flood of those long years, effect on a suffering but deserving class of men, I trust ment, by several irruptions of the river, by the dearness Thy spirit's fire more purely bright appears;

And like a chain electric, runs through all you will endeavour to correct that part at least wherein of workmen's wages, arising from the peculiar peril and superior skill is attributed to foreign workmen. There singular nature of the labour connected with an undertak

The busy crew who gathered at thy call ;

Teaching them well to understand they shared is already a preference for foreign watches, if not by the ing carried on at all hours, and wholly by artificial light.

The glory of all that which thou hadst dared. considerate, by a large portion of the higher classes of all this, too, in constant hazard of an influx of the river, And didst thou life to wood and iron yield. our community. This once-boasted manufacture of Eng- and the various difficulties belonging to working in a When thou didst sway thy ever trusty “shield ?"* land is nearly ruined, and thousands of valuable mecha- mine. The weight of a vast body of water above, acting Joy to thee, great Brunel! thy task is done, nics (from the nature of their occupation, meek and alike during summer and winter, which at any moment The immortal wreath of fame is nobly won! patient men) quietly meet their fate, being unable to sell might break in, and against whose incursions it was as Her clarion sounds, and thy name is the note their productions at the same price as those who are necessary to fortify the outside of the tunnel as the in

That echoes catch, and round the world doth float ;

And this is guerdon worthy even thee; more fortunately situated._I would, however, ask, If terior, added greatly to the difficulties of the undertaking.

Ambition's dream made rich reality. this manufacture, so truly English, is to disappear, will The original object of the tunnel was to convey cattle,

But is there not a joy more deep-intense, not the same cause destroy others even more valuable to passengers, and general traffic from the rich counties on The triumph of thy work's own recompense? the country? If trade were free, the English workman the Kent side, to that great mercantile region of the me Doth not this give to nature's beauteous face would seek no favour ; his intellect and energy would tropolis, the London and East and West Indian Docks. Some added charm or once unheeded grace ? soon better his condition.” How far this will be now effected, is a question which

Surely more bright each earthly thing appears To this temperate and well-meant communication, the remains to be decided by experience. There can be no

Than in the night of those long struggling years.

Joy to thee, brave Brunel !-I do not know writer of the article in question can only express his doubt that if the traffic be not impeded by the fear of

From the dull common crowd that thoughtful brow, regret that anything which he said, in reference to Eng- passing under the river, it must be immense. The con

Where Mind hath fixed her starry diadem ; lish watchmakers, should have given offence, or be con venience of escaping the long circuit up to London Yet wilt thou not my lowly verse condemn, strued into a means of injury to their interests. As a Bridge, which, from the various obstructions in the Or spurn the homage I but feebly pay: class, we are most willing to allow that British watoh- streets, and the general difficulty of passing through the And so, ere closes quite my humble lay, makers have done much for practical science, are in many most crowded portion of the city, must now occupy many One heartfelt prayer-one farewell chord shall swell, respects worthy of Mr Thomson's encomiums, and that hours, would obviously direct the whole current of the God bless thee ever, great and brave Brunel ! they possess a skill not reached by continental imitators. traffic into the tunnel. Hitherto, no expedient has been LONDON, June 1842. Still, we may be permitted to ask, why they suffer them- adopted to shorten the passage of the traffic; and the

*“ This mighty instrument--one in idea and object, but conselves to be cut out of that large and increasing branch contrivance by which 1200 clear feet are substituted for at of business, which consists in the manufacture of small least three miles of the most incumbered thoroughfares sisting of twelve separate parts or divisions, each containing three

cells, one above the other-is thus used :-We will suppose that watches similar to those of Geneva. These watches may imaginable, must be adopted as a matter of palpable ad

the work being finished in its rear, an advance is desired, and be little better than toys, but if people are set on buying vantage. Still, there may be difficulties in the way, which that the divisions are in their usual position, the alternate ones a them, surely it would be a wise policy to meet the de- practice only can exhibit. But any fear of the structure little before the others. These last have now to be moved. The mand. Mr Thomson declares that it is not from any itself we should regard as altogether visionary. The men in their cells pull down the top poling-board, one of those lack of delicacy of hand, but dearth of provisions, that building of the tunnel seems as solid as a rock. During small defences with which the entire front of the shield is covered, the English workman cannot compete in this manufac- the whole period from its commencement, we have not and immediately cut away the ground for about six inches. That ture. We entertain serious doubts on the latter point. A heard a single instance of its giving way, vast as the done, the poling-board is replaced, and the one below removed, skilled Swiss workman will make 8s. or 9s. per week of pressure was from above, and trying as were the damps, excavated to the depth of six inches. Each of the divisions is wages ; but an English artisan of the same class, we be- the ground springs, and the extreme difficulty of build

now advanced by the application of two screws, one at its head lieve, will make from 16s. to 20s. This addition of wages ing under water. At this moment the roof is obviously and one at its foot, which, resting agninst the finished brickis much more than 35 per cent. additional on the cost of as free from damp as the roof of St Pauls ! and unless work, and turned, impel it forward into the vacant space. The food ; and our conviction is, that with all our social an earthquake should burst it, the whole fabric seems other set of divisions then advance. As the miners are at work drawbacks, an English workman, if steady and enjoying much more likely to last than were it exposed to the at one end of the cells, so the bricklayers are no less actively em

walls of the top, sides, and regular employment, is placed in a condition, and has diversities of temperature, the heats and frosts, above ployed at the other forming the br

bottom, the superincumbent earth of the top being still held up chances of advancement, far above the Swiss. Our opinion ground.- Blackwood's Magazine. is, that the prosperity of the Swiss handicraftsmen is less [We fear that some of the above calculations respect description of an engine almost as remarkable for its elaborate

by the shield till the bricklayers have finished. This is but a rude owing to cheapness of food than to an exceedingly simple ing the utility of the tunnel are overdrawn. There can

organisation as for its vast strength. Beneath those great iron mode of living. They seem to exist happily on a mere be no doubt that by the transit through the tunnel a ribs a kind of mechanical soul really seems to have been created. trifle, and make up for local disadvantages by sheer in- long circuit will be saved to vehicles and passengers, but It has its shoes and its legs, and uses them, too, with good effect. dustry, a species of economy which we should say was will they take advantage of it? They will, certainly, if It raises and depresses its head at pleasure; it presents invincible allied to penury, and the absence of all restrictions on the passage be free, but, judging from the effects of a toll buttresses in its front to whatever danger may there threaten, trade and commerce. In a late newspaper we find the on Waterloo and Southwark bridges, if the passage be

and, when the danger is past, again opens its breast for the fur.

ther advances of the indefatigable host."-" London;" article, following paragraph, purporting to be an extract from taxed, even in a trifling amount, it will in all likelihood

" The Thames Tunnel." the Athenaum. It is possibly an exaggeration, and we be avoided. We present on next column a glowing only introduce it to show that others have taken a severer eulogy on Brunel, the planner of the tunnel, which has view of this question than we have done. been sent to us by Miss Camilla Toulmin, a lady of

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by

W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. " I do not know a more interesting sight than to visit | rising literary reputation.]

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, itefriare

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 553.

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1842.

PRICE 13d.

SANATORY CONDITION OF THE LABOUR

absent from it. It is surprising that even such a town to a high temperature, and kept very close, a great

as Windsor is full of nuisances, tending to have the number of these men squat upon the floor, as close ING POPULATION.

most fatal effects upon health-one open drain in par as they can well sit. The want of fresh air proMR CHADWICK, secretary to the Poor-Law Commis ticular, on the banks of which the demon of typhus duces a great depression of the energies, and gin is sioners, has just produced a work of a most remark- may be said to sit. Throughout the whole county of drank to support them. It takes twelve hours to do able nature, under the form of a Report on the Sana- Northumberland, the residences of the agricultural the work of ten ; improvident habits are formed ; tory Condition of the Labouring Population, and on labourers are mere hovels, like those which used to health gives way; and a London journeyman tailor is the Means of its Improvement. It is a work which abound in the Scottish Highlands.

"done” at fifty. As a contrast to this, the country must attract considerable attention, for it gives the first In his classification, Mr Chadwick next proceeds to tailors are generally healthy men, noted for their skill clear light we have had on a subject in which much detail the “public arrangements external to the resi- and agility in village sports. The whole of this evil interest is involved, and which has hitherto been left dences by which the sanatory condition of the labour is to be traced to the want of proper ventilation in in a great measure to conjecture. It is an overpowering population is affected.” He shows how general workshops, a mere fault of arrangement, which could ing collection of facts respecting the way in which the in towns is the deficiency of drains, either for the be remedied, for one containing fifty workmen, at the labouring classes live, and the remediable evils which moisture from the firmament, or the refuse of the expense of perhaps a day's wages of the whole. We press upon them; showing distinctly how much their population ; and establishes by ample evidence the can add, from our own knowledge, that this improvecomfort, their health, and even their morality, are immediate connexion of that condition with the un ment was lately effected, at a mere trifle of expense, in affected by circumstances purely physical and local, healthiness of the inhabitants. For example, says the workshop of Messrs Lockhart, clothiers, Glasgow, such as drainage, the supply of water, and the ar- Dr Howard of Manchester, “ of the 182 patients ad- by the conducting of a metal tube from the ceiling of rangements of their dwellings. We take the earliest mitted into the temporary fever hospital in Balloon the room to the furnace used for heating the irons. opportunity of presenting a summary of the contents Street, 135 at least came from unpaved or otherwise Already, a marked change in comfort is experienced, of this extraordinary volume.

filthy streets.” Most of the streets of Leeds are and we cannot doubt that an equally great improveMr Chadwick sets out with some general facts and paved by owners, or partly paved, or are totally un- ment in the health of the men will soon be ascertained. observations with regard to the amount of mortality. paved, with the surfaces broken in every direction, Mr Chadwick, keeping in view the loss of one or two in England and Wales from various classes of diseases, and ashes and filth of every description accumulated hours' work to each man from bad ventilation in the and, showing that the deaths from endemic, epidemic, upon them.” In the report on this town, it is re- London workshops, and considering what this would and contagious ailments (the great proportion of which marked, that the additions made of late years to the come to in twenty years, says—“The subscriptions to are proved to be prerentible), are above 56,000 per manufacturing towns of England have been “ made the benevolent institution for the relief of the aged annum, or about a sixth part of the whole, startles us without regard to either the personal comfort of the and infirm tailors, by individual masters in the mewith the remark, that “the effect is as if the whole inhabitants or the necessities which congregation re-tropolis, appear to be large and liberal, and amount county of Westmoreland, or the whole county of quires. To build the greatest number of cottages on to upwards of L.11,000; yet it is to be observed, Huntingdon, were entirely depopulated annually, and the smallest allowable space, seems to have been the that if they or the men had been aware of the effects were only occupied again by the growth of a new and original view of the speculators, and the having the of vitiated atmospheres on the constitution and gefeeble population, living under the fears of a similar houses up and tenanted the utmost of their desires." neral strength, and of the means of ventilation, the visitation.” Typhus alone, which has a preference for It would appear, that with respect to removal of re- practicable gain of money from the gain of labour victims in the vigour of life, slaughters more annually fuse, the metropolis is not much less defective than by that sanatory measure could not have been less in than fell on the allies' side at the battle of Waterloo. the provincial towns or villages. Of this one grand one large shop, employing 200 men, than L.100,000. The evidence, he adds, almost wholly " points to one cause seems to be, that the value of the refuse is not Independently of subscriptions of the whole trade, it particular, namely, atmospheric impurity, occasioned sufficient to pay the expense of cartage. Mr Chad would, during their working period of life, have been by means within the control of legislation, as the wick adduces a variety of evidence to show the supe- sufficient, with the enjoyment of greater health and main cause of the ravages of epidemic, endemic, and riority of a self-acting mode of cleansing over every comfort by every workman during the time of work, contagious diseases.” We may remark, that this other. He would have this done by flooding every- to have purchased him an annuity of L.l per week an opinion widely entertained, there being only one thing into proper sewers, and sending it out by iron for comfortable and respectable self-support during a prevalent notion at all differing from it, and that is, pipes into the country for irrigation, using steam period of superannuation, commencing soon after fifty the view which attributes these diseases mainly to defi- power to raise the stream where necessary. Thus years of age.” cient food. The fact we believe to be, that deficient natural river channels would be kept pure, and an The same consequences from deficient ventilation food is only a predisposing cause. In a pure atmo- immense saving effected. The refuse of London would in working-rooms affect the milliners of the metroposphere, it is comparatively inoperative for such ends ; twice pay the erpense of water for the inhabitants ! lis. “ It is not doubted by medical witnesses, that in but where to deficient food is added impure air, ex- Indeed, the economy of this plan of cleansing is pre this class of cases, as in the case of tailors, one-third tensive disease is inevitable.

cisely the same as that of bringing water in pipes, in at least of the healthful duration of adult life will be The report is divided into sections referring to dif- stead of sending carts for it. And how great the found to have been destroyed by the ignorance of the ferent departments of the subject. The first, on the economy is in the latter instance, is well seen in a want of ventilation.” general condition of the residences of the labouring calculation by our reporter, that, when a labourer pays The miners of Durham and Northumberland, when classes where disease is most prevalent, shows that 5s. per annum for a pipe of water in his house, he gets working at a considerable distance from home, have both in country and town a vast proportion of the 135 pailfuls for a penny farthing. How many penny to sleep in temporary lodging-rooms, which are dreadlabouring class live in very wretched dwellings, where farthings must be lose in time and labour, which are fully over-crowded, and where the air is consequently health is not to be expected. We have already heard the same as money, if he or his wife have to carry vitiated to a great extent. They are thought to a good deal of the huddled, damp, and dirty dwelling those 135 pailfuls even so much as two hundred yards ! be more damaged by this than by their work itsolf. of this class in large cities ; but we have scarcely been An increase of the supply of water in towns, and its Of 212 deaths of miners in the unions of Cumberland prepared to learn that rural villages, which look pleas more general introduction into the houses of the and Westmoreland in 1839, 52 were from consumping from without, and even the detached cottages of labouring classes, are objects which he holds in view tion. the agricultural labourers, are in many instances as as tending much to the improvement of public health. There is great reason to suppose that, in what are destitute of the elements of health, their precincts The third section of the report, “Circumstances, considered as deleterious occupations, much of the being full of stagnating filth, while, within, there are chiefly in the internal economy and bad ventilation of bad effects ascribed to the occupation is in reality a damp floors, from which feculent exhalations are con- places of work, workmen’s lodging-houses, dwellings, consequence of domestic circumstances. “Between stantly rising, and far too narrow accommodations for and domestic habits affecting the health of the la different sets of workmen who work at the same desleeping. We hear, for instance, of a cottage wellbouring classes,” is the most elaborate and perhaps scriptions of work during the same hours, and in the situated, and clean externally, but where the sleeping the most important of the whole. It occupies above same town, but in well or in ill-ventilated factories, a room for six persons measures six feet by ten-conse-fifty pages. It is difficult in our small space to give marked difference in the personal condition and genequence, five cases of typhus fecer. Colerne, on the Great a tolerable view of what is itself a highly condensed ral health of the workpeople has been perceived. Great Western Road, is a pretty-looking village, delightfully summary. Mr Chadwick begins with some evidence differences are perceptible in the general personal consituated on a hill ; but, entered, is found to be un as to the condition of tailors' workshops in London, dition of persons working during the same hours in drained, ruinous, and filthy, and occupied by a squalid and their effects in deteriorating the health and cotton-mills in town and in cotton-mills in rural dis. population-consequence, scarlet and typhus fever never | morals of the men. In a small chamber, heated tricts, where they have not only a purer atmosphere,

CONTRAST IN THE ECONOMY OF FAMILIES.

a man, his wife, and three chil

Stove

MEYRINGEN-CATARACT OF HANDECK-HOSPICE

OF THE GRIMSEL.

but commonly larger and more commodious places of disposing cause of disease. Dr Baker, referring to | 1s. 6d. to s. a-week. The latter class, on the conabode. The factory superintendants generally state Derby, places amongst the causes of sickness “ the trary, are most anxious to give their children a good that the workers in the country mills are distinguish: want of domestic comforts, a want which the wages education; they study to obtain it for them by every able at sight by their more healthy appearance, and they earn would, in many instances, enable them to means in their power, and they pay for it most cheerby the increased proportions amongst them who have reinove, if their means were not, as too often happens, fully; The former class, again, grasp at every benefit florid complexions. Very lately, the attention of the expended viciously or improvidently. It is with re which the charitable institutions of the place have Austrian government was called to the labour of the gret that I speak unfavourably of the poor, whilst my provided for the poor. When, for example, medical persons working in the cotton-factories in the neigh- whole aim, in this communication, has been to awaken attendance is given them gratuitously, they not unfrebourhood of Vienna. One half, perhaps, of the mills a sympathy towards those sufferings of which I have quently despise and refuse it, unless medicines are are of the ordinary construction of the cotton-mills in been so often a witness. But several years' experience given them gratuitously also ; whereas the latter deEngland of from thirty to forty years' date, and they of the habits of the poor, derived from my situation scription of families are not only ready and willing work on the average as much as fifteen hours per as an hospital physician, and backed by the additional to pay for medicines when prescribed to them, but diem. But it appears that the houses in which the evidence I have obtained by acting for three years as they generally manifest much gratitude, and very workers live belong to the capitalists who own the a guardian of the poor in this large town, has, I am often present their medical attendant with a small mills, many of whom have displayed a desire to insure.. sorry to say, served but to confirm me in the opinion fee. as far as the state of the private residences can insure, I have just now expressed.". The committee of me Now, it is among the former class of families where, the comfort of those whom they employ, and they dical men at Birmingham give it as their deliberate generally, there appears to me to be a deficiency of have accordingly built for them a superior description opinion, that drunkenness prevails most there amongst wholesome food and of warm clothing, where contaof tenements. It is stated that the result of the in the workmen earning the highest wages. On this febrile diseases are most commonly found, and quiry conducted by the government physicians was, subject we are supplied with a rich illustration from from whence they are most extensively propagated. that the average health enjoyed by the workers in the sanatory report of Mr Mott, in the following Fever is no doubt found among the latter more those mills is greater than that of any other class of form :

frugal and therefore better conditioned families, but workpeople in the neighbourhood where the mills are

seldom of that malignant contagious character which situated, and where the general condition of the popu

it invariably assumes among the other class of familation is deemed good ; the difference in the general Chorlton-upon-Medlock;a man, Chorlton Union, containing one

1. In a dwelling - house in lies. Here, then, we have on the one hand filth, deshealth of the two classes indicated by the propor- his wife, and seven children; sitting room and two bed-rooms; titution, and disease, associated with good wages ; and tion of deaths-of 1 in 27 of the general population, income per week, L.1, 11s.;

on the other, cleanliness, comfort, and comparative and I in 31 of the manufacturing population) was as rent Is. 6d. per week; thrce dren; rent 24. 6d. per week ; good health, in connexion with wages which are much cribed to the difference of the residences."

beds for seven, in a dark un. income per week, 12s.6d., being lower. The difference in the amount of their incomes

ventilated back room, bed-coThere is a great accumulation of evidence as to the

an average of 25. 6d. per week does not account for the difference in the amount of demoralising effects of the promiscuous use of sleep- tiest kind--the man and wife sickly man, the house presented comfort which is found existing among the workinging apartments amongst the labouring population. occupying the front room as a an appearance of comfort in classes. The statements just made make known the Not only are the whole members of one family, young sleeping-room for themselves, every part, as also the bedding fact, that above a certain amount, say 12s. or 14s. of and old, male and female, crowded into one small in which the whole family take was in good order.

weekly income, wages alone, without intelligence and room, perhaps into one bed, but strangers are often

their food and spend their lei.
sure time; here the family in

good habits, contribute nothing towards the comfort, brought into this unseemly association, to the utter a filthy destitute state, with an

health, and independence of the working population." destruction of all delicacy, and the absolute corruption income averaging 3s. 54d. each

We may add, that we have heard precisely the same of many individuals. This over-crowding is not always per week, four being children

account of his workmen given by a Dundee manufacunder 11 years of age. à consequence of poverty. Workmen with ample

2. Cellar in York Street, 2. In a dwelling-house,

turer. The satire of the knife-grinder is but too wages are often found submitting to it, to save the Chorlton-upon-Medlock; a man Street, one sitting-room, one

extensively applicable. merest trifle of rent, which they could well afford. - a hand-loom weaver - his kitchen, and two bed-rooms; We must here, for the present, take leave of Mr In the course of the inquiry, the effects of an inferior wife and family (one daughter rent 4s. per week. A poor Chadwick. We shall take up his instructive volume construction of dwelling-house, independent of any married, with her husband; widow, with a daughter also a again in a succeeding number. over-crowding, were often traced. ** A gentleman who has observed closely the condition of the work. prising altogether, seven per. ing together 13 in family; in

sons; income L2, 79., or 6s. 8 d. come L.), 6s. per week, avepeople in the south of Cheshire and the north of Lan- per head; rent 2s. Here, with raging 2s. per head per week. PEDESTRIAN TOUR IN SWITZERLAND. cashire-men of similar race and education, working the largest amount of income,

Here there is every appearance at the same description of work, namely, as cotton

the family occupy two filthy of cleanliness and comfort.

damp unwholesome cellars, spinners, mill hands, and earning nearly the same

one of which is a back place amount of wages-states that the workmen of the without pavement or flooring

AUGUST 23.–The inn at Meyringen, where we slept, north of Lancashire are obviously inferior to those in of any kind, occupied by the

was alive at five o'clock, and several parties were at the south of Cheshire in health and habits of personal loom of the family, and used as

breakfast preparatory to their several tours. We cleanliness and general condition. The difference is

a sleeping room for the married
couple and single daughter.

took a survey of the vale of Hasli, which hitherto we traced mainly to the circumstance, that the labourers

3. George Hall, of Carr Bank had only seen in the gloom of evening. It is wide in the north of Lancashire inhabit stone houses of a rer), wages 125. per week; a description that absorb moisture, the dampness of wife, and one child aged 15 ; has reared ten children; he is nerable wood, through which peep many cottage

labourer', wages 10s, per week; and flat, and fruitful, with rich green fields and vewhich affects the health, and causes personal unclean

he is a drunken disorderly fel in comfortable circumstances.
low, and very much in debt.

roofs, and a slender church spire. If one could keep liness, induced by the difficulty of keeping a clean

4. W. H. of Oakamoore, (wire 4. John Hammonds, of Wood his eye resting solely on the surface of the plain, he house.” Thus physical seems inseparable from moral drawer), wages L.1 per week; he head collier), wages 18. per might imagine himself in an English village ; but the deterioration. "The close pent-up air of their abodes," has a wife and five children ; he week; has six children to sup frame of rock and mountain in which the landscape says Mr Chadwick, “has undoubtedly a depressing is in debt, and his family is port; he is a steady man, and is imbedded, soon dissolves the vision. The spot is effect on the nervous energies, and this, again, with the shamefully neglected.

5. G. L., of Kingsley (boat 5. George Mosley, of Kingsley remarkable even in Switzerland, from the multitude uneducated, and, indeed, with many of the educated

man), wages 18s. per week, (collier), wages 185. per week; of huge cataracts which are visible from it. High work people, has an effect on the moral habits by act with a wife and seven children ; he has a wife and seven chil. above all, and holding communion, as it were, with ing as a strong and often irresistible provocative to the his family are in a miserable dren; he is saving money.

the clouds, is the white mass of the mighty Reichenuse of fermented liquors and ardent spirits. Much

6. J. B., of Cheadle (collier), 6. William Faulkner, of Tean bach; and every here and there some rocky crevice may be due to the incitement of association of greater wages 185. per week; wife and (tape-weaver), wages 18s. per wells forth a cascade that would make the fortune of numbers of people ; but it is a common fact, that the three children; his house is in week; supports his wife and a British watering-place. As there appears no visible same workpeople indulge more in drink when living a filthy state, and the furniture seven children without assist- outlet from the valley, one is apt to feel as if, like a in the close courts and lanes of the town than when

7. W. W., of Kingsley (boatliving in the country, and that the residence in the

7. Charles Rushton, of Light- tub at a fountain, it must soon become full of water; man), wages 189. per week; woodfields, wages 14s. per week;

nor has such a calamity been, in a modified form, endifferent places is attended with a difference of effects wife and three children ; he is he supports his wife and five tirely unprecedented. As the torrents carry with similar to those described in respect to the tailors a drunken, disorderly fellow, children in credit.

them quantities of mud and stone, their narrow oriworking in crowded rooms in towns and the tailors and his family entirely desti

fices sometimes become choked ; a lake is thus formed working separately or in the country. The workpeople

8. R. B., of Cheadle (labou 8. William Sargeant, of Light- behind the barrier, which, when increased to a certain who have fallen into habits of drinking strenuously

rer), wages 128. per week; wife woodfields (la bourer), wages 13s. extent, bursts through it, and sends down a torrent of allege the impossibility of avoiding the practice in and five children in miserable a-week; he has a wife and six water and mud on poor Meyringen. such places ; they do, however, drink in greater quan

circumstances; not a bed to lie children, whom he supports Revolving in our minds the philosophy of the emtities in such places, and give increased effect to the

comfortably.

9. T. B., of Tean (labourer), noxious miasma by which they are surrounded.”

9. William Box, of Tean (tape ployment of guides, we came to the conclusion, that wages 14s. per week; his wife weaver), wages 18s. or 20s. per

it was an infringement on the liberty of the subject not Everything is against a people so circumstanced ; earns 78. per week ; five chil. week; supports his wife in bad to be tolerated except in very urgent circumstances. even the butcher-meat which they buy is sooner dren ; he is very much in debt; health, and five children. The paths we had hitherto traversed, we believed tainted than elsewhere, helping to make them live, as home neglected.

we would have been able to follow unaided with great it were, from hand to mouth.

10. T. J., of Tean (black 10. Ralph Faulkner, of Tean smith), wages 185. per week; (tape-weaver), wages 18s. or 208.

ease ; indeed, one of our motives for employing a Where local and physical circumstances exert so his wife earns 7s. per week; per week; supports a wife and guide was the protection it might afford' us from powerful an influence in depraving the taste and three children ; he is very much five children, three of whom are the importunities of others. We were now about to moral sense, the common efforts of benevolence do no in debt, and his family grossly deaf and dumb.

tread a wilder path, where the real services of a pilot good, but often rather harm, by affording additional neglected.

might be more necessary, but, on the other hand, it means of intemperance. A journeyman taiior at The above report, of course, refers to ordinary times. was one in which we would be less liable to meet with Bath had never possessed any furniture in his house. It shows most luminously how much the labouring- importunity; so we made up our minds to trust to Many persons, learning this part of his case only, sent classes have the comfort of their lives in their own our own resources. Like skilful generals, we thought him household articles, which were immediately con hands. Mr Wood of Dundee reports—“There are it expedient to let the enemy see that these resources verted into liquor. This man had L.3 a-week of many families among the working-classes who are in were not to be despised, and accordingly we resolved wages! Sir Charles Shaw, superintendant of police the receipt of from 158. to 22s. per week, who are in to start like men who knew what they were about, at Manchester, found in á lodging-house there an sufficiently clothed, and irregularly and poorly fed, and where they were going. Our destination being apartment full of drunken wretches sleeping on the and whose houses, as well as their persons, appear the pass of the Grimsel, we took its bearing (which we bare floor, with bricks for pillows, and another set filthy, disorderly, and uncomfortable. There are other found to be south-east by south) on Keller's map, and who had straw: the former simply preferred paying families among them, containing the same number of adjusted it to our position with a pocket compass. for gin to paying for straw. The Rev. Whitwell persons, whose incomes average from 10s. to 145. a We were not quite sure that we were correct, but we Elwin “ found a journeyman painter whose bed was week, who are neatly, cleanly, and sufficiently clothed, knew that everything depended on the air of decision without blankets, whose room was without furniture, regularly and suitably fed, and whose houses appear we assumed ; and so fortified, we marched forth. We who was destitute of even the ordinary utensils of orderly and comfortable. The former class care little had not walked many paces in our pride of skill, when civilised life, whose floor was covered with worse filth for the physical comfort, and far less for the intellec- what appeared the whole establishment of the inn, than that of the streets. I found this man at dinner tual

, moral, and religious education of their children; accompanied by our ex-guide, came clattering after with a roast loin of pork stuffed with onions, a York- in many cases, indeed, they neglect the education of us to tell us we had gone the wrong way. This was shire pudding, a large jug of ale, cheese, and a salad. their offspring when it is offered to them gratuitously; humiliating, but it did not render absolutely necessary I will undertake to say that half the gentlemen of and in place of sending them to school, where they a forfeiture of liberty ; we were still able to shake oft Bath did not sit down on that Sunday to so good a might be fitted for the duties and disappointments of our tormentor, and with a few directions to assist us, dinner.”

life, they send them, at a very early age, to some em we took the right way. Domestic mismanagement is made out to be a pre- ployment where they will earn the poor pittance of At the upper end of the vale, we came to a minor

3. J. S., of Cart Bank (labon

condition.

not worth 10s.

ance

tute.

on.

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