Imatges de pÓgina
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and adapt it to the state of the individual patient, for
the latter is the only safe and successful plan. I re-
main," &c.

mena.

certain maniacal diseases in which the affection of particular external organs is generally the effect, and not the cause, of the cerebral disturbance. The brain, in short, is more frequently disordered by direct than by indirect causes; and, in this respect, the analogy between it and other organised parts is preserved. Fifthly-The symptoms indicative of insanity consist of deranged cerebral functions and local phenoEvery sense, every nervous function, and every faculty of the mind, may be involved in the disease or not; and hence indescribable variety. The true standard is the patient's own natural character, and not that of the physician or of philosophy. A person from excess of development in one part of the brain may be eccentric and singular in his mental manifestations, and yet his mental health be entire. Before we can say that he is mad, we must be able to show a departure from his habitual state which he is incapable of controlling. An irascible man may be very boisterous without being mad; but if a mild and timid creature become equally boisterous and irascible, we may apprehend disease. One may be naturally suspicious, jealous, and cunning, without being insane; but if a man of an open, generous, and unsuspecting nature become so, danger to his cerebral health is at hand. The derangement may be either an excitement of the patient's predominant qualities, or a diminished action, or a perversion or vitiation of function. A proud man may, for instance, become a king during disease, from excitement of function; he may humble himself in the dust as unworthy to walk upright, from its diminution; or he may fancy himself something out of the ordinary course of nature, from its ritiation. Or one who is attached to friends when in health, may either have inordinate love for them when insane, or be indifferent, or have a hatred and aversion to them; and so on with every feeling and faculty of the mind.

The co-existence of digestive derangement modifies the mental state, and gives greater anxiety and irritability than where the stomach, liver, and bowels act well. Other complications modify in other ways. Monomania, religious, erotic, and other manias, are not different diseases. One organ and faculty being chiefly affected, and the rest entire, gives rise to monomonia; but the proximate cause may be, and often is, the same as where all the organs and faculties are affected. Religious despondency is the mere symptom also, and appears because the function of some cerebral parts is to manifest religious feelings; and those being diseased, the function necessarily suffers, and the feeling is altered. But the same pathological state affecting Combativeness and Destructiveness, would produce furious mania.

MR REDDING'S “CORNWALL.”
Or "England in the Nineteenth Century," which we
lately noticed as a beautiful popular topographical
work newly commenced, four numbers of each "divi-
sion" have now been published, and the promise held
out in the first parts is amply fulfilled. The typo-
graphy, embellishments, and literature of the work,
are all of the most satisfactory kind. Every man
seems to do his duty, whether "England" expected
it or not. We are somehow most pleased with Corn-
wall, probably because it is more a region of tale and
tradition than steam-ridden Lancashire. Mr Redding
appears to be admirably adapted for the task which
he has undertaken: he never dwells too long on the
commonplace, and he lays hold of and draws in every
thing that is interesting. We see the poet in such
touches as the following respecting the Lizard point-
"the last land of their native isle that was visible to
many who were never to revisit its shores, and the
first seen by joyous spirits whom years and climes
had long separated. From hence vessels outward
bound on voyages that have become matter of history,
took the observation by which they were to career
over the bounding deep to unvisited shores, and proud
war-ships dated their departure to scenes of disaster
or conquest."

In subjects not delicate, and not beyond middle life, I find many who are greatly benefited by occasional leeching, followed by tepid bathing, and cold to the head while in the bath. Many, of course, do not require depletion; but it may be advantageously employed when the usual indications exist. General bleeding I know little of, and do not like. After the irritability and excitement of the immediate explosion are over, a great deal of exercise in the open air seems most useful in diminishing irritability, relieving the head, and procuring sound sleep; but if used too soon, it injures. The ordinary principles of pathology ought, in short, to regulate medical treatment,

quoting:

"What thing is harder than the rock?
What softer is than water cleere?
Yet wyll the same, with often droppe,

The harde rock perce, as doth a spere.
Even so, nothing so hard to attayne,
But may be hadd with labour and paine.
Beholde this asse, wiche laden ys

Monomania and melancholy are less easily curable,
not from the proximate cause being more serious, but
partly from the other faculties succeeding in longer
concealing the existence of abberration; whereas in
mania it betrays itself early in spite of the patient.
Insanity is not a state separated by a broad line
from sound mind. Every gradation is observable, and
we perceive morbid action before we can venture to
say that the patient is insane. Some are cured at In Pengerswick Tower, near Sidney Cove, now in
home of mental affections in a few weeks, who, if sent ruins, there is still a wainscoted room, displaying
to an asylum, would become mad, and remain so for painted devices on the panels, with quaint inscrip-
months or years.
tions in verse. Two of the latter, respectively illus-
Besides what you notice in regard to treatment,trative of perseverance and niggardliness, are worth
every thing demonstrates that employment to the
patients is not sufficiently studied. The brain loses
its health from vacuity of mind, and yet we shut
up in scores, in perfect idleness, men who, when well,
were accustomed to an active and bustling life, and
whom, at any time of their lives, idleness would have
driven mad. Manual labour and occupation are of
immense consequence, and the moral influence of
keepers and superintendants acquainted with human
nature, and interested in their vocation, is prodigious
in producing quietude, and accelerating recovery, just
from giving to the brain that healthy exercise which
it requires. Lunatics retain a good deal of reason even
in their worst condition, and hence are more acces-
sible to the influence of reason and example than
might be supposed. In every point of view it is
best to act towards them with the same consistency,
honesty, and good feeling, as if they were quite in
possession of themselves. They are quick in detecting
deceit; and when once deceived, never give confidence
again. I mention this because I differ from what
once said to you on this subject, in having flattered
and led D by his predominating self-esteem, and
from what you said in accordance with it. My expe-
rience says, Never advance a word which you cannot
conscientiously stick by when the patient recovers,
and you will retain your ascendancy. Do not thwart
his delusion, but neither give it any countenance.

With riches, plentye, and with meat,
And yet thereof no pleasure hathe,

But thystells, hard and rough, doth eat.
In like case ys the rich niggarde,
Wich hath inoughe, and lyveth full hard."
We are happy to find the habits of the Cornwallians
with regard to wrecks placed in a more favourable
light than heretofore by Mr Redding. "Before the
care of coasting-vessels was confided to a race of men
of the existing experience and talent, the wrecks along
this part of the coast used to be frequent; and they
were the more frightful, because it was rarely the
case that a solitary individual survived to relate from
what port the vessel came, and whither it was bound.
Within the last thirty years, these disasters have been
fewer, and occurred only when storms of great vio-
lence came on suddenly, or through the mistake of
one headland for another in misty weather. But
though coasting-vessels were those which were once
most frequently lost upon this iron shore, the long
continuance of westerly winds, and errors in reckon-

is now satisfied I am right in this. Remove all provo-ing, caused many a disaster to foreign ships of burden,
catives and allusions to the morbid feeling or idea, and
exercise the faculties which remain sound.

as well as to those of our own country; and in general
no more was known of any ship cast away here, or of
her crew, than the cargo and fragments, strewed over
miles of the shore at low water, might indicate. No
ship could hold together an hour in a gale on this
fearful coast, unless flung upon some very favourable
spot at high tide. Such spots are few; the sea breaks,
for the most part, against precipices of great height.
One vessel, of which we saw some relics, was never
seen entire: neither her name, nation, nor the fate
of her crew was ascertained. She had been lost, it
was supposed, late in the night, for on the preceding
evening at sunset, no sail was seen in the horizon with
a telescope. It was blowing fresh, and in the morn-
ing some planks were found and foreign kegs of but-

ter, which, with other circumstances, led the people to believe that the property must have been Dutch; no bodies, no clothes, no portions of the masts or rigging were stranded; the spot where the shipwreck occurred was only guessed at by a few fragments of the rib timbers being discovered jammed among the rocks-all besides had been taken into the fathomless deep. In one case, a Newfoundland dog was the sole survivor of a ship's living cargo; in another, a black man reached the shore through the surf, but died before he could tell the name of the vessel to which he belonged.

Nothing can be more untrue than the charge of Cornish barbarity, since in no part of England shipwrecked persons meet with greater kindness; though it is but seldom that this kindness can be put to the test by the escape of any animated being to experience it. On the wreck of the Anson frigate, thirty years ago, not only were the survivors most kindly treated, but the efforts made to assist in the escape of the crew were all which were possible in such a dreadful scene. One individual, whose name is to us unknown, or we would print it-one whose name deserves to be remembered far before the destroyers of their species, of whom national immorality makes its molten godscame down to the spot. The frigate lay with her bottom seawards, and the waves rolled over her, and fell in 'horrible cascade' on the shore side and up the sandy beach, carrying the living and the dead with them, and upon the recoil bearing them back into the ocean depths. The only assistance that could be given Twelve miles from Falmouth is Helston, a small was by venturing as far as possible into the surf, and borough, where the ceremonies which we lately de- snatching the half-drowned that could be reached out scribed in an article on May-day were, till a recent of it-an effort not to be made at such times without period, celebrated with unusual vivacity, but on the much hazard. The individual to whom we allude was 8th of the month, which is there called Furry Day, a methodist teacher, a humble man, who had come probably from old Cornish feur, a holiday. The whole down on horseback to the spot. He rode intrepidly population of the town was involved in the dancing into the foam, and succeeded in getting hold of two of and festivity of this occasion, without the least harm the crew, one after the other, whom he saved; but on to any one. Mr Redding justly remarks "Nor was venturing the third time into the raging surf, as he such a time without its social use in bringing the was grasping at another, a wave swept both horse and poorer class in contact with the wealthier, and keep-rider away, in the presence of hundreds of persons ing up a kindly feeling, which once in a year could who could render no assistance; and this man, to us hardly be productive of great self-sacrifice to those nameless, found in this way the proudest death and who carried their chins the most loftily. Mr Gilbert interment that is destined for humanity-losing his complained that the practice was diminishing every life in the act of trying to save a fellow-creature from year, plainly showing from what cause, by stating destruction, and having the bosom of the ocean for his that all was fast tending towards the single enter- sepulchre. tainment of a ball.' It appears that if the ladies had heretofore succeeded in their will, the very memory of the festival would have been lost. It is thus that, before the mixture of vulgar pride and ignorant exclusiveness so prevalent in these times in the middle ranks of society, the separation of the different classes is with much impolicy rendered wider. The classes never momentarily linked, and kindliness changing to indifference, dislike and antipathy towards each other are shown upon the most trivial occasions; thus old things that are harmless, and even beneficial, in their existence, are disappearing with what of old things may be very wisely resigned."

The charge of want of hospitality or kindness in the Cornish to shipwrecked persons, then, is not true. We have said that vessels break up almost as soon as they touch the shore, which for miles is strewed with portions of the cargo and timbers. These the country people pick up, and the finder too often appropriates. It is from this circumstance that the Cornish have been accused of barbarity and wreck-plundering; the vulgar had a notion formerly that the property saved from shipwreck belonged to any one who was on board that survived, and if no one survived, to any body who might pick it up from the beach.

In those days, wreck picked up from the sea-shore was styled 'a godsend. The well-known story of A wreck! a wreck! being cried at the church-door, and the parson with difficulty restraining the people a moment, on some excuse, until he got down from the pulpit himself into the aisle, and then said, 'My good friends, let us all start fair,' might be true enough, if we believed that an educated man even in the 'good old times' could be guilty of such an indecency. It is true, we were told, and have no reason to doubt the correctness of our information, that in those days an individual who had been well educated, and did not want the good things of this life, but who was a drunkard, and in every respect a highly immoral man, once tied up the leg of an ass at night, and hanging a lantern from its neck, drove it himself along the summit of the high cliffs on that part of the northern coast where he lived, in order that the halting motion of the animal might imitate the plunging of a vessel under sail, and thus tempt ships to run in, from imagining there was sea-room, where destruction was inevitable. The same individual was accused of having cut the fingers off the dead body of a lady which was washed on shore from a wreck, to secure the rings which decorated them. The very rumour now that any man had been guilty of such an atrocity, would expel him from society in Cornwall, and from the county itself; but for such instances of inhumanity on the part of any class, whatever might have happened a century or two ago, there is not the remotest foundation in modern times.

We cannot avoid mentioning here, as being in some degree connected with the appearance of what people call a death-ship, on one part of this coast, the result of an inquiry we made upon the subject.. Our informant had lived there all his days, and told us that in his father's boyhood there was a person resided in the village of T who was distinguished for his oppressive conduct, his private vices, and the possession of property which was acquired by sinister means. In our informant's words

'He was a man well off in the parish, but that was nothing to him.'

'Did you know him?

No; it was in my father's youth; but he declared it was true, and he was not given to falsehood; it is fourscore years ago; his name was'

We shall not mention the name, as some of his descendants may be alive-if he had descendantsand proceed to what our informant said farther.

wretchedness attendant upon the full development of those vices of which what the world calls gaiety is the natural and certain germ; if we could add all these together, we should behold a sum of human misery greater than ever was produced by absolute crime---by murder, theft, or any of those gross and desperate acts, against which public indignation is so justly and unanimously raised. If we could add all these together, we should see, operating through different channels, a mass of selfishness with which that of the solitary miser bears no comparison. The life of the gay man is, in fact, a system of self-indulgence, of self-gratification, of self-worship. The miser, in his despised and isolated sphere, has no power to prey upon the happiness of society. The privations he imposes extend no farther than himself; and, if no other individual shares in what he gains, he is alone in the punishment he inflicts. But the dissipated man has a wider influence, because he is the hero of society in its worst state. He has therefore the power to disseminate larity; and in the same measure as he is beloved, he is the seeds of evil in a degree proportioned to his popucapable of inflicting misery. He knows that he can do this, and he does it still. He knows that he is the cause of floods of burning tears, and while he weighs them against one intoxicating draught, it is self-love that prompts him again to hold the sparkling poison to his lips, and to let the tears flow on.---. ---Family Secrets.

'What did the people think of him?"

I can't say, because it was before I was born; but the death-ship story pretty well explains that, I should think.'

"The death-ship-what was that?

6

Why, Mr, drunk one half his time, and given to all kinds of bad conduct when he was sober, was taken very ill at last, yet seemed to have no care about his condition, and, when he could use his tongue, swore and blasphemed as hard as ever. Just before he died, a frightful thing occurred, which leads me to the purport of your question about the death-ship.' 'Well, what was that?-he plundered one wreck too many, I ?? suppose 'No; a day or two before he breathed his last, a party of men were working near the top of the cliffs, where they were several hundred feet in elevation; the weather was hazy over the sea, when on a sudden one of them exclaimed, Do you see that? there is a ship close in with the shore.' All the party saw the vessel looming through the haze, tall, dark, and squarerigged, but they could observe nothing further, as it disappeared seawards in the mist, and quickly vanished from their sight. There was no wind, and the impossibility of navigating without it struck these men, so that it became a subject of conversation in the church-town.

6

In a hollow, at the foot of the cliffs before mentioned, there was a considerable space of sand, dry at low water, and some persons had gone thither to collect shell-fish a day or two after the preceding occurrence, when they saw a tall dark vessel run in almost close without a breath of wind, her sails appearing full, and of a deep black colour. The coast abounded in sunken rocks, among which she seemed to thread a tortuous course without touching one. No living thing was upon the deck which they could discern from stem to stern; the wheel had no helmsman; no seaman was on the look-out, and none hove the lead : at which sight the observers felt a thrill, as if it was something, they knew not what, out of the ordinary course of things, particularly as, at the same moment, it lay-to, and the sails began to shiver. Thus riveted to the spot by a sensation which they found it impossible to describe, the sails again filled, and the ship appeared to glide away until it was reduced to a mere speck, and disappeared in an instant, apparently at the distance of leagues, much as the figures of a magic lantern glide along a whitened wall. Some thought, for the moment, it was a deception of their sight, and rubbed their eyes-for the whole appearance did not occupy any perceptible duration of time, and yet there was time enough for the strange object to fix their attention, and allow them the most perfect examination of her form and tenantless deck. After looking for some minutes at the broad expanse of sea before them, upon which, to the remotest point of the horizon, not one solitary sail appeared, they hastened to the church-town, eager to communicate what they had just seen, when the first news they heard was, had just that the well-known and notorious Mr expired."

MISTAKEN GENEROSITY.

There are strange contradictions in some of the popular modes of judging of human character--- contradictions which, if they were to exist in religious society, would be laid hold of by the world, and exhibited to view, as proofs of the unsubstantial nature of all such profession. Amongst these, there is none more striking, and certainly none more injurious to the well-being of society, than the habit of attributing to young men of gay and dissipated habits an excess of generosity, and an absence of selfishness, which are considered as outweighing all their moral delinquencies. Whether this false estimate of character is derived from the glowing and attractive descriptions of some of the popular heroes of ancient as well as modern romance; or whether it is merely that mankind can accommodate their judgment to circumstances, so as to admire what it suits their inclination to imitate--it is not our business now to inquire. But it may not be foreign to the subject in hand, to tax the patience of the reader for a few moments, so far as to ask, in what does the generosity and the disinterestedness of the characters alluded to consist? Is it in their kind and consistent regard to the feelings of those by whom they are most beloved, and whom they profess to love in return? Is it in their selfdenial---in the privations they undergo for the sake of promoting the happiness of others? Is it in the full and efficient returns they render for all the care and anxiety of which they are the cause? Is it in the abundant bestowment of their pecuniary means, to support the destitute and to solace the afflicted? Is it in the faithfulness and punctuality with which they hold themselves ready at the call of duty to answer the demands of friendship and affection? Is it in the sacredness with which they fulfil every trust committed to their charge? Is it, in short, in their absence of self-love, and their disregard of self-gratification in comparison with the gratification of their friends? If there be any meaning in the words generosity and good-heartedness, they would surely comprehend some of these points; and yet in all these are the characters of the gay and the dissipated peculiarly deficient. If we could, by any means of calculation, add together all the tears which such characters habitually and recklessly cause-all the hours of anxiety they inflict upon their near connexions-all the bickerings and disputes occasioned by their conduct between those who censure and those who defend them-all the wretched feeling they leave behind them whenever they go out-all the anguish which awaits their return-all the disappointment of those who trust them-and, finally, all the

THANATOPSIS.

[The following lines by BRYANT, an American poet, have been much admired. The name Thanatopsis, which he has given to them, signifies "A Discourse on Death."]

To him who, in the love of Nature, holds
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks
A various language. For his gayer hours
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile
And eloquence of beauty; and she glides
Into his darker musings with a mild
And gentle sympathy, that steals away
Their sharpness, ere he is aware. When thoughts
Of the last bitter hour come like a blight
Over thy spirit, and sad images

Of the stern agony, and shroud, and pall,
And breathless darkness, and the narrow house,
Make thee to shudder, and grow sick at heart-
Go forth unto the open sky, and list

To nature's teachings, while from all around-
Earth and her waters, and the depths of air-
Comes a still voice-Yet a few days, and thee
The all-beholding sun shall see no more

In all his course. Nor yet in the cold ground,
Where thy pale form was laid, with many tears,
Nor in the embrace of ocean, shall exist
Thy image. Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim
Thy growth, to be resolved to earth again;
And, lost each human trace, surrendering up
Thine individual being, shalt thou go
To mix for ever with the elements,
To be a brother to the insensible rock

And to the sluggish clod, which the rude swain
Turns with his share, and treads upon. The oak
Shall send his roots abroad, and pierce thy mould
Yet not to thy eternal resting-place
Shalt thou retire alone; nor couldst thou wish
Couch more magnificent. Thou shalt lie down
With patriarchs of the infant world-with kings,
The powerful of the earth-the wise, the good,
Fair forms, and hoary seers of ages past,
All in one mighty sepulchre. The hills,
Rock-ribbed and ancient as the sun; the vales,
Stretching in pensive quietness between;
The venerable woods; rivers that move
In majesty; and the complaining brooks,
That make the meadow green; and, poured round all,
Old ocean's grey and melancholy waste-
Are but the solemn decorations all

Of the great tomb of man. The golden sun,
The planets, all the infinite host of heaven,
Are shining on the sad abodes of death,
Through the still lapse of ages. All that tread
The globe, are but a handful to the tribes
That slumber in its bosom. Take the wings
Of morning, and the Barcan desert pierce;
Or lose thyself in the continuous woods
Where rolls the Oregon, and hears no sound,
Save his own dashings; yet-the dead are there;
And millions in those solitudes, since first
The flight of years began, have laid them down
In their last sleep-the dead reign there alone.

So shalt thou rest; and what if thou shalt fall Unnoticed by the living, and no friend Take note of thy departure? All that breathe Will share thy destiny. The gay will laugh When thou art gone, the solemn brood of care Plod on, and each one, as before, will chase His favourite phantom; yet all these shall leave Their mirth and their employments, and shall come, And make their bed with thee. As the long train Of ages glide away, the sons of men, The youth in life's green spring, and he who goes In the full strength of years-matron and maid, The bowed with age, the infant, in the smiles And beauty of its innocent age cut offShall, one by one, be gathered to thy side, By those, who, in their turn, shall follow them.

So live, that, when thy summons comes to join The innumerable caravan, that moves To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take His chamber in the silent halls of death, Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night, Scourged to his dungeon; but, sustained and soothed By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave, Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.

and the practice of giving them to passengers without additional charge, would have any thing but a beneficial effect. We are glad to observe, from the work of Mr Sturge, that on board the British Queen, in which he sailed to New York, this improper practice does not now "The very objectionable custom (he says) of supexist. plying the passengers with intoxicating liquors without limit and without any additional charge, thus compelling the temperate or abstinent passenger to contribute to the expenses of the intemperate, was done away. Each individual paid for the wine and spirits he called for-a circumstance which greatly promoted sobriety in the ship; but I am sorry to say three or four, and these my own countrymen, were not unfrequently in a state of intoxication. On one occasion after dinner, one of these addressed an intelligent black steward, who was waiting, by the contemptuous designation of Blackey.' The man replied to him in this manner- My name is Robert; when you want any thing from me, please to address me by my, name; there is no gentleman on board who would have addressed me as you have done. We are all the same flesh and blood; I did not make myself-God made me.' This severe and public rebuke commended itself to every man's conscience, and my countryman obtained no sympathy even from the most prejudiced slaveholder on board."

·

INTEMPERANCE IN STEAMERS.

We have sometimes heard of the extraordinary quantities of liquor consumed in the steamers which cross the Atlantic: a person who had come to England in one of them, mentioned to us, that as much as eighty dozens of champagne had been consumed on board during his passage-that, in fact, that liquor was taken by many at breakfast instead of tea or coffee. This may perhaps have been an exaggeration; but it is evident that the power of laying in a store of untaxed liquors in America,

HINTS FOR STUDENTS.

We extract the following from a work now somewhat rare-Buck's Anecdotes:-" He who would wish to make proficiency in any science, must give himself to study. Knowledge is not to be gained by wishing, nor acquired by dignity and wealth. Application is necessary both for prince and peasant. Many in elevated situations are very desirous of the honour, but averse to the labour, of intellectual attainments.

Euclid was asked one day by King Ptolemæus Lagus, Whether there was not a shorter and easier way to the knowledge of geometry than that which he had laid down in his Elements?' He answered, that there was indeed no royal road to geometry.' In the same manner, when Alexander wanted to learn geometry by some easier and shorter method, he was told by his preceptor that he must here be content to travel the same road with others, for that all things of this nature were equally difficult to prince and people.' We may apply this observation to learning in general. If we wish to enjoy the sweets, we must encounter the difficulties, of acquisition. The student must not be always in the world, or living at his ease, if he wish to enlarge his mind, inform his judgment, or improve his powers. He must read, think, remember, compare, consult, and digest, in order to be wise and useful.

In respect to study, there are some necessary precautions to be attended to, both as to the body and the mind. Hence a minister of the gospel used to give this advice to young students:-1. That they should not buy too many books, as that would hurt their pockets; 2. That they should not engage in any sensual pursuits, as that would hurt the mind; and, 3. That they should not sit up late at night, as that would injure their health.

Dr Whitaker gave the following three rules to Mr Boyce, when a student :-1. To study always standing; 2. Never to study in a window ; 3. Never to go to bed with his feet cold.

Night studies are very prejudicial to the constitution, and ought to be avoided by all who wish to prolong their lives, and to be useful in their day and generation. However fond of study, therefore, let the student pay some attention to health. It is said of Euripides, the tragedian, that he used to retire to a dark cavern to compose his tragedies; and of Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, that he chose a place for study where nothing could be heard or seen; but, with all deference to such venerable names, we cannot help condemning their taste. A man may surely think to as good purpose in an elegant apartment as in a cave, and may have as happy conceptions where the all-cheering rays of the sun render the air wholesome, as in places where they never enter.

Charles V., during his celebrated solitude, sometimes cultivated the plants in his garden with his own hands, and sometimes rode out in the neighbourhood, and often relieved his mind in forming curious works of mechanism. Descartes spent the afternoon in the conversation of his friends, and in the cultivation of a small garden. After having in the morning settled the place of a planet, in the evening he would amuse himself with watering a flower. Barclay, in his leisure hours, was a florist. Balzac amused himself with making pastils. Pecresc found his amusement amongst his medals and antiquarian curiosities. Rohault wandered from shop to shop to observe the mechanics labour. Cardinal de Richelieu, amongst all his great occupations, found a recreation in violent exercise, such as jumping, &c. It is said of the very laborious Mr Poole, that his common rule was, while he was engaged in writing his famous Synopsis, to rise about three or four o'clock in the morning, and continue his studies till the afternoon was pretty far advanced, when he went abroad, and spent the evening at some friend's house in cheerful conversation."

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row.

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the publishers or their agents; also, any odd numbers to complete sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with titlepages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any bookseller, with orders to that effect.

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EDINBURGH JOURNAL

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF "CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE," "CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.

NUMBER 537.

THE GOVERNESS.

BY MRS S. C. HALL.

PART FIRST.

"Of course I head my advertisement thus:- Wanted -a governess,"" commenced Mrs Gresham; but before I permit her to read it, I ought to state that she had called upon her sister, Mrs Hylier, to consult concerning this important composition, to be sent that day to the Morning Post-Mrs Gresham and Mrs Hylier being both in want of resident governesses to educate their children. A visiter was also there, a Mrs Ryal, confessedly the "most clever woman" of the neighbourhood-an astonishing manager!-but although the ladies desired her advice, they were somewhat in dread of her sarcasm.

Mrs Gresham had again repeated "Wanted -a governess,"" when an old gentleman, a Mr Byfield, was announeed. The trio of wives and mothers looked at each other, as well as to say, "What a bore !"-and then Mrs Hylier rose gracefully from her chaise longue, and, smiling sweetly, extended her hand, and welcomed Mr Byfield with exceeding warmth of manner; while Mrs Gresham and Mrs Ryal declared aloud their delight at being so fortunate as to meet a neighbour they had so seldom the pleasure to see.

The party thus assembled were all inhabitants of the bustling yet courtly suburb of Kensington; and Mr Byfield being a rich and influential, though a very eccentric man, was sure of being treated with the distinction which people of small means are too prone to bestow upon those whose means are more extensive.

"Do not let me interrupt you in the least, ladies," said the old man, quietly taking his seat near the window. "Mr Hylier promised I should look over these gems by daylight; and when you have talked your own talk, there will be time enough to talk mine." The ladies, one and all, declared their conviction that his "talk" must be more pleasant and instructive than theirs. He did not deny this, but smiled-shook his head-touched his hat (which he had laid down at his feet), as if to say he would either go or have his own way. And so Mrs Gresham recommenced reading her advertisement-"Wanted-a governess. Any lady possessing a sound English education, a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of instrumental and vocal music, and a perfect acquaintance with the French, Italian, and German languages; also with the rudiments of Latin.'"

"Latin!" interrupted Mrs Ryal. "Latin! why, what do you want with Latin for a pack of girls?"

"I thought," answered Mrs Gresham meekly, "that as there are but three girls, Teddy might do his lessons with them for a little while, and that would save the expense of a tutor."

"Oh, very good-very good," replied Mrs Ryal; "then add also, Greek; if the governess is any thing of a classic, you'll get both for the same money." "Thank you, dear Mrs Ryal; how clever you are! G-r-, there are two 'ees' in Greek?-also the rudiments of Latin and Greek.'"

"I beg your pardon once more," said the provokingly "clever lady," "but put Greek and Latin, that is the correct way."

"Greek and Latin, and the principles of drawingif her character will bear the strictest investigation, may hear of a highly respectable situation by applying to Z. P.'"

"Post paid," again suggested Mrs Ryal. "Of course," continued Mrs Gresham ; ""and as the lady will be treated as one of the family, a high salary will not be given.'"

SATURDAY, MAY 14, 1842.

"Well," said Mrs Ryal, "I think that will do.
You have not specified writing and arithmetic."
"English education includes that, does it not?"
"Why, yes; but you have said nothing about the
sciences."

"The children are so young."
"But they grow older every day."

"Indeed that is true," observed pretty Mrs Hylier
with a sigh, and a glance at the pier-glass. "My Ellen,
though only ten, looks thirteen. I wish her papa
would let her go to school; but one of his sisters im-
bibed some odd philosophic notions at school, so that
he wont hear of it, but talks about the necessity of
putting female seminaries under the superintendence
of government, and I really know not what."

"And what do you intend giving, Mrs Gresham ?" questioned Mrs Ryal.

"I certainly," observed Mrs Ryal," will not take a governess into my house again to reside-they are all exigeant. One was imprudent enough to wish to get married, and expected to come into the drawingroom when there was company of an evening. Another would have a bedroom to herself, though, I am sure, no one could object to sleep in the same room with my own maid. Another-really the world is very depraved-occasioned a painful difference between Mr Ryal and myself; and let that be a warning to you, my dear friends, not to admit any pretty, quiet, sentimental young ladies into your domestic "It will be impossible to prevent your governess circles. Mr Ryal is a very charming man, and a good from talking to mine, and then mine will get disconman; but men are but men after all, and can be tented; that is not fair, Fanny," observed her sister; managed by any one who will flatter them a little."say five-and-thirty, allowing for the difference of Of course, he is a man of the highest honour; but number." there is no necessity for having a person in the house who plays or sings better than ones-self."

"I have three girls and a boy," she replied; "and I thought of forty."

"And plenty, I call it," said Mrs Ryal. "What do they want but clothes? They never lay by for a rainy day. There are hundreds-yes, of well-born and well-bred ladies-who would be glad of such situations."

"Oh, my dear Mrs Ryal!" exclaimed both voices, "you need never fear comparison with any one." The jealous lady look pleased, but shook her head. "Well, at last I resolved to be my own governess-with the assistance of a young person, who comes daily for three, and sometimes I get four, hours out of her; and she is very reasonable-two guineas a-month, and dines with the children. She is not all I could wish; her manners are a little defective, for she is not exactly a lady; her father is a very respectable man, keeps that large butter shop at the corner-I forget-somewhere off Piccadilly-but I prefer it, my dear ladies, I prefer it-she does all the drudgery without grumbling. Your officers' and clergymen's daughters, and decayed gentlewomen, why, their high-toned manners-if they never speak a word-prevent one's being quite at ease with them, though they are, after all, only governesses."

46

PRICE 14d.

are only two girls. No after claps, like my sister Gresham's little Teddy;' she can spend every evening in the drawing-room when we are by ourselves-have the keys of the piano and library-amuse herself with my embroidery-go to church in the carriage on Sunday -and drive at least once a-week with the children in the Park. There!" added Mrs Hylier; "I am sure there are hundreds of accomplished women who would jump at such a situation if they knew of it."

"Washing included?" inquired Mrs Ryal. "No. I think she must pay her own washing, unless there was some great inducement." "You allow no followers?"

"I cannot give more than five-and-twenty pounds a-year to any one," said Mrs Hylier in a decided tone. "My husband says we cannot afford to keep two menservants and a governess; he wanted me to give the governess seventy, and discharge Thomas; but that was quite impossible; so I have made up my mind: there

"Oh, certainly not. What can a governess want of friends? Her pupils ought to have all her time." "God help her!" murmured the old gentleman. The murmur was so indistinct that the ladies only looked at each other, and then Mrs Hylier said, "Did you speak, sir?" There was no answer; the conversation was resumed with a half whisper from one lady to another, that perhaps Mr Byfield was not deaf at all

times.

"I am sorry for it," said the old gentleman, rising and advancing to where the three Kensington wives were seated; "I am very sorry for it."

"Indeed, Mr Byfield! why, we shall have the better choice."

"Forgive me, ladies, for saying so-but still more am I grieved at that. Permit me to read your advertisement."

Mrs Gresham coloured; Mrs Hylier had sufficient command over herself not to appear annoyed; but Mrs Ryal, the oracle of a clique, the "clever woman," who had, by the dint of self-esteem and effrontery, established a reputation of intellectual superiority over those who were either too indolent or too ignorant to question her authority, evinced her displeasure by But," suggested Mrs Gresham mildly, "lady-like throwing herself back in her chair, loosening the tie of manners are so very necessary." her bonnet, and dressing her lips in one of those super"Yes," answered Mrs Ryal, "so they are; for you cilious smiles that would mar the beauty of an angel. and I""And children so easily imbibe vulgar habits, that it is really necessary to have a lady with them." "Well," said Mrs Ryal, with a sneer, "ladies are plenty enough. I daresay you will have fifty answers. What salary do you mean to give?"

Mrs Gresham was a timid but kind-hearted woman, one who desired to do right, but had hardly courage to combat wrong. She was incapable of treating any thing unkindly, but she would be guilty of injustice if justice gave her much trouble; she hesitated, because she required a great deal, and intended to give very little.

"Wanted, a governess,"" read the old gentleman, who frequently interrupted himself to make the following observations :-"Any lady possessing a sound English education'-that in itself is no easy thing to attain a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of vocal and instrumental music'-a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of either the one or the other requires the labour of a man's life, my good ladies-and a perfect acquaintance with the French, Italian, and German languages'-how very useless and absurd to found professorships of modern languages in our new colleges, when, in addition to the musical knowledge that would create a composer, a single person, a young female, can be found possessed of a perfect acquaintance' with French, Italian, and German! Oh, wonderful age!— also, the rudiments of Greek and Latin-may hear of a highly respectable situation by applying to Z. P., post paid, Post-Office, Kensington.' Much as you

"not to mind; that Mr Byfield was half mad on the
subject of schools."

expect in the way of acquirements and accomplish-
ments, ladies," continued the critic, still retaining fast
hold of poor Mrs Gresham's composition, "you have
"Ladies," said the old man, apparently recovered from
not demanded a great deal on the score of religion or
his agitation, and in his usually quiet, calm, yet harshly-
morality-neither are mentioned in your list of requi-toned voice; "ladies, you are, in different degrees, all
women of the world; you live with it, and for it, and you
Ellen, Mrs Hylier, does grow so fast as almost to overtake
are of it; but you are also mothers. And though your
her mother's beauty, and you, Mrs Ryal, stand in open
defiance of vulgar contagion, because you fear a rival in
a well-bred governess, and get more time out of your
daily labourer than you would expect from your milliner
for the same money; and you, Mrs Gresham-but I
not say to you more than that you all love your children
-some more, some less. Still, according to your natures,
you all love them dearly. So did I mine. My child was
all the world to me. I told you what her poor mother
did for her improvement-the sacrifice she made. But
vantage, we had no skill as to the means of obtaining
though we had the longing to secure for her every ad-
the knowledge we so desired her to possess. We placed
her at a first-rate school,' as it was called, and thought
we had done our duty; but this going from her home
loosened the cords of love that bound her to us. And
when a sudden stroke of good fortune converted a poor
into a rich man, and we brought our child to a splendid
house, we found that our daughter's morals had become
corrupted through the means of her companions-an evil
the most difficult of all for a governess to prevent-and
that she had imbibed moral poison with her mental
food." The old gentleman became so agitated, that he
could not proceed; and angry as the ladies had been
with him a few moments before for a plain-speaking
which amounted to rudeness, they could not avoid sym-
pathising with his feelings.

suggested Mrs Gresham.
"But we are not going to send our children to a school,"

sites."

"Oh !" exclaimed Mrs Hylier, "they are taken for granted. No one would think of engaging a governess that was not moral and all that sort of thing, which are always matters of course."

"To be sure they are," added Mrs Ryal, in that peremptory tone which seemed to say, Do you dare to question my opinion? "To be sure they are; every one knows that nothing can be more determined with respect to religion and morality than my practice with my children. Rain, hail, or sunshine, well or ill, the governess must be in the house before the clock strikes nine. Psalms read the first thing; and if they have not got well through the French verbs, a chapter besides for punishment; catechism, Wednesdays and Fridays; and the collect, epistle, and gospel, by heart, every Sunday after church. I always do two things at once, when I can, and this strengthens their memory, and teaches them religion at the same time. I never questioned my governess as to religion; it looks narrow-minded; and yet mine never dreams of objecting to what I desire."

"I should think not," was Mr Byfield's quiet rejoinder; "strange ideas your children will entertain of the religion that is rendered a punishment instead

of a reward."

Mrs Ryal grasped the tassel of her muff, but made no reply.

"Oh," he continued, "here is the pith in a postscript- As the lady will be treated as one of the family, a high salary will not be given.' Ladies !" exclaimed the old man, "do you not blush at this? You ask for the fruits of an education that, if it be half what you demand, must have cost the governess the labour of a life, and her friends many hundred pounds. It is your DUTY to treat the person who is capable of bestowing upon your children the greatest of earthly blessings as one of your family; and yet you make the doing so a reason for abridging a stipend, which, if stretched to the utmost of what governesses receive, pays a wretched interest for both time and money. Shame, ladies, shame!"

The ladies looked at each other, and at last Mrs Hylier said, "Really, sir, I do not see it at all in the light in which you put it. I know numberless instances where they are glad to come for less."

Tears came into Mrs Gresham's eyes, and Mrs Ryal kicked the ottoman violently.

"The more's the pity," continued Mr Byfield; "but I hold it to be a principle of English honesty to pay for value received, and of English honour not to take advantage of distress."

"Suppose we cannot afford it, sir-am I to do without a governess for my children because my husband cannot pay to one sixty or seventy pounds a-year?" "But you said just now, madam, that Mr Hylier wished you to pay that sum."

"Yes," stammered the fair economist, “ if—if”— "If you could manage with one footman," said the old gentleman, "instead of two. In my young days, my wife, who had but one child, and we were poor, said to me---Joseph, our girl is growing up without education, and I cannot teach, for I never learned, but we must send her to school.' I answered that we could not afford it. Oh, yes, we can,' she said; 'I will discharge our servant; I will curtail our expenses in every way, because I am resolved that she shall be well educated, and honestly paid for.' It never occurred to that right-minded yet simple-hearted woman to propose lower terms to a governess, but she proposed less indulgence to herself. Thus she rendered justice. She would have worked her fingers to the bone sooner than have bargained for intellect. Ay, Mrs Ryal, you may laugh; but of all meannesses, the meanest is that which depreciates mind, and having no power but that which proceeds from a full purse, insults the indigence which has more of the immaterial world beneath its russet gown than your wealth can purchase."

66

My wealth!" exclaimed the offended lady; "your wealth, if you please; but though your wealth, and your oddity, and your altogether, may awe some people, it can have no effect upon me, Mr Byfield-none in the world; every one says you are a strange creature." "My dear Mrs Ryal," said Mrs Hylier, "you positively must not grow angry with our dear friend, Mr Byfield; he does not mean half what he says."

"I beg your pardon," interrupted the eccentric old gentleman; "I mean a great deal more. I only wish I had the means of sending forth to the world my opinion as to the inestimable value of domestic education for females. I would have every woman educated within the sanctuary of her own home. I would not loosen the smallest fibre of the affection which binds her to her father's house; it should be at once her altar and her throne; but as it is a blessing which circumstances prevent many from enjoying, I would command the legislature of this mighty country to devise some means for the better ordering and investigation of ladies' boarding-schools.' To set up an establishment for young ladies is very often the last resource for characterless women, and persons who, failing in every thing else, resort to that as a means of subsistence; whereas such should be under the closest superintendence of high-minded and right-thinking gentlewomen. I look upon the blue-boarded and brass-plated schools that swarm in our suburbs," he added, as he turned away to hide an emotion he could not control-"I look upon them as the very charnel-houses of morality."

Mrs Ryal elevated her eyebrows, and shrugged her shoulders, while the gentle Mrs Gresham whispered her

words about it; I have not been so long your opposite neighbour without knowing that your last governess did not sit at your table; that when you had the hot, she had the cold; that when a visiter came, she went; that she was treated as a creature belonging to an intermediate state of society, which has never been defined or the parlour; that she was to govern her temper towards illustrated---being too high for the kitchen, too low for those who never governed their tempers towards her; that she was to cultivate intellect, yet sit silent as a fool; that she was to instruct in all accomplishments, which she must know and feel, yet never play any thing in socan-ciety except quadrilles, because she played so well that she might eclipse the young ladies who, not being governesses, play for husbands, while she only plays for bread! My good madam, I know almost every governess who enters Kensington by sight; the daily ones by their early hours, cotton umbrellas, and the cowed, dejected let it fall. Do I not know the musical ones by the wornair with which they raise the knocker, uncertain how to out boa doubled round their throats, and the roll of new music clasped in the thinly gloved hand?-and the drawing ones-God help them-by the small portfolio, pallid cheeks, and haggard eyes? I could tell you tales of those hard-labouring classes that would make factory labour seem a toy; but you would not understand me, though you can understand that you want a governess, and you can also understand that 1, Joseph Byfield, hope you will take one of my recommending."

The sisters looked at each other, as well as to say, "What shall we do ?"

"I know that, madam," he replied; "but I want to
convince you, by comparison, of the blessings that await
the power of cultivating both the intellect and the affec-
tions under your own roof, and so argue you into the
necessity for paying honestly, if not liberally, the woman
upon the faithful discharge of whose duties depends the
future happiness or misery of those dear ones whom you
since I saw that daughter; I shall never see her again in
have brought into the world. It is now twenty-two years
this world; I thought I had strength to tell you the story,
painful as it is, but I have not. I would have done so, in
the hope that I might have shown you how valuable, past
all others, are the services rendered by a worthy and up-
right woman when entrusted with the education of youth;
but when I think of my lost child, I forget every thing
else. She stands before me as I speak. My blue-eyed
lovely one! all innocence and truth-the light, and life,
and love of that small four-roomed cottage; and then she
loved me truly and dearly; and there again she is-most
beautiful, but cankered at the heart, fair, and frail! Lay
your children in their graves, and ring the joy-bells over
them sooner than intrust them to the whirling pestilence
of a large school, or the care of a cheap governess!"
"He certainly is mad," whispered Mrs Ryal to Mrs
within the other, walked up and down the room, his
Hylier, while the old gentleman, folding his hands one
thoughts evidently far away from the three wives, who
were truly, as he said, "mere women of the world." And
yet he was right-they all loved their children, but it was
after their own fashion; Mrs Gresham with the most
tenderness-she wished them to be good and happy;
Mrs Hylier's affection was mingled with a strong desire
that they might continue in a state of innocence as long
as possible, and not grow too fast. Mrs Ryal had none
of that weakness; she did not care a bit whether she
were considered old or young, as long as she was
obeyed; so she determined her girls should have as little
of what is called heart as possible, that they might be
free to accept the best offers when they were made.
She was continually contrasting riches and poverty. All
the rich were angels, and all the poor thieves; there
were no exceptions; those who married according to
their parent's wishes rode in carriages, with two tall
footmen behind each; those who married for love walked
a-foot with draggled tails, and died in a workhouse. Of
all the women in Kensington, Mr Byfield disliked Mrs
Ryal the most, and seeing her at Mrs Hylier's had irri-
tated him more than he cared to confess even to himself.
Mrs Ryal entertained a corresponding animosity towards
Mr Byfield; she had resolved, come what would, to "sit
him out;" but she was afraid, if she remained much longer,
that Miss Stack, the daily governess, whose mother was ill,
might go a few minutes before her time was up, and she
had more than once caught her shaking the hour-glass-
so much for the honesty of one party and the considera-
tion of the other; she knew perfectly well that as soon
as she was gone, she would be abused "by the old mon-
ster;" for she was aware that, if he had gone, it would
have given her extreme pleasure and satisfaction to abuse
him. The old gentleman had not spoken for several
minutes, but continued to walk up and down, pausing
every now and then to look at her over his spectacles,
as well as to inquire, "when do you mean to take your
departure ?" Mrs Ryal was too exalted to notice this;
but, after consideration, she rose with much dignity,
shook hands with her two " dear friends," dropped a most
exaggerated curtsy to Mr Byfield, who, the moment she
was out of the room, threw himself into an easy chair,
and drew a lengthened inspiration, which said plainly
enough, "Thank heaven, she is gone!"
"And now, ladies," he exclaimed, "finding that you
want a governess, I want to recommend one-not to you,
Mrs Gresham; notwithstanding little Teddy,' she would
be too happy with you. I should wish her to live with
you, Mrs Hylier."

6

Mrs Hylier assumed a cheerful, careless air, and replied-"Well, sir, who is your governess ?"

"WHO she exactly is, Mrs Hylier, I will not tell you; and she does not know, though she imagines she does, what she is. I will tell you. She is handsome, without the consciousness of beauty-accomplished, without affectation-gentle, without being inanimate-and I should suppose patient; for she has been a teacher in a school, as well as in what is called a private family; but I want to see her patience tested."

"Is she a good musician ?"

"Better than most women."
"And a good artist ?"

"That was not in the bond; but she does confound

perspective, and distort the human body as perfectly as most teachers of the art that can immortalise'

"My dear sir"

66

"With me, sir? Why, after the censure you have passed upon us both, I should hardly think you would recommend us a dog, much less a governess."

Ay, ay; half a dozen chalk heads-a few tawdry landscapes, with the lights scratched out, and the shadows rubbed in-a bunch of flowers on velvet, and a bundle of handscreens"

"My dear sir," interrupted Mrs Hylier, "these sort of things would not suit my daughters; what they do must be artistic."

"Then get an artist to teach them; you go upon the principle of expecting Hertz to paint like Eastlake, and Eastlake to play like Hertz. Madam, she is a well-informed, prudent, intelligent gentlewoman; feeling and understanding well; consequently doing nothing ill, because she will not attempt what she cannot accomplish. pupils in either music or drawing, but she will do her She will not undertake to finish (that's the term, I think) best; and as she has resided abroad, I am told (for I hate every language except my own) she is a good linguist; and I will answer for her accepting the five-and-twenty pounds a-year."

"Very desirable, no doubt," muttered Mrs Hylier, unwilling, for sundry reasons of great import connected with her husband, to displease Mr Byfield, and yet most unwilling to receive into her family a person whom, judging of others by herself, she imagined must be a spy upon her menage.

"I knew you would so consider any one I recommended," said the old gentleman with a smile, that evinced the consciousness of power; " and when shall the young person' (that is the phrase, is it not?)-when shall she come?"

"I think I should like to see her first," answered the lady, hesitating.

.

Very good; but to what purpose? you know you will take her ?"

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"Any thing to oblige you, my dear sir; but has she no female friend ?"

"Some one of you ladies said a few moments ago that a governess had no need of friends,"

"You are aware, Mr Byfield, it is usual upon such occasions to consult the lady the governess resided with last; it is usual; I do not want to insist upon it, because I am sure you understand exactly what I require." "Indeed, madam, I do not pretend to such extensive information; I know, I think, what you ought to require, that is all. However, if you wish, you shall have references besides mine," and Mr Byfield looked harder and stiffer than ever. He walked up to a small water-colour drawing that hung above a little table, and contemplated it, twirling his cane about in a half circle all the time. The subject was ugly enough to look at—a long chimney emitting a column of dense smoke like a steamer, and a slated building stuck on one side, being a view of the "Achilles saw mills," which Mr Hylier had lately purchased, a considerable portion of the purchase-money having been advanced by Mr Byfield.

"No matter how odd, how rude, how incomprehensible our old neighbour is, Caroline," Mr Hylier had said to his wife only that morning; "no matter what he does, or says, or fancies; if you contradict or annoy him, it will be my ruin."

Her husband's words were forcibly recalled to her by the attitude and look of the old gentleman, and she answered-"Oh, dear no, sir, not at all; one cannot help anxiety on such a subject; and I must only endeavour to make the lady comfortable, and all that sort of thing, although I fear she may complain to you of"

"I expect you will treat your governess hardly as well
as I treat my dog," was the ungracious reply.
"Really, Mr Byfield"
"Psha, lady!" interrupted the strange old man ; "no favour; if I wished her to be quiet and comfortable, 1

"No, no, madam," he interrupted; "I do not desire her to be treated in any way better than your former governess; I wish to see how she bears the rubs of life; I particularly request that no change whatever be made in her

On this point Count Rumford made experiments
which settled the question in the affirmative; or, what
is the same thing, he ascertained "that those sub-
stances which part with heat with the greatest faci-
lity or celerity, are those which acquire it most readily,
or with the greatest celerity."* Dr Stark was curious
to learn if this doctrine held good with those variously
coloured bodies, which he had ascertained to be ab-
sorptive in proportion to the intensity of their colours.
Reversing the former experiments, he found black
wool fall from 180 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit in 21
minutes, red wool in 26, and white in 27 minutes. He
coloured wheat flour, and found black descend through
the same range in 9 minutes, brown in 11, yellow in
12, and white in 12 minutes. The same results were
found with the ball of an air-thermometer variously
monstrated that "differently coloured substances pos-
coloured; so that he considered himself as having de-
sess a specific influence on the absorption of heat or
both luminous and non-luminous; and that
they give off their caloric in the same ratio as they
absorb it."

"

Dr Stark's remarks on this conclusion are of great value. “The demonstration,” he says, "of the influence of colour on the absorption and radiation of caloric, may tend to open up new views of the economy of nature, and perhaps suggest useful improvements in the management and adaptation of heat. Dr Franklin, who never lost sight of practical utility in his riments with coloured cloths on the absorption of heat, scientific investigations, from the result of his expedrew the conclusion, that black clothes are not so fit to wear in a hot sunny climate or season as white ones, because in such clothes the body is more heated by the sun when we walk abroad, and is at the same time heated by the exercise; which double heat is apt to bring on putrid dangerous fevers;' that soldiers and seamen in tropical climates should have a white uniform; that white hats should be generally worn in summer; and that garden walls for fruit-trees would absorb more heat from being blackened.

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"I wonder if she is any relation of his ?" said Mrs Gresham, who was a little given to romance. "Not she, indeed; he is as proud as Lucifer, and has money enough to enable him to live in a palace." "Could it be possible that he intends to marry," suggested Mrs Gresham.

"Marry, indeed; would any man that could prevent it, permit the woman he intended to marry to be a gover-caloric, ness? No. I'll trouble my head no more about it; let her come; one is pretty much the same as another; the only thing that really gives me pain is, that Mrs Ryal should have heard so much of it; she's a regular bell-woman; likes to have the earliest information of whatever goes on in the world, so as to be the first to set it going. She was the means of the dismissal of five governesses only last winter, and there is no end to the matches of her break ing. She will declare the girl is---God knows what---if

she finds all out."

"Well," said Mrs Gresham, musingly, "after all, it is very odd; only fancy Mr Byfield taking an interest in a governess at all. Still, I must insert my advertisement, and I think I might substitute dancing for Greek; they are about equally useful, and one must not be too unreasonable."

Very considerate and good of you, Fanny," said her sister; but believe me, the more you require the more you will get; and I am not sure that Mrs Ryal was wrong about the sciences; every day something fresh starts up that no one ever heard of before, and one must be able to talk about it; it is really very fatiguing to keep up with all the new things, and somehow I do not think the credit one gets by the knowledge is half enough to repay one for the labour."

"Mr Gresham says the whole system, or, as he calls it, no system, of female education is wrong." "My dear Fanny, how absurd you are! What can men possibly know of female education? There is my husband, a worthy man as ever lived, and yet he will tell you that the whole object of female education should be to make women--now only imagine what?"

"I am sure I do not know." "Why, good wives and mothers.” "Both ladies laughed, and then Mrs Hylier exclaimed, "to think of my taking any one into my house under such circumstances! But at all events, I must prepare the children for their new governess."

migan is a familiar example. Mr Selby remarks, that the black deep ochreous yellow plumage of the ptarmigan in spring and summer gradually gives place to a greyish white; the black spots become broken, and assume the appearance of zig-zag lines and specks. These, again, as the season advances, give place to the pure immaculate plumage which distinguishes both sexes in winter.'

*To speak precisely, Davy omits the lighter blue and purple from the series.

The display of colours in the plumage of the birds of tropical climates is also in strict accordance with the observed facts of the influence of colour over the absorption and radiation of heat. The metallic reflections and polished surface of the whole family of hummingbirds are admirably suited to their habits; and the colours of the wings of the Lepidoptera, in the class of insects, there is little doubt, serve some similar purthe proper mean. pose, in maintaining the temperature of the animals at In proportion to the diminution of temperature and the distance from the equator, a corresponding dilution of colour in animals takes place, till in temperate countries it is almost uniformly of a sober grey. In the arctic regions, all colour except white and black disappears-modifications of which, with very little variety of other colours, form the summer and winter clothing of most of the northern tribes of birds.

In the vegetable kingdom, I am disposed to believe that the colours of the petals of flowers serve some useful purpose in regard to preserving the temperaproper mean, and that the varied pencilling of nature ture of the parts necessary for reproduction at the has thus an object beyond merely pleasing the eye. In this view, the quality of colour, so widely extended, and so varied and blended in every class of natural bodies, acquires a further interest in addition to its ministering to the pleasures of sight, and affords a new instance of that benevolence and wisdom by which all the arrangements of matter are calculated to excite and gratify the mind directed to their investigation.

Even in the inorganic portion of nature, and in northern climates, the portion of heat imbibed by the soil during a short summer, is prevented from escapning of winter; and thus the temperature necessary ing by the covering of snow which falls in the beginfor the scanty vegetation is kept up. By this white covering, vegetables are enabled to sustain a lengthened torpidity, without suffering from the injurious effects of frost; and the ground is preserved from partial alternations of temperature, till the influence of the sun at once converts the northern winter into summer, without the intervention of spring."

In his investigations of the effect of colours in causing bodies to be more susceptible of odours, Dr Stark had much less aid from the inquiries of preceding philosophers. His attention being drawn to the subject by accident, he began a course of experiments, by putting a small quantity of black wool (ten grains), and an equal of white wool, into a close vessel beside some camphor-also similar quantities of each into a close drawer beside assafœtida--and found in both cases that the black had palpably become the most odorous. He repeated the experiment with cotton wool, and found the same result. Other experiments, in which red was introduced, gave to it, as far as the ordinary sense could judge, a medium degree of odorousness. Afterwards, he experimented with a variety of colours, and found the degrees of odorousness to be in the following order-black, blue, red, green, yellow, and white, which is nearly the order in Franklin's experiments respecting the heat-absorbing powers of bodies. He then tried black and white wool against black and white cotton, and found the black wool more odorous than the black cotton, and the white wool than the white cotton. It is to be observed, that he called in the senses of many persons to test the degrees of odorousness in all these experiments; yet, as no exact knowledge could be thus attained, he became "desirous that, if possible, at least one experiment should be devised, which would show, by the evidence of actual increase of weight, that one colour invariably attracted more of any odorous substance than another." "Upon considering," he adds, "the various odorous substances which could be easily volatilised without change, and whose odour was inseparable from the substance, I fixed upon camphor as the one best suited to my purpose. In an experiment of this nature, it was necessary that the camphor should be volatilised or converted into vapour, and that the coloured substances should be so placed as to come in contact with the camphor while in that state. It was therefore of the first importance to prevent currents of air within the vessel in which the experiment was conducted; and with this view I used a funnel-shaped vessel of tin plate, open at the top and bottom. This rested on a plate of sheet iron, in the centre of which the camphor to be volatilised was placed. The coloured substances, after being accurately weighed, were supported on a bent wire, and introduced through the upper aperture. This was then covered over with a plate of glass. Heat was now applied gently to volatilise the camphor; and when the heat was withdrawn and the apparatus cool, the coloured substances were again accurately weighed, and the difference in weight noted down."

Count Rumford and Sir Everard Home, on the contrary, come to a conclusion entirely the reverse of to live in a very warm climate, he would blacken his this. The count asserts, that if he were called upon skin or wear a black shirt; and Sir Everard, from direct experiments on himself and on a negro's skin, lays it down as evident, that the power of the sun's rays to scorch the skins of animals is destroyed when applied to a dark surface, although the absolute heat, in consequence of the absorption of the rays, is greater.' Sir Humphry Davy explains this fact by saying, 'that the radiant heat in the sun's rays is converted into sensible heat.' With all deference to the opinion of this great man, it by no means explains why the surface of the skin was kept comparatively cool. From the result of the experiments detailed, it is evident, that if a black surface absorbs caloric in greatest quantity, it also gives it out in the same proportion; and thus a circulation of heat is, as it were, established, calculated to promote the insensible perspiration, and to keep the body cool. This view is confirmed by the observed fact of the stronger odour exhaled by the bodies of black people.

POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE.

INFLUENCE OF COLOUR ON HEAT AND ODour.

THE comparative susceptibility of heat shown by bodies coloured in a certain manner, has been familiar to the scientific world since the days of Franklin, who made some ingenious experiments to ascertain the point, by marking the effect of sunshine upon various The different shades of colour by which races of patches of snow covered by pieces of cloth variously men inhabiting different climates are distinguished, coloured. Sir Humphry Davy also experimented on equally possess, there is reason to believe, the quality this subject; but the inquiry was never followed out of modifying the individual temperature, and keeping to definite results, until it fell into the hands of Dr it at the proper mean. This adaptation of colour may James Stark of Edinburgh. The experiments made perhaps be traced in the inhabitants of every degree by this gentleman, as detailed by him in a paper com- of latitude, and be found to correspond with the causes municated in 1833 to the Royal Society, are of a which limit the range of plants and animals. The remarkably interesting as well as satisfactory nature. effect of exposure to the sun in our own country in Dr Stark wrapped the bottom of a thermometer in warm seasons, is temporarily to change the colour of black wool, and sunk it in a glass tube, which he then the parts submitted to its influence, and to render immersed in water heated to 170 degrees Fahrenheit. them less susceptible of injury from the heating rays. He repeated the experiment successively with dark The influence of colour as modifying the effects of green, scarlet, and white wool, the object being to see heat, is also strikingly illustrated in other classes of with what comparative rapidity the heat of the water the animal kingdom. The quadrupeds, for instance, would affect the thermometer through the various which pass the winter in northern latitudes, besides kinds of wool. The thermometer attained to an equa- the additional protection from cold they receive in lity with the heat of the water in considerably diffe- the growth of downy fur, change their colour on the rent spaces of time in the case of the black wool in approach of the cold season. The furs of various 44 minutes, the dark green in 5 minutes, the scarlet hues which form their summer dress are thrown off, in 5 minutes, and the white in 8 minutes-the ad- and a white covering takes its place. Hence the white vance towards the highest point being in each case, as foxes, the white hares, and the ermine of the arctic might be expected, gradual and proportionate. In regions. Even in more temperate climates, and in our some other experiments, varied as to the mode and the own country, the hare in severe winters often acquires substances used, similar results were obtained-the a white fur; and the stoat, or ermine, is found with susceptibility being always greatest in the black, next its summer dress more or less exchanged for a winter less in the green, next less in the scarlet, and least of clothing of pure white. Some writers on natural hisall in the white. These results were strictly conform-tory state these changes as means of protection to the able to those found by both Franklin and Davy, who animals from their enemies, by assimilating their give the following list of colours, in the order of their colour to the winter snow. Without denying that this various degrees of susceptibility of heat-black, deep may be one cause for the periodical change of colour, blue, lighter blue, green, purple, red, yellow, white.* I am rather disposed to consider it as accommodating Dr Stark proceeded to investigate more strictly than the animal to the changes of season it undergoes. The had formerly been done the effect of colour on the white winter coating, as is evident from the experiradiating powers of bodies. Radiation of heat, the un- ments detailed, does not throw off heat so rapidly as scientific reader will observe, is the reverse of absorp- any of the other colours; and hence its use in pretion of heat. A body which absorbs heat readily, will serving the animal temperature. be warm while the heat continues to operate upon it; The feathered tribes which inhabit northern lati'a body which radiates heat readily, tends quickly to tudes afford still more remarkable instances of the become cold. The heat in the one case leaves the body adaptation of colour to the changes of temperature. slowly, in the other rapidly. It becomes, of course, of The summer dress of many families is so different importance to ascertain if bodies which receive or from their winter plumage, as to have led many orni- Proceeding in this manner, Dr Stark went over all absorb heat readily, also give it out or radiate it readily. thologists to multiply species, as the animal was de- his former experiments, and invariably found an inscribed in its winter or summer plumage. The ptar-crease of weight, to a small but scientifically appreciable extent, in proportion to the depth of colour, and more in wool than in cotton, and more in silk than either

* Philosophical Transactions, 1804, p. 95.

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