Imatges de pàgina
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gandist; and his liberal and judicious arrangements for different parts of Switzerland and Germany; and their pleasures, and too knowing for simple enjoyment. each set of boys being brought up in the religion of thus the benevolent designs of the founder of Hofwyl Some attempts, indeed, have been made of late years, their parents, shows that he is any thing but a bigot. are likely, at a future day, to be fully carried out. by men of both taste and learning, to rally back the

The plans of this amiable philanthropist may be We parted from M. de Fellenberg's family not popular fceling to these standards of primitive simsaid to be much ahead of the age in which he lives. without regret, and returned slowly to Berne, ponder- plicity ; but the time has gone by-the feeling has He has formed conceptions of the moral improvability ing on the many agreeable sensations which had been become chilled by habits of gain and traffic—the of the human species which do not seem to enter the experienced on our visit.

country apes the manners and amusements of the minds of ordinary instructors. The object of ninety

town, and little is heard of May-day at present, except nine in the hundred of persons assuming the educa

from the lamentations of authors, who sigh after it.

POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS. tion of youth, is little more than to impart a certain

from among the brick walls of tlie city.”

MAY-DAY. routine of instruction. They have not the most re

It is not unworthy of notice that the late Dr Parra
mote idea of elevating the moral character-cultivat- | A SOUND of laughing villages comes over the imagina- was “a patron of May-day sports. Opposite his par-
ing and purifying the innermost thoughts of the tion at the very name of May-day. This, in times sonage house at Hatton, near Warwick, on the other
child. Fellenberg aims at making the very most of when festivals were real observances of the people, side of the road, stood the parish May-pole, which on
the being committed to his charge-training him to was one of the most signally and cheerfully kept, the annual festival was dressed with garlands, sur-
be a really good as well as highly intelligent man. although it has not the least trace of Christianity rounded by a numerous band of villagers. The doc-
For this end, besides excluding evil influence and about it, but may be said to be Pagan all over. The tor was 'first of the throng,' and danced with his
example, he surrounds the pupil with what will allure celebration of May-day must have been prompted by parishioners the gayest of the gay. He kept the large
and stimulate him to good; but without resorting to nature herself: the time of the young flower and leaf, crowu of the May-pole in a closet of his house, from
the principle of emulation, or holding out the offer of and of all the promise which August fulfils, could not which it was produced every May-day, with fresh
prizes and honorary distinctions, which he considers but impress the minds of the simplest people, and dis- flowers and streamers preparatory to its elevation, and
injurious to sound morals. When new pupils arrive, pose them to joyful demonstrations in word and act. to the doctor's own appearance in the ring. He
they find themselves in the midst of a busy little | The sun, as the immediate author of the glories of the always spoke of this festivity as one wherein he joined
world; they perceive industry and occupation accom season, was now worshipped by the Celtic nations with peculiar delight to himself and advantage to his
panied by enjoyment; they soon acquire a love of under the name of “Baal; hence the festival of Beltein, neighbours.”
intellectual and moral exercise for their own sake ; still faintly observed in Ireland and the Highlands of À certain superstitious feeling attached to May-
and gradually falling into the stream of duties, in Scotland. Even in Ayrshire, they kindled Baal's fire day. The dew of that morning was considered as a
turn exert an influence on others. But though ap- in the evening of May-day, till about the year 1790. cosmetic of the highest efficacy, and women, especially
parently left to act as free agents, they are indivi- | The Romans held games called Floralia, at which young women, who are never unwilling to improve in
dually under constant supervision; the effects of cir- there was great display of flowers, and where women this respect, used to go abroad before sunrise to gather
cumstances on their bodies and minds are observed ; | danced, if we are to believe Juvenal, only too enthusi- it. To this day, there is a resort of the fair sex every
evil propensities are restrained, and every thing is astically. The May-day jollities of modern Europe May-morning to Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, for
done to inspire confidence, self-control, and that self seem to be directly descended from the Floralia. the purpose of washing their faces with the dew. Mr
approval which is ever the reward of good conduct. In England, we have to go back a couple of hundred Pepys, in his curious diary written in the time of

I believe I should only tire the reader by saying years for the complete May-day; since then it has Charles II., gravely tells us of his wife gone to Wool-
any thing more respecting Hofwyl. I ought to speak gradually declined, and now it is almost extinct. When wich for a little air, and to gather May-dew, “which
with diffidence, as I spent only a few hours within it was fully observed, the business of the day began Mrs Turner hath taught her is the only thing in the
the walls of the institution; and before pronouncing with the day itself, that is to say, at midnight. We world [Rowland's Kalydor not being then invented]
an opinion, ought to have followed the plan of an have the authority of Shakspeare, that with the popu- to wash her face with.” Scott, in his “ Discovery of
Irish nobleman who lately went to the establishment, lace of England it was impossible to sleep on May Witchcraft,” speaks of a sprig of hawthorn gathered
like myself, for a forenoon, but was so delighted with morning. Immediately after twelve had struck, on May day, and hung in the entry to a house, as a
all he saw that he stayed six months. My impression they were all astir, wishing each other a merry May, presumed preservative against all malign intluences.
is, that the class instruction and physical and moral as they still, at the same hour on the first of January, We find another quaint superstition as to May-day
training at Hofwyl are of the first order ; at all events, wish each other a happy new year. They then went in Gay’s “Shepherd's Week :".
I never saw any thing to compare with it in England forth, with music and the blowing of horns, to some

" Last May-day fair, I search'd to find a sair and I am assured by those who have children in the neighbouring wood, where they employed themselves That might my secret lover's name reveal. institution--persons who know what education should in breaking down and gathering branches. These Upon a gooseberry-bush a snail I found, be that it is all they could wish. How far M. de they brought back at an early hour, and planted' over For always snails near sweetest fruit abound. Fellenberg has realised the views on which he origin-their doors, so that by daylight the whole village looked

I seized the vermin; home I quickly sped,

And on the hearth the milk-white enibers spread. ally set out, is a different question. I rather think quite a bower. The citizens of London went a-Maying

Slow crawld the snail, and if I right can spell, he has been disappointed. The bulk of the Swiss, as in this fashion, notwithstanding their comparative dis

In the soft ashes mark'd a curious L. I mentioned on a former occasion, are a set of hard. tance from woods. They went marshalled in parishes, Oh! may this wondrous omen lucky prove, working peasant farmers. They are diligent, frugal, or in unions of two or three parishes; their mayor

For L is found in Lubberkin and Love." and virtuous, but their minds are contracted. The and aldermen went also ; and we read of Henry VIII. There was also a practice of making fools on Mayoffer of M. de Fellenberg to educate their children has and Queen Catherine riding from Greenwich to day, similar to what obtains on the first of the prenever been accepted of with hearty approbation or Shooter's Hill

, attended by lords and ladies, to join ceding month. The deluded were called May-goslings. thanks. Their plan of rearing a family consists in in the sport. In some places, the Mayers brought it was held unlucky to marry in May, a notion which, making their children contribute a share to the gene- home a garland suspended from a pole, round which we learn from Ovid, existed among the Romans. ral means of subsistence. A child of four years can they danced. In others, and this was a more general A gentleman residing at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, tend a goat ; a boy of twelve can handle a spade. The custom, there was an established May-pole for the vil. communicated to Mr Hone curious account of the whole scheme of operations in Switzerland is to take lage, which it was their business to dress up with way in which May-day is observed at that place. The out of every living being all the work he or she can flowers and flags, and dance around throughout all Mayers there express their judgment of the estimableproduce to the general stock. Against such mean the latter part of the day. A May-pole was as tall as ness of the characters of their neighbours by fixing ideas of the value of juvenile labour, M. de Fellenberg the mast of a sloop of fifty tons, painted with spiral branches upon their doors before morning ; those who could not possibly contend. The offer to a parent to stripes of black and white, and properly fixed in a are unpopular find themselves marked with nettle or educate his child was equivalent to asking him to part frame to keep it erect. Here lads and lasses danced in some other vile weed instead. “ Throughout the day, with a servant ; and it was imagined that the offer was a joyful ring for hours to the sounds of the viol, and parties of these Mayers are seen dancing and frolicking made only for selfish purposes. Consequently, the lower masquers personating Robin Hood, Little John, Maid in various parts of the town. The group that I saw department of the institution has been the least suc- Marian, and others of the celebrated Sherwood com- to-day, which remained in Bancroft for more than an cessful ; still, it has sent out a considerable number of pany of outlaws, as well as morris-dancers, performed hour, was composed as follows :-First came two men lads well skilled in husbandry on the most approved their still more merry pranks. May-poles, as tending with their faces blacked, one of them with a birch models, and that is something done for the great out to encourage levity of deportment, were condemned broom in his hand, and a large artificial hump on his field of ignorance. The intermediate school has been by the puritans in Elizabeth's time ; James I. sup- back ; the other dressed as a woman, all in rags and a degree more successful, and is generally well at-ported them in his Book of Sports; they were alto- tatters, with a large straw bonnet on, and carrying a tended. It must likewise have had a beneficial effect gether suppressed during the time of the Common- ladle : 'these are called “Mad Moll and her husband.' in scattering throughout the middle order of society wealth, but got up again at the Restoration. Now, Next came two men, one most fantastically dressed many young men impressed with proper notions of change of manners has done that which ordinances with ribbons, and a great variety of gaudy-coloured trade, agriculture, and social organisation. The of parliament could not do. This object, so inter silk handkerchiefs tied round his arms from the strength of the institution appears to have centered woven with our national poetical literature, is all shoulders to the wrists, and down his thighs and legs in the upper school, which is attended by gentlemen's but rooted out of the land. Washington Irving to the ankles; he carried a drawn sword in his hand; sons from Germany, and some other countries to speaks of having seen one in the earlier days of his leaning upon his arm was a youth dressed as a fine which the fame of the institution has spread, includ- acquaintance with England.- probably twenty-five lady, in white muslin, and profusely bedecked from ing Switzerland. There are a few young gentlemen years ago. “I shall never,” he says, “ forget the top to toe with gay ribbons ; these, I understood, from England. The plan of uniting in one establish- delight I felt on first seeing a May-pole. It was on were called the Lord and Lady' of the company. ment three boarding-schools of different grades, ap- the banks of the Dee, close by the picturesque old After these followed six or seven couples more, attired peared to me objectionable, and I imagine it would bridge that stretches across the river from the quaint much in the same style as the lord and lady, only the scareely answer in England. I learned, however, that little city of Chester. I had already been carried men were without swords. When this group reit has never been attended with the collisions I'anti- back into former days by the antiquities of that ve-ceived a satisfactory contribution at any house, the cipated ; and that when all the various boys happened nerable place, the examination of which is equal to music struck up from a violin, clarionet, and fife, acto assemble, there was nothing like arrogant superiority turning over the pages of a black-letter volume, or companied by the long drum, and they began the on the one hand, or inferiority on the other, but that gazing on the pictures in Froissart. The May-pole merry dance, and very well they danced, I assure you ; all was perfect harmony between them.

on the margin of that poetic stream completed the the men-uomen looked and footed it so much like real The world in general, condemning what it cannot illusion. My fancy adorned it with wreaths of flowers, women, that I stood in great doubt as to which sex understand, or which does not fall in with its own and peopled the green bank with all the dancing they belonged to, till Mrs J— assured me that prejudices, has, I believe, not hesitated to hold up revelry of May-day. The mere sight of this May-pole women were not permitted to mingle in these sports. 31. de Fellenberg as a charlatan, and his schemes as gave a glow to my feelings, and spread a charm over While the dancers were merrily footing it, the prinat best idle dreams. That this character is unjust, the country for the rest of the day; and as I traversed cipal amusement to the populace was caused by the I have no hesitation in saying. He may not have a part of the fair plains of Cheshire, and the beautiful grimaces and clownish tricks of Mad Moll and her realised all his intentions ; but these intentions were borders of Wales, and looked from among swelling husband. When the circle of spectators became so sincere, and he has at least sacrificed a lifetime in hills down a long green valley, through which the contracted as to interrupt the dancers, then Mad endeavouring to carry them into effect. Local cir- Deva wound its wizard stream,' my imagination turned Moll's husband went to work with his broom, and cumstances, as I have hinted, have not a little ham- all into a perfect Arcadia. I value every custom that swept the road dust all round the circle into the pered his views ; but he has clearly made an impres- tends to infuse poetical feeling into the common faces of the crowd ; and when any pretended affronts sion in the educational arrangements of his country; people, and to sweeten and soften the rudeness of were offered (and many were offered) to his wife, he and, by the model which he has presented of a farm rustic manners, without destroying their simplicity. pursued the offenders, broom in hand'; if he could not cultivated on the best principles of science and art, his Indeed, it is to the decline of this happy simplicity overtake them, whether they were males or females, exertions have proved of great value to the agriculture that the decline of this custom may be traced ; and he flung his broom at them. These flights and purof this part of the continent. Persons, also, who have the rural dance on the green, and the homely May-day suits caused an abundance of merriment.”+ The been trained up at his seminary have gone forth and pageant, have gradually disappeared, in proportion as established industrial schools on a similar model in the peasantry have become expensive and artificial in

* Hone's Every-Day Book. | Ibid.

1

INSANITY CURED BY THE PATIENT HIMSELF.

ear to ear.

Hitchin Mayers have a song much in the style of a quarter-staff on his shoulder ; and Morris, the mole- | however, an extensive though superficial reader; and
Christmas carol, which Mr Hone has also given : taker, who represented Much, the miller's son, having those who conversed with her only for a short time, be

lieved her to be a much better informed person than she
a long pole with an inflated bladder attached to one
" Remember us, poor Mayers all,

We have said, that, with all her disadvanAnd thus do we begin

end. And after them the May-pole, drawn by eight really was. To lead our lives in righteousness,

fine oxen, decorated with scarfs, ribbons, and flowers tages, Isabel was not absolutely disagreeable. So far Or else we die in sin.

from this, she generally attracted attention in company of divers colours, and the tips of their horns were em

by her easy and lady-like manners, and by a countenance We have been rambling all this night,

bellished with gold. The rear was closed by the hobby which, perhaps, was less beautiful than interesting and And almost all this day;

horse and the dragon. When the May-pole was drawn expressive. Unassailed by any of those severe trials And now, returned back again,

into the square, the foresters sounded their horns, and which put to the test the real principles upon which we We have brought you a branch of May.

the populace expressed their pleasure by, shouting in- act, she had not made the discovery herself, nor had any A branch of May we have brought you,

cessantly until it reached the place assigned for its of her friends made it for her, that she was in reality selAnd at your door it stands ; It is but a sprout,

elevation. During the time the ground was prepar. fish and unamiable; for while every one ministered to But it's well budded out

ing for its reception, the barriers of the bottom of the her gratification, she had only to express her gratitude, By the work of our Lord's hands.

enclosure were opened for the villagers to approach affect a little willingness to deny herself, and expatiate The hedges and trees they are so green, and adorn it with ribbons, garlands, and flowers, as

on her regret at being the cause of so much trouble, and As green as any leek ;

their inclination prompted them. The pole being all went on exactly as she wished—the trouble was inOur heavenly Father he watered them sufficiently onerated with finery, the square was

curred, the attempted self-denial was frustrated, and the With his heavenly dew so sweet.

cleared from such as had no part' to perform in the kindness for which she expressed her gratitude was The heavenly gates are open wide,

pageant, and then it was elevated amidst the reiter- repeated and increased. What a lesson do we learn by Our paths are beaten plain,

a sudden reverse of this order of things !- a lesson, perated acclamations of the spectators. The woodmen haps, the most severe that experience ever teaches ; And if a man be not too far gone,

and the milk-maidens danced around it according to while, at the same time, our dependence upon animal He may return again.

the rustic fashion ; the measure was played by Peretto and selfish gratification, our irritability, impatience, and The life of man is but a span, It flourishes like a flower;

Cheveritte, the baron's chief minstrel, on the bagpipes, wounded feeling, when these are denied, show us but too We are here to-day, and gone to-morrow,

accompanied with the pipe and tabor, performed by faithfully the living picture of those passions of which we And we are dead in an hour.

one of his associates. When the dance was finished, believed ourselves incapable, simply because indulgence The moon shines bright, and the stars give a light, Gregory the jester, who undertook to play the hobby- had hitherto lulled them to rest.” This listless and A little before it is day;

horse, came forward with his appropriate equipment, spoiled child, the story goes on to say, is married, but So God bless you all, both great and small,

and frisking up and down the square without restricliaving no mental resources to fall back upon, and no And send you a joyful May !"

tion, imitated the galloping, curvetting, ambling, taste for the active duties of life, she seeks artificial exIn London, as has been said, May-day was once as trotting, and other paces of a horse, to the infinite citement; the result is such as might have been exmud observed as it was in any rural district. There satisfaction of the lower classes of the spectators. He pected-she loses caste, and sinks into disgraced obscu

rity. were several May-poles throughout the city, particu- was followed by Peter Parker, the baron's ranger, who larly one near the bottom of Catherine Street in the personated a dragon, hissing, yelling, and shaking his Strand, which, rather oddly, became in its latter days wings with wonderful ingenuity; and to complete the I recollect a case which occurred to me thirty-five a support for a large telescope at Wanstead in Essex, mirth, Morris, in the character of Much, having small years ago, of a seaman, who had been living in a very inthe property of the Royal Society. The milkmaids bells attached to his knees and elbows, capered here temperate way for some time, until he became so maniawere amongst the last conspicuous celebrators of the and there between the two monsters in the form of a cal, that he could not be kept on board his ship. He was day. They used to dress themselves in holiday guise dance; and as often as he came near to the sides of sent to the workhouse at Hull

, where he had only been

a few days, when he leaped out of the window, in conseon this morning, and come in bands with fiddles, the enclosure, he cast slyly a handful of meal into the whereto, they danced, attended by a strange-looking faces of the gaping rustics, or rapped them about their quence, as he afterwards related to me, of believing that pyramidal pile, covered with pewter plates, ribbons, heads with the bladder tied at the end of his pole. In he should escape him, if he could but get out of the and streamers, either borne by a man upon his head, the mean time, Sampson, representing Friar Tuck, house. He said he felt quite free for some time ; but he or by two men upon a hand-barrow: this was called walked with much gravity around the square, and at last heard him beneath the pavement, wherever he their garland. The young chimney-sweepers also made occasionally let fall his heavy staff upon the toes of went in the town. He then thought, that if he could this a peculiar festival, coming forth into the streets such of the crowd as he thought were approaching only leap on board a ship, which was at some little disin fantastic dresses, and making all sorts of unearthly more forward than they ought to do ; and if the suf tance from the wharf, he should avoid him; but he had noises with their shovels and brushes. The benevolent ferers cried out from the sense of pain, he addressed not been long on board, before he felt convinced that he Mrs Montagu, one of the first of the class of literary them in a solemn tone of voice, advising them to count was scratching at the bottom of the vessel, and it then ladies in England, gave these home slaves an annual their beads, say a paternoster or two, and to beware occurred to him, that if he got on shore and cut his dinner on this day, in order, we presume, to aid a little of purgatory. These vagaries were highly palatable throat, he should

be safe. He borrowed a knife from a

sailor whom he met, and instantly cut his throat from in reconciling them to existence. In London, May- to the populace, who announced their delight by reday still remains the great festival of the sweeps, and peated plaudits and loud bursts of laughter; for this destruction, the pharynx was wounded, but the carotids

As is very usual in these attempts at selfmuch finery and many vagaries are exhibited on the reason they were continued for a considerable length

were uninjured; the hemorrhage from the superficial occasion.

of time ; but Gregory, beginning at last to falter in vessels was enormous. The parts were speedily brought The Robin Hood games and morris-dances, by his paces, ordered the dragon to fall back. The well- together; the wound healed by the first intention; he which this day was distinguished till the Reforma- nurtured beast, being out of breath, readily obeyed, was never insane one moment after the brain was retion, appear, from many scattered notices of them, to and their two companions followed their example, lieved by the immediate loss of blood. He related to me have been entertainments full of interest to the com which concluded this part of the pastime. Then the all the above circumstances. He got perfectly well, and mon people. Robin has been alternatively styled in archers set up a target at the lower part of the green, went to sea within a month after his unsuccessful attempt at least one document as the King of May, while Maid and made trial of their skill in a regular succession. at self-destruction.—Sir W. C. Ellis on Insanity. Marian seems to have been held as the Queen. The Robin Hood and Will Stukely excelled their com

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STATISTICS OF MUSCULAR POWER. various scattered particulars respecting these festivi- rades, and both of them lodged an arrow in the centre

Man has the power of imitating every motion but that ties, which make but dry reading by themselves, have circle of gold, so near to each other that the difference of flight. To effect these, he has, in maturity and health, been wrought up to some advantage by Mr Strutt in could not readily be decided, which occasioned them sixty bones in his head, sixty in his thighs and legs, sixtyhis “ Queen Hoo Hall,” where he describes May-day to shoot again, when Robin struck the gold a second two in his arms and hands, sixty-seven in his trunk. He as celebrated by the servants and dependants of an time, and Stukely's arrow was affised upon the edge has also 434 muscles. His heart makes sixty-four pulEnglish baron of the fifteenth century. (We abridge of it. Robin was therefore adjudged the conqueror; sations in a minute; and, therefore, 3,840 in an honra little in the matter of costume.) « In the front of and the prize of honour, a garland of laurel embel- 92,160 in a day. There are also three complete circulathe pavilion, a large square was staked out, and fenced lished with variegated ribbons, was put upon his head; tions of his blood in the short space of an hour. In with ropes, to prevent the crowd from pressing upon and to Stukely was given a garland of ivy, because he respect to the comparative speed of animated beings and

was the second best performer in that contest. The of impelled bodies, it may be remarked, that size and were also two bars at the bottom of the enclosure, pageant was finished with the archery, and the pro- parative strength, although one body giving any quantity through which the actors might pass and repass, as cession began to move away to make room for the

of motion to another is said to lose so much of its own. occasion required. Six young men first entered the villagers, who afterwards assembled in the square, and The sloth is by no means a small animal, and yet it can square, clothed in jerkins of leather, with axes upon amused themselves by dancing round the May-pole in travel only fifty paces in a day; a worm crawls only five their shoulders like woodmen, and their heads bound promiscuous companies, according to the ancient cus inches in fifty seconds ; but a ladybird can fly 20 million with large garlands of ivy leaves, intertwined with tom.”

times its own length in less than an hour. An elk can run sprigs of hawthorn. Then followed six young maidens

a mile and a half in seven minutes ; an antelope a mile in of the village, dressed in blue kirtles, with garlands of

a minute; the wild mule of Tartary has a speed even primroses on their heads, leading a fine sleek cow de

AN ELEGANTLY USELESS YOUNG LADY.

greater than that; an eagle can fly eighteen leagues in an corated with ribbons of various colours interspersed of this class of young ladies we find the following hour; and a Canary falcon can even reach 250 leagues in with flowers ; and the horns of the animal were tipped specimen in a work now publishing, called Family

the short space of sixteen hours.—Bucke. with gold. These were succeeded by six foresters Secrets”:-" Isabel advanced along the path of life with

ADHERENCE TO OLD CUSTOMS. equipped in green tunics, with hoods and hosen of the feeble and uncertain steps ; for in addition to her con The Welsh plough is one of the most awkward unmeansame colour; each of them carried a bugle-horn*at stitutional delicacy, she had to contend with a will un- ing tools to be found in any civilised country; but the tached to a baldrick of silk, which he sounded as he disciplined, and with endless longings after personal Rotherham and other improved ploughs are coming into passed the barrier. After them came Peter Lanaret, gratification unchecked, upregulated, and consequently general use. A gentleman, a naval officer in Cardiganthe baron's chief falconer, who personified Robin incapable of being gratified to their full extent. Indulged shire, introduced the light Rotherham, and insisted on Hood; he was attired in a bright grass-green tunic, in a kind of dreamy idleness, from which she was seldom back, the new ploughs were dismissed the service, and the

as a favourite child, the greater part of her life was spent his ploughmen using them. As soon as he turned his fringed with gold; his hood and his hosen were partie roused, except by some awakening desire for personal old ones brought into the field. One day, in a rage, he coloured, blue and white; he had a large garland of gratification, some complaint of mental or bodily uneasi- committed the old ploughs to the flames, and set the

new rose-buds on his head, a bow bent in his hand, a sheaf of arrows at his girdle, and a bugle-horn depending she was generally too languid or too indolent to carry and returning, he found the new ploughs in the ditch, and ness, or some scheme for momentary amusement, which

ones a-going. Afterwards, taking a ride to cool himself, from a baldrick of light blue tarantine, embroidered into effect. The consequence of all this was, that Isabel old ploughs, borrowed from the neighbours, at work; the with silver; he had also a sword and a dagger, the arrived at the age of eighteen, a victim to dyspepsia, an master then thinking it useless to persevere, gave up the hilts of both being richly embossed with gold. Fabian, amateur in medicine, a martyr to nervous maladier, and contest. “I have," said he, “ seen various kinds of human a page, as Little John, walked at his right hand ; and as elegantly discontented with life, and all it had to beings, in different parts of the globe, but none so obCecil Cellerman, the butler, as Will Stukely, at his offer, as any other young lady of her age could think stinately bent on old usages as the Welsh.”—Loudon's left. These, with ten others of the jolly "outlaw's becoming her character and station. The worst of all Encyclopædia of Agriculture. attendants who followed, were habited in green gar

was, that, by this system of injudicious treatment, false ments, bearing their bows bent in their hands, and tastes had been created, unnatural cravings excited for

An error occurred in the paper on Coleridge which appeared in their arrows in their girdles. Then came two maidens, bodily as well as mental stimulants, which, under the

the Journal, No. 530. The poet's children, we are informed by in orange-coloured kirtles with white courtpies, strewnames of cordials, tonics, and restoratives, were but too

P. H., are the following:-David Hartley, author of an interesting ing flowers, followed immediately by the Maid Marian, plentifully supplied. Isabel had not, like her sisters, book entitled " The Worthies of Lancashire and Yorkshire"

Derwent, who has written a large volume on the scriptural cha. elegantly habited in a watchet-coloured tunic reaching in which school discipline might have been highly effica- racter of the English Church-and Sara, the writer of a beautiful to the ground. She was supported by two bride- cious ; she had not even been considered capable of

tale called "Phantasmion.' maidens, in sky-coloured rochets girt with crimson enduring the usual process of mental instruction at girdles. After them came four other females in green home. Thus, her education, even that inferior part which LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by courtpies, and garlands of violets and cowslips. Then relates to the understanding and the memory, was as W. S. Orr, Paternoster Row. Sampson, the smith, as Friar Tuck, carrying a huge / vague and irregular as could well be imagined. She was,

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars

10 in

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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,"

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.

NUMBER 536.

SATURDAY, MAY 7, 1842.

PRICE 1d.

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trusting by and by to get the whole. And it is really small astonishment, in a long-tailed coat. Our tall THE STRUGGLES OF ADOLESCENCE.

remarkable how far even this alteration will go in friend had cunningly kept the matter a secret, eviThe passage from boyhood to youth was marked advancing the youth to his proper character. One of dently, as we thought, for the purpose of creating a amongst the Romans by a ceremonious investiture a set of boys accustomed to play together, appears sensation. I and my remaining jacketed friend were with what they called the toga cirilis, or robe of man some fine spring morning with his organs of escape taken by surprise, and stood perfectly awe-struck and hood. I presume this was put on at a certain age, so encased in boots. He is instantly recognised as having abashed, peering from under our raised hands at our that there could be no dubiety about the matter. undergone some strange change, though they cannot exalted companion. If he had exercised authority The boy was a boy one day ; next day, he was a man ; at first tell what it consists in. He is no longer the over us while he wore a jacket like ourselves, what all the world acknowledged the transition, and there companion they had yesterday, but somehow has got would he not do now that he was arrayed in all the was no more to be said. It is very different in this quite above them. They approach with the hesitation pride and plenitude of a long-tailed coat? We tremcountry, where a lad will sometimes hang for a year due to his felt superiority, to see what it is that has bled at the anticipation, which only turned out to be or two in a doubtful state between boy and man, to changed him so suddenly, and ere long detect the

too true. He of the long-tailed coat kept us in a state the great discomfort of himself, and not without some boots ; yet cannot at first understand how those of perpetual helotism. There was a swell and a inconvenience to his neighbours, who scarcely know articles should have such an effect. The truth is, it swagger in his air that nothing short of a long-tailed how to address or consider him. He himself is pro- is not the material boots upon his feet that make him coat could have imparted. His voice waxed louder bably eager to be ranked with men, and for this reason look different ; there is something within that passeth and more imperious. He dictated and dogmatised has long put away boyish things ; but his seniors, show. It is the boots of his mind that make the over us at his pleasure. We of course succumbed besomehow, are usually plaguily slow at perceiving that impress. He feels booted, and no longer is the boy fore him, for what could jackets do against a longhe has ceased to be a boy—so that, unless he puts for- he was. Were his actual boots quite concealed from tailed coat? But were we to continue in that state ward some determined claim, he stands little chance view, he would still be the new man-like Addison's for ever? That was the question. We had cvidently of being accepted in the superior capacity. This, waiting-maid, whom there was no speaking to on the arrived at a great crisis, and something must be done. again, his bashfulness may forbid his doing, so that he day when she put on her new garters. The other My little jacketed friend and I did not say much on is condemned to pine in secret under an injustice for fellows have a faint sense of how the case stands, and the subject, but our looks spoke volumes, and we knew which there is no immediate remedy.

at once see that, unless they can get boots too, they that we felt as one. I may also remark that our longIf a youngster have elder brothers, who have for must be content to strike under. Home, therefore, tailed friend did not in so many words tell us that we some time been received into the pale of manhood, his they go to their parents, and commence a process were wretches in jackets, but his whole demeanour case is even worse. I have known desperate struggles of agitation for boots — to every refusal replying, announced it as plainly as if he had spoken it. He take place between younger and elder brothers, in the “Well, there's Harry Go-ahead has got boots, and he first humbled us with an attempt at affability and assertion of a claim to be considered as an adult speci- is no older than we,” until they gain their point. This condescension ; then cooled off entirely. He was now men of the genus homo. It is very shameful ; but done, all is smooth for a time, but only till some one joined to a set of younkers who wore regular longcertainly the policy of the elder parties is decidedly of the set takes another stride in advance—for in tailed coats and smoked cigars. We were no longer of the keep-him-down character. Orlando, in As You stance, getting a stock in place of a black handker- fit company for him. Flesh and blood could not stand Like It, is but a type of what all younger brothers have chief, or a hat instead of a cap—when instantly the this unmoved, and in the first heat of our indignation to endure from elder brothers. One may have got whole pack, as before, must struggle to get upon the we cogitated how we might manage to humble him in above any thing like a particular affection for bread same footing.

turn by cutting a skirt away from his coat. But this and butter for several months, and by rising at five The getting of boots, stocks, hats, and such things, passed off. We came to see that it would be better every morning, may have made way through not only are but inferior stages in the career towards manhood. for us to try to rise to his level, than to endeavour to Smith's Wealth of Nations, but also Gibbon's History They are unmarked, unfelt, in comparison with the pull him down to ours—a plan, by the way, which of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ; yet grand business of getting a long-tailed coat. There may be recommended to the consideration of many those big fellows will still deny one's claim to man- lies the real struggle of youth. The other things are older persons with curtailing doctrines. Not many hood. One may have even begun to shave pretty re outworks : the long-tailed coat is the citadel. I well weeks passed ere my sole remaining companion had gularly, though somewhat clandestinely, once a-week; remember that, when I attained to boots, my ambi

succeeded in the great object. By some means, to yet for some time it will all not do. Constant squab- tion had scarcely yet conceived the idea of a long me at the time inexplicable, he had contrived to bling and fighting goes on-in some instances for one tailed coat. . One is modest at first, after the manner nestle himself into a pea-green coat with marvellously or more years—before the point is finally settled. of Colonel Jack, of whom Defoe records—" About long tails. I had scarcely recovered from the sur

A toga cirilis, to be put on at a particular age, would this time the colonel thought he might take it upon prise which this gave me, when I saw him one day save all these inconveniences. We have, indeed, a him to wear a shirt.” About the time when I got a walking down the street arm in arm with the tall toja virilis in the long-tailed coat ; but then there is hat, the vision of a long-tailed coat hung with con youth who had lately so shamefully entreated us no fixed time for induing it. The difficulty with the siderable distinctness before my mental eyesight. I both, and whom we, in our resentment, had vowed young man is—to get his long-tailed coat. That would beheld the skirts dangling, and the yellow buttons never again to speak to—no, upon no account whatsettle the matter at once ; but then nobody will let gleaming, in one of those fits of clair-royance which Here was a specimen of human constancy! him have it. Father, elder brothers, all who have any are only enjoyed in youth. Still the coat, like many Matters were quickly enough decided. In less than concern in the business, are found to labour under a equally important matters, long remained a matter of a week, my late companion had completely deserted remarkable prejudice about long-tailed coats, albeit abstract speculation—a kind of Yarrow Unrisited. I the party of the jackets, and was received as a full wearing such garments most complacently themselves. was sensible of its importance, for I saw how differ. privileged member of the fraternity of the long-tailed The candidate is sure to be by far too young for it : ently a lad in a jacket and one in a long-tailed coat coats. in a year or two it may do very well, but it is absurd were esteemed; but at the same time I knew that I went home melancholy and misanthropical. to speak of such a thing just now. In short, he must I was yet young and small, and without any proper Visions of a long-tailed coat, as already mentioned, wait. And thus they would

pretensions to be so far advanced. At length, how- had ere now visited me, but I was not eager on the “ Bid him sigh on from day to day,

ever, the time came when the long-tailed coat could subject : I could have waited meekly till time was And wish and wish the soul away"be no longer dispensed with.

ripe for the glory which I knew was ultimately to be until he almost rises in rebellion against authority I and two juvenile and jacketed friends had for mine. But when I saw myself thus cast forth as it of every kind; when at length, like many more im- years been playfellows. We not only played together were from my own proper society, on account of my portant things, that is conceded to terror which has

on all occasions, but had a regular alliance with re- wearing a jacket, it was no longer possible to exercise been denied to justice. Well may we say to the youth, gard to all matters offensive and defensive. As we patience. It was now clear that if I did not get a “The long-tailed coat would make you a man at once ; grew up, we came to have a joint-stock collection of long-tailed coat myself, and that speedily, I must fall but first catch your long-tailed coat!"

rabbits, from which we expected to derive an immense back upon a set of boys below me in age and all other Yet, if we cannot preach in the kirk, we may sing fortune; but this, like so many other joint-stock con respects. Agitation had not then become a political mass in the quier. It sometimes happens that, although cerns, turned out a complete failure. Nothing oc- principle, but was a recognised domestic one, and I a long-tailed coat is for the time unattainable, a pair curred to mar the friendly feeling which subsisted lost no time in taking advantage of it. I spoke to of boots is not so ; and the exchange of shoes for boots between us, until one of my companions, who was a my sister to speak to my mother to speak to my is a step towards the desired object. A sensible youth little taller and spoke somewhat louder than the father to get me a long-tailed coat. Next evening, as will be content to take his reform by instalments, / rest, appeared before us one morning, to our no the worthy man was reposing in his easy chair after

ever.

dinner, quietly and unsuspectingly taking his usual tunities for study, little intercourse with philosophers, communications to any respectable and intelligent tumbler of toddy, the trenches were opened by the and no theory to lead him on and reward him for his inquirer. He reserved no portion of information to deputed hand of my maternal parent, who, in the labours. Wo remember well his appearance at the himself, but profusely bestowed it without considera

tions of selfishness, or thought of compensation of any taken it into his head that he would like very much to Edinburgh meeting of the British Association : even

kind. Had he been actuated by any thing apart from have a long-tailed coat. The old gentleman flew into then, when possessing name and fame, he looked only an indomitable love of the science, it is more than a violent passion, as old gentlemen are apt to do when like a rather homely kind of farmer. He is recently probable that his knowledge might have been turned their pockets are attacked. “A long-tailed coat !” dead; and as there is not only a scientific but a moral to good account for his own exclusive benefit in he roared out in an old commodore sort of way ;“ what interest in his history, a brief view of it, furnished by evident that he mainly snade his profession subservient

his profession. On the contrary, it was perpetually does he want with a long-tailed coat ? Nonsense, nonsense ! If he gets a long-tailed coat ten years one who knew him, is here submitted.]

to his pursuit of geology. His devotion to the science hence, it will be soon enough.” I heard the words

William Smith was born, March 23, 1769, at

was evidenced by his receiving about this time a from behind the door, and my heart died within me. Churchill in Oxfordshire-over, as he was fond to designation by which he was usually distinguished Not get a long-tailed coat for ten years! Was I to remark, the oolitic formation. He commenced as a throughout his life from the innumerable multitude be doomed to wear a jacket, and be the laughing-stock geologist in his very boyhood, it being one of his of Smiths who inhabit our island-namely, that of of the whole long-tailed fraternity, for such a long earliest amusements to collect the fossil shells which

“Strata Smith." time? Rather, I thought, let me die at once; and I abound in this class of rocks, and to observe their urged Mr Smith to lay his views and discoveries before

Dr James Anderson and other scientific gentlemen my mother, with whom I was a favourite, evidently several characters. His patrimony being small, he the world, and offered him such assistance as was in appeared to be on my side, and I then saw reason for engaged in the profession of a surveyor of land; and their power, which offers were repeated on the part hope, knowing that she was in general a capital agi- in the course of the acquisition of professional know- of other men of eminence. In 1799, therefore, aptator. That very night, to my unspeakable joy, it ledge, it was his delight to store facts in reference to peared a small “Tabular View of the Superposition of was announced that "the governor's had relented, the strata whose surfaces he measured and appor- English Strata ;” and in 1801, a prospectus for an and that I might go and get measure taken for a long- tioned as a matter of business. In 1791, Mr Smith “ Accurate Delineation and Description of the Natural tailed coat!

was employed in Somersetshire ; and some years | Order of the Various Strata of England and Wales," I immediately sallied forth and sought the dwelling later he was engaged in executing the Somerset Coal &c. This prospectus is in itself a brief compendium of the tailor, at whose door I rapped in a bold deter- Canal. Here he frequently descended the coal-pits, of the practical applications of geology, and displays mined manner. “Is Mr Toggins at home ?” said I, and obtained much information on the coal-measures, the growing mastery of the subject, which was finally in an authoritative tone. * Yes, sir;" and I was from the colliers and his own keen personal inspec- | proved beyond a doubt by the appearance, in 1815, of shown into a room. In a short time, Toggins ap- tion. In the course of this period, he became intimately the principal portion of his “ Delineation of the Strata peared, with his measures disposed over his arm, and acquainted with the minute characteristics of the of England and Wales.” This work was a large map, these he right quickly applied to my person. I re- stratification around Bath, which, including the coal- in fifteen coloured sheets, of the kind now known as member yet the pleasure with which I felt his fingers measures, embraced some of the most important of geological maps, and was the unaided production of touch the back of my leg as he measured me for the our English rocks and clays. He in time collected this one zealous geologist. Considered in this light, tails. I told him that I wished a first-rate article, numerous organic remains, all of which he was careful and also, indeed, of that of a near approach to general and expected that he would spare no pains. He to label in reference to the precise positions from accuracy, its merits can scarcely be overrated. And solemnly promised to do as I wished; and added, that which they were derived. He was now called to although it was not long after followed by the more to give the coat every advantage, he would put on a survey on the Coteswold Hills; and, early in 1794, to accurate map of Mr Greenough, it is not difficult to set of buttons of a pattern newly introduced in town, attend Parliament in connexion with the business of suppose that the formation of the latter was greatly and which had only that day reached him. I left him the Somerset Coal-Canal Company. His journey to facilitated by the labours of Mr Smith, at least in with my head in the clouds. On Saturday night the London afforded him an opportunity, thoroughly made diffusing geological knowledge over a large portion of coat was brought home. I tried it on; the fit was use of, of observing the contours of the hills and emi- England. Nor must it be forgotten that he had long faultless, the workmanship beautiful, the buttons nences in the various neighbourhoods ; nor was the prepared the main parts of the map, but did not meet splendid. Next morning, when the bells began to conformation of ranges of knolls and minor elevations with sufficient encouragement to publish it. Sir Joring for church, I walked forth in my coat, and pro- lost upon our observer. A stage-coach journey was seph Banks had become acquainted with our geologist ceeded with as unconcerned an air as possible up the in fact to him the perusal, though necessarily a hasty in one of his visits to the agricultural meetings, called sunny side of the street, which I adopted for the perusal, of a page of nature's volume.

"sheep-shearings," at Woburn and Holkham, and double

purpose of showing off, and of seeing the sha He was wont to relate with peculiar zest the history afterwards proved a warm patron and the promoter dow of my skirts on the wall. As I went along, one of a long, but to him by no means tedious, travel of a subscription to assist the publications of our of a group of urchins upon whom I suddenly came, which he undertook with two engineers, in 1794, to author. cried “Haud out o' the man's road !"-an evidence the north of England, for the purpose of collecting In 1804 Mr Smith had removed to London, and in that I was no longer a boy, but a full-fledged man. information on canals and collieries. Seated foremost 1806 he published a treatise on irrigation. From this The sentence, pronounced as it was in the broadest in the chaise, he explored every point of broken ground period up to 1815, he had attracted notice in various Scotch of a country town, was music to my ears, and on two lines between Bath and Newcastle-on-Tyne ; ways; and in that year, when his great map appeared, intiated me as wind does a bag. I felt tall, and strong, and, instructed by previous observations, he correctly the British Museum purchased his whole collection of and dignified, and not-care-a-farthingishly, and went interpreted the hieroglyphics presented by the con- fossils for L.500. The task of arranging these led to into church in a frame of mind any thing but that of a tours of distant hills, and traced, by aid of these and the publication of two small quartos, entitled, “Strata sober Christian. On the following morning, it became the form and position of escarpments, the strata of Identified by Organised Fossils" (1815); and “Stratievident that my coat had made a sensation. My for- Bath to the coast of Whitby, and the chalk of the graphical System of Organised Fossils” (1817), the mer companions, who had stood aloof during the jacket Wiltshire downs to the wolds of Lincolnshire and latter being designed as an index to the specimens in régime, now came up, and were as frank and social as Yorkshire. At this period of his life, Mr Smith the museum. Between the appearance of the great ever. I was inclined to be cold at first, but soon was entirely unacquainted with books on physical map in 1815 and 1821, Mr Smith published no less relented. The only punishment I inflicted was to geography or natural history ; although, even if he than twenty geological maps of English counties, often report what I had been told by Toggins, but did not had been learned in their lore, there was little at remarkable for their near approach to accuracy. It believe, that my buttons were the favourite buttons of that time published that could have materially as- is, however, painful to record the fact, that all his the Prince Regent; at which, as I expected, they all sisted him in his inquiries. His ignorance was efforts had been'insufficient to ensure himself a modelooked rather blank. To tell the plain truth, I soon proved by numerous particulars ; and chiefly by his rate or even small competency. He was compelled to saw how absurd it would be to resent their former adoption of the local designations of the particular forego his residence in London, and in some degree to exclusive conduct; for, before we had walked along a strata, and the employment of all such terms as would lead a wandering life in various parts of the country. hundred yards together, I felt the same contempt for be given and recognised in the respective neighbour-In 1824, he delivered a course of lectures on his one or two jacketed striplings of my acquaintance hoods of the rocks. Many of these, however inhar- favourite science to the members of the Yorkshire whom we met, as my new companions had lately ex- monious—such as combrash, forest-marble, lias—are Philosophical Society, and repeated these the same pressed for me.

still preserved in the alphabet of geology, while others year, in conjunction with his nephew (the well-known Thus happily, at length, ended the struggles of have yielded to more correct denominations.

Professor Phillips, the author of several works on adolescence in my case ; but I remain deeply sensible In 1795, when Mr Smith became a housekeeper, geological subjects), at Scarborough and Hull. In of how much better it would be to revive the Roman he began to arrange his collections of fossils from 1825, similar lectures were delivered at Sheffield, and fashion, than to allow a youth to fight his way, as I the vicinity of Bath, in the order of the strata ; and efforts were made to secure some permanent engagehad done, into the toga virilis-freely translated, the before 1799 he had coloured geologically the large ment for Mr Smith. He at length was offered and long-tailed coat.

sheets of the Somersetshire survey, and a circular accepted an occupation as agent to Sir John Johnstone, map of the vicinity of Bath, both remarkably accu- Bart., at the beautiful retreat of Hackness, near Scar

rate. By maps and sections, also, he explained to borough. Here, as usual, he set himself to geological BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES.

numerous scientific gentlemen, who were attracted research, the result of which soon appeared in a map WILLIAM SMITH, THE “FATHER OF ENGLISH GEOLOGY.” | by the novelty of his system to visit him, those views and a collection of fossils. I shall ever remember the

relating to the regular succession and continuity of hearty shake of a weathered hand with which he [For the advance of most sciences two kinds of men strata, and the definite distribution of animal and vege- welcomed me to Hackness, whither I had repaired to are necessary—first, the active observing man who table remains in the earth, which are now placed in reside for some time with him as his pupil." He, on bustles about collecting facts, then the meditative the first lessons of geology. The great distinctive fea- this occasion, set myself and a friend who accompanied reflecting man who systematises these facts and draws tures of Mr Smith's system were now clearly presented me down to a bread and cheese luncheon ; but before conclusions. Geology is eminently one of the sciences to his own mind and to the minds of others. They our hunger was half appeased, he insisted on hanling

were these :- That the fossil productions of the several us out to inspect the outline of the neighbouring hills. requiring two classes of cultivators. The first was more strata are not accidentally and confusedly distributed in My friend, who professed no passion for practical particularly necessary forty or fifty years ago, when them, but that each species has its own peculiar place, geology, could not leave the cottage without casting at the science only existed in its rudest elements. At as belonging to some particular stratum ; that this least “one longing, lingering look behind." that time there were two widely different men engaged species may be either contined to that stratum solely, Mr Smith subsequently spent the main portion of in investigating the aqueous rocks—the German mine- that in the first case it becomes an infallible test of in objects of geological interest. He had, as early

or to that and other particular strata in conjunction; his time at Scarborough, the vicinity of which is rich superintendant Werner, a sublime genius, who theo- the identity of two strata occurring in two different as 1817, planned the arrangements of the beautiful rised before he had largely enough observed, and Wil localities, and in the last case a collateral proof of that museum at that place, and it was erected and carried liam Smith, an English land-surveyor, who only could identity. Mr Smith arranged (for convenience of out upon his plan. The building is circular, and the observe. To the latter, mainly, the world has been removal) the fossils in trays, letting down one above fossils and geological and mineralogical contents are indebted for its knowledge of the order in which that the other, in boxes of moderate dimensions ; each box arranged in sloping shelves, one above the other, in

commonly containing a collection of fossils from the such a manner that the circle presents a good silent class of rocks has been formed above each other—a same rock or stratum in various parts of England. lecture on the strata. The order of natural superpiece of knowledge which has enlarged in the most As they were nearly all collected by his own hands, position is followed, and thus the positions and prointeresting manner our conceptions of the Creator's he could point with certainty to the proofs of his ductions of the several strata are at once observed. works, and added a new and wonderful volume to the theory of identification of strata by organic remains ; The practical value of his knowledge has been most history of the world which we inhabit . Mr Smith is gradually made known and received. In all these South Hetton Colliery in Durham. For, in 1821,

Mr and the theory was therefore fully established, and triumphantly proved in the instance of the Great only the more remarkable for this service, from his exhibitions and explanations, we are especially called Smith recommended to Colonel Braddy), the probeing purely a practical man, one who had few oppor- upon to admire the liberality and frankness of his prietor of the estate, to search for coal bencath the

magnesian limestone. The idea of such a search was of them very far from dutiful in their unruly attempts his temperate and active habits, together with the always previously held to be one of very great uncer at theorising. While we were one morning break- healthy character of his pursuits, having kept him tainty in its result, and by some was entirely scouted. fasting with Professor Sedgwick, at the Cambridge hale to the last. The issue of the experiment has proved the most for- meeting of the association, a very good-humoured tunate possible to Colonel Braddyl and others; for paternal correction was gently administered to the excellent coal has been obtained, although not with accomplished professor, and most dutifully received

THE YOUNG PRISONER OF THE

CONCIERGERIE. out considerable difficulties in sinking the shafts. by him, although it does not appear by his subsequent

Our geologist was intensely gratified, and partially course that it was productive of serious effects upon At the period of the French Revolution, there rerewarded for comparative obscurity, in the presenta- him.

sided in Paris a family called Gerfeuil, consisting of tion to him, in 1831, by the Geological Society of Latterly, Dr Smith was afflicted with deafness to a father, mother, and one son, Edward Gerfeuil, who London, of the first Wollaston medal, accompanied by some extent; but this did not prevent his attendance was about fifteen years of age, a pretty, clever, inte. a merited and eloquent eulogium by Professor Sedg- at the several meetings of the association, and his resting boy, the darling of his parents heart and the wick, in the course of which he styled Mr Smith the occupation of a doctor's chair in all seeming state. pride of their eyes. But at the same time that he “ Father of English Geology." In the same year, Occasionally the lecturer for the day would turn aside was a source of unbounded comfort to them, he was also, the British Association, assembled at York, towards him, and utter in a louder key some compli- also a subject of the deepest anxiety ; for at that made application to government for a pension to Mr mentary allusion to the "father of English geology;" season of anarchy and peril, when no one's life or forSmith, which was ultimately settled upon him for whereupon it was most delightful and amusing to wit- tune was secure, they trembled at the thoughts of the life, to the amount of L.100 annually. The crown ness the conscious merit of the venerable philosopher, future that might await their innocent child. They ing gratification of our philosopher was bestowed and the warm respect of the illuminati around him. possessed a comfortable independent fortune, the whole at Dublin, in 1835, when the University, during These allusions, deaf as he was, he never failed to hear of which was designed for Edward ; but who should the meeting of the British Association in that city, and treasure up, to be retailed on all fitting occasions promise that he would ever inherit it? The slightest conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. On the first to those who had not the privilege of hearing them at imprudence on the part of the father or mother might day of the meeting of the association I encountered their birth. But especially after his reception of the render them objects of suspicion ; indeed, they might him, as I was hurrying to the assembly, in the street, Wollaston medal, I imagine, no stranger was intro- become objects of suspicion without any imprudence and, ignorant of his new honour, cordially addressed duced to Dr Smith without at the same time being at all—they might be accused by an enemy, they him in the usual style of Mr Smith, which designation introduced by him to the medal. The old man might be compromised by a friend, they might be he instantly paused to assure me was defunct, and carried it about with him in its red leather case where dragged to the scaffold any day without a moment's dilated with pardonable vanity upon his doctorship. ever he went, and was ever able to lay his hand upon warning, or they might be obliged to fly their country Occasionally, on passing him during the day, I over- it at a moment's warning. Before the form of the with nothing but the clothes they had on their backs. heard him explaining to other friends the error into introduction of any stranger was well nigh completed And what was to become of their Edward, bred in which their ignorance, like mine, had led them ; and in all its ceremonies, the doctor's hand was in his affluence, nurtured in delicacy, educated in refineeven on the last day of the meetings of the associa- pocket, and in an instant he would commence, in a ment! Many and many an anxious hour did these tion, the same verbal correction was in process of kind of low utterance, “ This is my medal,” &c. Some reflections cost Monsieur and Madame Gerfeuil. being administered to the last ignorant delinquent. of us were scarcely able to restrain a smile upon such “sometimes think," said Monsieur Gerfeuil one

Several of his friends expected the pleasure of again occasions. Nor, if any stranger was present at break- day to his wife, “ that it would not be a bad plan to conversing with him, in 1839, at the meeting of the fast with him, were we unacquainted with what would make Edward learn a trade. In these times, when British Association at Birmingham. Great, however, prove the theme of conversation ; and usually we so every body's fortune is so precarious, and when, withwas our regret and surprise to hear, upon our arrival far gratified him as to prevail upon the servant to out any fault of our own, we may be in affluence tothere, that Dr Smith had closed his life and labours arrange things in a convenient manner; for, upon the day and beggars to-morrow, it would be advisable to at Northampton, September 23d, while on a visit to a first break of the uniformity of the plate of bread and have something to fall back upon-some resource by friend, in his way to the meeting. It was a remark- butter, the doctor would turn with a complacent which one might earn one's bread, in case of the worst able coincidence, that a wish of his, often half-jocu- semi-sinile to the stranger, and say—“Now, that plate falling out." larly and balf-pensively expressed, had been realised of bread and butter occurs to me as a capital exem What could he learn ?" said Madame Gerfeuil. in the site of the place of his death. He had often plification of the order of the strata. You see, they “ We must consult him about it," answered the said that he wished he might close his labours on the crop out and overlie each other, just as the pieces of father. “For my own part, I should recommend stratum on which he had commenced them-namely, bread do. There, you see, you may form a good printing, because the education he has received would the oolite. Northampton is situated on the oolite ! notion of the oolite beds by that arrangement. Sup- there turn to some aocount, and he would find some And in St Peter's churchyard repose, on that very pose we double these picees, thus, we represent a occupation for his mind as well as his fingers." stratum, the remains of “ Strata Smith." distortion," &c.

When Edward was consulted, he agreed that he I have enumerated the titles of the principal publi It will readily be conceived from these remarks should prefer printing to any other occupation; and cations of Dr Smith ; but, with the exception of the that Dr Smith was an acute observer of common, and as he promised himself a great deal of diversion from great map and the other maps, they were usually but hitherto usually neglected, facts. To the last walk of appearing in a part so new to him, he made no objecpartially complete, and were obviously intended more his life, he geologised as he walked ; and from the first tion to the proposal. A working dress being thereas preludes to sustained efforts to be made, either by days of his life he thereby acquired an invincible fore prepared for him, and a respectable establishment him or others, under more favourable circumstances. habit of looking on the ground if walking, and on selected by his father, the youth commeneed his apThis admission does not detract from his justly earned the fields if riding. A spring in a field, a stone, a prenticeship; attending at the printing-office a certain fame, but it will account for the fact that their author building, a quarry, a clay-pit, brick-field, lime-kiln, number of hours every day, and receiving instruction has been almost forgotten, except among his imme- and even a plongled field, were all made to minister in the various branches of his art. diate circle of friends. He was in the habit also, to his favourite science, and all to minister well, The plan seemed to answer very well. Edward during many of his latter years, of recording his re- though not always with novelty. By this perpetual Gerfeuil was fast acquiring dexterity; and the father collections and ideas based upon them, upon separate observance of the qualities and properties of external and mother were comforted to think that they had slips of paper, in a neat handwriting. These slips objects, continued throughout an active life, he be provided such a resource for their son in case of exaccumulated to a formidable extent-60 formidable, came not only an interesting companion to the unoc- tremity, when a dreadful calamity befell them. A indeed, as to render the chance of their arrangement cupied stroller, but a profitable fellow-traveller to the pamphlet supporting principles very obnoxious to the and reperusal very remote. He one day opened all practical man. Hence he was appointed to accompany revolutionary tribunal, which had been circulating these stores to me, and urged upon me the desirable- Mr Barry and other commissioners upon their investi- amongst the people, was traced to the printing-house ness of reducing them to order and methodical arrange- gations into the durability and suitableness of the stone of Monsieur Gros, and suddenly himself and all his ment. I undertook the task with some perseverance for the new Houses of Parliament; and he frequently workmen were arrested and carried off to the Concier. and ardour ; but ultimately relinquished it, from the astonished these gentlemen by the accuracy of his local gerie, and amongst them poor Edward Gerfeuil, who, utter impossibility of accomplishing the project satis- knowledge, and the verity of his predictions as to the although he had never seen the pamphlet, nor was factorily—as, indeed, such a loose mode of composition course and quality of certain rocks. No opportunity aware of its existence, being at work in his printer's might naturally have led me to anticipate. It must of studying the properties of stone was neglected by dress, shared the fate of his companions. not be concealed, however, that Dr Smith's views him, and no time was deemed unsuitable by him for Who shall paint the alarm and distress of the were not exactly accordant with the advanced state such inquiries. If attending a parish church to which parents on learning this intelligence ; for, alas ! how of geological science in his latter years. He could by he was a stranger, he was sure to spend some time few were there who, once arrested on suspicion, ever no means be brought to acquiesce in the theories pro- before or after service in the churchyard, observing escaped with their lives! What availed his youth pounded by some of our bold modern investigators ; how far the stones had become worn by the weather what availed his innocence? How many, as young nor was he always sparing in his attempts to disprove in proportion to their age. I have more than once and as innocent, perished weekly on the scaffold! or disparage them, whether justly or not it is not my walked with him through such a scene, while he And then, how bitterly they reproached themselves. purpose here to determine. But I well remember pointed out the stratum and locality from which Their over anxiety had been his destruction ; and what with what an indignant zest he was occasionally wont every tombstone was derived.

to do to assist him they did not know. Even to prove to exclaim against the fashionable tendency to refer My friend (above alluded to) who accompanied me his innocence, if innocence would have availed, was particular distortions or depositions to particular and to lackness, was a zealous and most pious clergy- next to impossible ; they had no acquaintance with secondary ageney; and the modern readiness to create man, and, as was his wont, immediately commenced any body in power; in all probability their motive a special cause for every special event and effect. a professional crusade against the man of science, for sending him to the printing-office would not be These dissertations he used generally to conclude by in which, after numerous assaults, he had to confess credited, if they told it; and they almost dreaded to saying—“Ah! sir, these modern theorists only want himself foiled—not by the opposition of the philoso- raise a stir about him, lest by drawing attention to to make out the Creator a journeyman!". Such pithy pher, but by his perfectly quiet acquiescence in all he his case, and betraying that he was what would be apothegms were frequently, for example, introduced propounded, and his reception of the applied force called an aristocrat, they should only accelerate his in his discussions with me upon the vegetable origin without a particle of reaction, save that every remark fate. of coal-a theory in which he was by no means dis- of the professional man was dexterously directed by In the mean time, poor Edward, after undergoing posed to acquiesce.

the philosopher to the advancement of geology. My the form of an examination, in which he was only inHis brother geologists always very properly paid a pious friend raised the siege upon being most tho- sulted when he attempted to explain who he was, due degree of respect to the venerable founder of their roughly deceived by the meditative appearance of Dr and account for being found in such a situation, was improved and certain system of observation; and Smith on one occasion in Scarborough churchyard. dragged to the Conciergerie, and flung into a dungeon hence seldom controverted his opinions so ardently The doctor was poring pensively over the tombstones, -a dungeon under ground, too, for a French prison as they light otherwise have been disposed to do. and thereby deluded my friend into the belief that his under the old régime was a dreadful place; they have Hence, too, it was by common and ready consent that opportunity for instilling his advice was indubitably since been much improved, as is always the case as an honourable seat, amongst the chief men of the arrived—a conclusion which he discovered to be hope- countries become more civilised and enliglatened. section, was always assigned to “ Father Smith” at the lessly fallacious, when the real nature of the doctor's People then learn to know that the loss of liberty and meetings of the British Association. These meetings cogitations was made known.

the inevitable hardships of a jail, are punishments were, indeed, his glory and comfort in his declining Dr Smith's moral conduct and character were most enough for slight offences, and all that we are entitled days, and were looked forward to by him with a degree exemplary throughout his whole life ; and his unfail to inflict on unconvicted prisoners. But no such rays of intense interest that ordinary people could not ing kindness in circumstances of the most trying do- of inercy had yet reached the hearts or understandunderstand or appreciate. I was present with him at mestic affliction, were no less conspicuous and praise- ings of İEdward's jailers, and he could not have been every meeting of the association except the two first; worthy than his unshakon fortitude in bearing up worse treated if he had robbed a church or committed and was always much delighted with the paternal in- against pecuniary difficulties. It was remarkable murder. The poor boy's feelings may be imagined terest with which he appeared to regard the proceed that his cheerfulness and hilarity continued almost to torn from his comfortable home and his tender parents, ings of his sons, if so they might be called—which is the last day of his life. He died indeed of natural and transferred to the custody of a harsh turnkey, in the more questionable, perhaps, as be considered lecay, at the age of seventy-one, and without pain ; la miserable cell, without light, without fire, with a

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