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parting call to their creditors. This improvident and dishonest conduct destroys in them every honourable feeling, and forms a barrier to the cultivation of habits of economy in after life. The reader can judge from these facts, why many rural female-servants have become so depraved in their habits, and inefficient in the discharge of their duties; and, moreover, how little they are qualified to be wives and mothers, and what kind of promise their offspring hold out for the future cultivators of the soil. The labourers are not the only sufferers from this depth of degeneracy into which they are plunged, and are plunging, it is to be feared, still deeper and deeper. Their masters' interests and comforts are materially involved. They are wanting in their duty to themselves, and they cannot be dutiful to others. Many of them, being totally regardless of the interests of their employers, become mere eye-servants; and all the strictness with which they are watched cannot ensure the efficient performance of their duty."
We must have done with this odious picture of rural depravity. Having brought the subject fairly under public attention, we leave it to the consideration of those who have it in their power to carry practical remedies into effect.
a license is given for the sale of them, if they are not injurious to the public health. The sale of hurtful nostrums is prohibited by penalties. As to other nostrums, the quack may sell, the dupe may buy-the government only interfering with "the liberty of the subject" (whether that subject be quack or dupe) for the protection of life.-Abridged from a Paper by Dr Fosbroke of Chester.
The very ingenious discovery of working glass into a substance resembling the richest silk, is now being brought into very general operation, and in various ways, such as gentlemen's waistcoats and stocks, ladies' dresses, and many other articles of decoration, in the most splendid patterns. It is superior even to silk in flexibility and softness, and the durability of it (a point, however, of no consideration with the haut ton, among whom at present it exclusively is), as a matter of course, vastly superior. In process of time, when the manufacture has arrived at a more perfect state, and all its little defects remedied, and its wastings discovered, it will in all probability come within the reach of most classes of society, but at present its cost is its only drawback. The magnificence of its appearance is quite remarkable, and when used in any considerable quantity, such as window-curtains, &c., it should be seen before a just appreciation of its richness and elegance can be entertained.- Newspaper paragraph.
CONDUCT BEFORE THE KING AND QUEEN. In the first place, you must not cough. If you find a cough tickling in your throat, you must arrest it from making any sound; if you find yourself choking with the forbearance, you must choke-but not cough. In the second place, you must not sneeze. If you have a vehement cold, you must take no notice of it: if your nosemembranes feel a great irritation, you must hold your breath; if a sneeze still insists upon making its way, you must oppose it, by keeping your teeth grinding together; if the violence of the repulse breaks some blood-vessel, you must break the blood-vessel-but not sneeze. the third place, you must not, upon any account, stir either hand or foot. If by chance a black pin runs into your head, you must not take it out. If the pain is very great, you must be sure to bear it without wincing; if it brings the tears into your eyes, you must not wipe them off; if they give you a tingling by running down your cheeks, you must look as if nothing was the matter. If the blood should gush from your head, by means of the black pin, you must let it gush; if you are uneasy to think of making such a blurred appearance, you must be uneasy, but you must say nothing about it. If, however, the agony is very great, you may privately bite the inside of your cheek, or of your lips, for a little relief; taking care, meanwhile, to do it so cautiously as to make no apparent dent outwardly. And, with that precaution, if you even gnaw a piece out, it will not be minded, only be sure either to swallow it, or commit it to a corner of the inside of your mouth till they are gone-for you must not spit. I have many other directions, but no more paper; I will endeavour, however, to have them ready for you in time. Perhaps, meanwhile, you would be glad to know if I have myself had opportunity to put in practice these receipts ?-Madame D'Arblay's Diary.
LINES ON REVISITING THE COUNTRY. [BY BRYANT, AN AMERICAN POET.]
I STAND upon my native hills again,
Orchards and beechen forests, basking lie;
And clouds along the blue abysses roll'd-
Ay, flame thy fiercest, sun; thou canst not wake, In this pure air, the plague that walks unseen; The maize leaf and the maple bough but take
From thy fierce heats a deeper, glossier green; The mountain wind, that faints not in thy ray, Sweeps the blue steams of pestilence away.
The mountain wind-most spiritual thing of all
He seems the breath of a celestial climeAs if from Heaven's wide open gates did flow Health and refreshment on the world below. -Selections from American Poets.
TEMPERANCE IN IRELAND.
On this subject it affords us much pleasure to give the following letter (extracted from a newspaper) by Miss Edgeworth, dated "Edgeworthstown, Feb. 28, 1842," to R. Allen, Esq., Secretary of the Irish Temperance Union, Dublin:
"Sir,-Your letter needs no apology. I thank you for having thought it worth while to apply to me, and for desiring to have my opinion on the Temperance Association, along with those of the most benevolent and enlightened friends of humanity.
I am happy to be able-by all the experience we have had in this neighbourhood, and by all that I have heard of evidence from different parts of the country-to confirm the accounts you have from all parts of Britain, and especially from Mr Clarkson- the venerable Clarkson,' as you justly call him. I should content myself with saying-as once a gentleman did after hearing a speech of Burke's-I say ditto to Mr Burke,'-I say ditto to Mr Clarkson-but that I think it may be useful to this good cause, that all should give specific individual evidence of what they know of their own knowledge of the operation of this temperance pledge.
In our village of Edgeworthstown, the whisky-selling has diminished, since the pledge has been taken, within the last two years, so as to leave public houses empty, and to oblige the landlord to lower house-rent considerably. This we know to our pecuniary loss-I need not add, to our moral satisfaction.
The appearance of the people-their quiet demeanour at markets and fairs-has wonderfully improved in general; and to the knowledge of this family, many notorious drinkers, and some, as it was thought, confirmed drunkards, have been completely reformed by taking the pledge.
They have become able and willing to work, and to take care of their farms and business-are decently Quackery, like sin, is very ancient. It flourished in clothed, and healthy and happy-and now make their ancient Rome as well as in modern Europe. Nor does it wives and children happy, instead, as before the refordepend for its prosperity on the ignorance of the unedu- mation, miserable and broken-hearted. I have heard cated classes. "The desire of wealth and health," says some of the strong expressions of delight of several of the Pitt, 66 seems to put all understandings on a level: the wives of the reformed drunkards. One wife said to me, avaricious are duped by every bubble-the lame and un-Ma'am, I'm the happiest woman now that can be; sure, healthy by every quack." The faith of that singular he says he is wakened from a dream, and now he goes compound of folly and knavery, the world, is kept up by about his business so well; and, ma'am, he can eat more, peers, judges, and bishops, by clowns, operatives, and old and he can bear the noise of the children, which he never women, who furnish certificates to the value of nostrums, could formerly.' and testify in favour of imposture, delusion, and villany. Every material substance and medicament, from the inert herb and common weed to simple water, having no properties beyond mere matter, have been at one period or another boasted up to the vain and empty nothingness of a great name, as the best remedy in the world for the inward bruises of all mankind. Indeed, each has possessed in turn the same reputation, and produced the same imputed benefits as a panacea for the cure of every disease under the sun; and their imaginary virtues have So long as public opinion is upheld in this manner, and been witnessed and attested by persons from the throne so continues to act, we may hope that this great power to the garret. In this country the sale of quack medi--this inestimable moral blessing to Ireland, in particucines has kept pace with the "march of intellect." Forty lar, will continue; and most earnestly I hope and pray years ago they yielded an annual revenue to the state that it may. of about L.14,000. In 1841 the amount realised was L.50,000. For the last half century, English governments have looked upon this vile revenue as more valuable, in their judgment, than the health of the people, the prosperity of the regular profession, and the improvement of physic. "They manage these things better in France." There the compositions of all nostrums are divulged, compulsorily, to the Academy of Medicine; after which
I have heard of many instances where the health has been improved, even where the total abstinence' began late in life, and after habits of daily intemperance. I have not known of any in which the health has suffered. Very few instances of breaking the pledge have as yet come to our knowledge in this neighbourhood, but some have occurred. The culprits have been completely shunned and disgraced, so that they are awful warnings to others.
Beyond all calculations-beyond all the predictions of experience, and all the examples from the past, and all analogy, this wonderful crusade against the bad habits of nations-the bad habits and sensual tastes of individuals-has succeeded and lasted for above two years. It is amazing, and proves the power of moral and religious influence and motive, beyond any other example on record in history.
I consider Father Mathew as the greatest benefactor to his country-the most true friend to Irishmen and to Ireland.-I am, sir, with the most earnest wish for the continued success of your great cause, yours truly, MARIA EDGEWORTH."
FRENCH IDEAS OF ENGLISH SPORT.
After horses, greyhounds, foxes, pigeons, and bull-dogs, we at length come to boxers-the last class of sport, which holds brutes in greater esteem than men; for do not fancy that this classification is the effect of chance, and of a sense of shame or disgust. Not so; the English do nothing without an intention; they never blush at what they do, and are enraptured with delight at the hideous sight of two desperate boxers. Thus the last rank allotted in the hierarchy of sport to those ignoble fights, proves only, that if they tremble when their horse has caught a cold, they have somewhat less feeling when they behold a man's ribs knocked in. In those combats every thing is opprobrious and repulsive-ay, every thing, from the teethless mouth and the brutal looks of those degraded beings, to the preparations and precautions destined to prolong the combat. Each second brings his champion a pail of water, a large horse sponge, and a bottle of brandy or wine. The heroes are stripped to the waist, and, at first, totter, as much from fear as from drunkenness; but the murmurs of the spectators soon warn them that they have not come to witness mere childish play. Vanity then prevails over fear, and the combat becomes serious. At every tooth that drops, at every rib that breaks, at every eye that falls out, there are voices that shout "Bravo!" and hands that applaud. The struggle has already lasted an hour; the boxers are exhausted; they can scarcely stand; their faces are bruised, and covered with blood; their bodies present but a huge sore. But they have not yet rested and assailed one another above fifty times, and a proper combat must be renewed at least sixty or seventy. Their seconds apply the sponge to the flowing blood, wash their eyes, noses, and ears, pour wine or brandy down their throats; and the blows resound again, until one of them, panting, exhausted, almost dead, falls down to get up no more. And yet the crowd is often dissatisfied; often does it cry that there has been treachery or cowardice-instead of one corpse it would have two. This is the ugly side of sport in England, for it is not the populace only that encourage these loathsome spectacles; the most elegant men blush not to witness them, and to speculate upon the fists of a boxer with the same coolness as they speculate upon a horse's legs. In this department of sport we shall never be on a level with the English, and we can but congratulate ourselves upon it.
THE Editors of CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL again beg to intimate that they do not wish any contributions, and that they will not be responsible for the safe-keeping or the return of papers pressed upon them notwithstanding these repeated an nouncements. They also would respectfully submit, that it is too much to expect them to attend to or answer all the letters sent to them. The greater proportion of these communications are inquiries on subjects which the writers themselves, by a small share of industry, could easily settle to their own satisfaction. At all events, the Editors have such onerous duties to perform to the public, in the conducting of the present and the other works on which they are engaged, that to attend to the many inquiries put to them is entirely out of the question. Some may be inclined to think this uncourteous; a knowledge of the facts would show that such was not the case. Many of these
correspondents seem not to have the slightest notion that they
are giving trouble, or that they have not established a claim to be answered to the full extent of their demands. Were the Editors to publish some of their letters, they would form an amusing farrago of conceit, spite, and folly. The class of persons whom a statesman described as bothering him with
advices to tax pianos and umbrellas, are a type of these letter
writers. One sends a long, ill-spelled communication respecting the millenium, which, he says, from a peculiar combination of certain letters of the alphabet and certain figures, is proved will take place in the present year-he is anxious to know if his calculations are correct. A second has discovered the perpetual motion, “and could make watches go by the same power that governs the motions of the planets"-the Editors are tc be rewarded with half the profits if they will be at the expense of taking out a patent for the discovery. A third is a person residing in England, who thinks he is somehow related to a family of distinction and wealth in the north-he requests to be furnished with a private history of the said family for two centuries back; -expenses of search will be cheerfully paid. A fourth is most anxious to discover the origin of his name, and will go the length of half a guinea to be satisfied on the subject. Not a few ask a candid opinion on the merits of parcels of poetry (!) which they enclose for perusal. But, as above mentioned, the greater proportion ask answers to questions of the most trifling nature. At least six persons have asked why the pages of the "Information for the People" are not numbered, any one of whom might have seen that the pages are numbered-the only peculiarity being that the figures are placed at the bottom instead of the top of the page. Perhaps a dozen persons have asked to be furnished with the address of Dr Turnbull in London, although it is expressly mentioned in the article referring to that gentleman that he lives in Russel Square; and surely it could not be very difficult for an inquirer to find out all the rest himself; some people, however, never seem to be able to do any thing for themselves-they always require somebody to lead them or push them on. Once for all. the Editors do not know any thing more of Dr Turnbull's address than that it is-Russel Square, London. London is a large city in England, and may be reached by stage-coaches, railways, or steam-boats. On arrival, a good plan would be to hire a street cab (contraction of cabriolet), and tell the cabman to drive to Dr Turnbull's, Russel Square; and leave him to find out the house, which there is little fear of his doing. It is hoped this will be considered sufficiently explicit.
The Editors, in conclusion, have a more pleasing duty to perform in thanking many kind friends for their obliging hints, observations, and corrections of errors, which they indulgently
and properly ascribe to inadvertency. In all cases in which the errors are not imaginary but real, care is taken to correct them in subsequent impressions.
LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row.
Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.
SHORT NOTES ON MATRIMONY. MATRIMONY has never been treated formally in the Journal, but several matters connected with it have received some attention. In an early number, in a paper entitled "Fathers have Flinty Hearts," we endeavoured to combat the idea that parents are in general animated by views opposed to the happiness of their children with regard to marriage. Afterwards, under the title of " Attachments,"+ it was our aim to show that that fixing of the affections upon one object, which the young generally consider as an act, like certain advertisements," not to be repeated," is in reality only the employment of a power of affection, which, on some subsequent occasion, and under certain favouring circumstances, may be shifted to a second object, which it will regard with as strong a feeling of preference as it ever manifested for the first. We afterwards said what we could to discountenance the dangerous practice of making engagements when there is any thing but the most immediate prospect of their being fulfilled by marriage-a practice which leads to a vast amount of misery otherwise avoidable, and which every one possessing the slightest influence over young persons, ought by all means to discourage. The different but even more alarming class of dangers attending marriage between parties nearly related in blood, was the subject of another paper.§ More recently, we took into consideration the common notion as to the dependence of women upon marriage, and endeavoured to show that their respectability and happiness might be advanced by their appearing and really considering themselves as comparatively independent of matrimony; for which reason we counselled parents to train up their female children to look upon a husband as a thing which it was only well to have, if a good one should readily occur, but which it were better otherwise to want, or for which, at least, no sacrifice should be made, seeing that it is quite possible to lead both an useful and a happy life unmarried. We would now advert to a few other points connected with this subject-a delicate one, we confess, seeing that every error involved in it has been committed by the wisest and most estimable of our friends, but which we shall nevertheless venture on, with some hope of passing over it successfully, being, on this as on all other occasions, sincerely anxious to treat general questions with as little offence to the feelings of individuals as possible.
It is but to reiterate the most commonplace observation, that unequal matches of all kinds are unfavourable to happiness. A match may be unequal in age, in the personal appearance and manners of the parties, in their original grade, and many other respects. In every respect inequality is mischievous, and generally as much so for the party who seems to have the advan tage, as for the other. When, for instance, a female of thirty-five marries a man of twenty, the likelihood of unhappiness ten or twelve years afterwards, is even greater for herself than for her husband. The laws of nature have in this case been signally violated, and nothing but evil can follow. The ages of married pairs should be adjusted according to a sliding scale, in something like the following manner :-When the woman is under twenty-five, the man should not be less than five years older; when she is between twentyfive and thirty-three, he ought to be eight years older; when she is between thirty-three and forty, he should be fully fifteen years her senior; and so on. It may be observed that departures from such a rule are not
*See Journal, No. 3. † No. 40. + No. 243. "A Chapter for the Unmarried," No. 399. "Ideas respecting the Fair Sex," No. 494.
SATURDAY, APRIL 30, 1842.
certain in all cases to be attended with unhappiness; but assuredly, in as far as it is departed from, there is the less likelihood of happiness. So, also, when an individual of a humble grade is adopted by marriage into a comparatively refined circle, there is, upon the whole, most risk of suffering to the inferior person. It is not good for either, but certainly worst for the party who makes the greatest change, and whose position is consequently the falsest. In such a case, one may really be said to gain a loss. Unsuitable matches are awkward and troublesome to more than the parties themselves. It is common for persons who have made such alliances to say that they had a title to please themselves; but this is a maxim to be taken with some exception. A married pair are not quite isolated in society. They are on the contrary associated and connected with many persons who owe to them, and to whom they owe, duty. It is felt by these persons that the unsuitableness of the match is productive of much inconvenience to them, and must needs be so, while such a thing as society exists. It is therefore in some measure necessary, in marriage, to please friends, as well as one's self, if we would discharge all the obligations under which we lie as social beings. When a man or woman of some rank marries a person of greatly inferior condition, a great and real offence is unquestionably committed, and the consequent alienation of friends, though to be deplored, is only what is to be expected.
Harmony of character is as needful as equality of condition. When fortune joins the gentle to the rude, she certainly commits one of the most wanton of all her pranks. There is a theory which probably has taken its rise in a wish to find a final cause for the many inharmonious unions which are formed that nature delights in uniting opposites. The only countenance which the doctrine has is in the noted caprice which makes tall men select short women, and short men tall women, dark men fair women, and so forth. There is perhaps some principle of taste which produces these odd associations, but it is greatly to be doubted if opposite dispositions ever lead to a feeling of preference. All that we know of mind teaches us, on the contrary, that souls sympathise only under the influence of a community of sentiment. When a gentle nature is drawn into connexion with an ungentle one, it is probably either through the efficacy of some external circumstances, or by the working of that venerative principle which, in all love affairs, produces a blindness to the real qualities of the object. The refined come into conjunction with the coarse, the enlightened with the ignorant, the benevolent with the severe, through similar causes; and from all such alliances only misery can come. The wreck of peace produced by an inharmonious marriage, and the almost hopelessness of redress, present one of the most distressing views of human affairs which we ever meet with. And it is difficult to reconcile with justice our condemning to perpetual misery a person who has only been unfortunate in the choice of a mate. Such pairs are forced, or all but forced, by society to remain together, not exactly because their separating would be an evil in itself, but because it is feared that the least facilitation to divorce would produce a general disposition to dissolve the marriage tie. It has always seemed to us highly questionable if the relaxation of the laws on this subject would be attended with any such effect, for, first, the natural disposition is, not to separate, but to remain together, as is shown by the pertinacity with which even unhallowed unions are maintained; and, second, there is greater laxity in some countries than in others, without having the slightest observable effect in inviting to separation.
But this is a critical subject, and not strictly under our view at present; so we shall leave it with the remark that, in the present arrangements, there is certainly a powerful call for the exercise of caution with regard to the dispositions of the party with whom an alliance is to be formed.
Matrimony presents occasion for the exercise of conscientiousness towards somewhat extraordinary objects. Where any one, by marrying, has a great chance of injuring the happiness of the other party, it certainly ought to be a point of conscience to avoid taking the step. The circumstances of some men-with regard, for instance, to the nature of their profession [this is particularly the case in the army], or with regard to their income [this is a more general case]-are such, that there is no reasonable prospect of happiness for their partner. They are therefore bound to postpone coming under this obligation until they shall be in more favourable circumstances. There is a large class of both men and women who are disqualified for matrimony by their condition as to health. Where there is some simple disease, about which no concealment is affected, or where there is the obvious feebleness of old age, the association will be fair enough, if both parties are willing. But where there is a deep-seated and fatal disease, which does not make an appearance, and where the party so affected marries, or even commences or encourages addresses, without a full disclosure of the nature of the case, the act is a fraud, and one of a gross and dangerous character. It may be that the erring party is young, and ignorant of the full extent of the evil done; but in this case the guilt is only transferred to parents or other guardians. Where there is a liability to hereditary disease, it becomes a duty both to others and one's self to abstain from the marriage tie. It may be very true that such is only an inherited misfortune, and that it is a hardship for such a person to be debarred from an association which others enter into for the promotion of their happiness; but these are only smaller evils which it is proper to submit to in order to avoid greater. By forbearing from matrimony, the evil is kept at its original amount; by marrying, the risk is incurred of widely enlarging it. A person who takes a hereditary disease into the marriage connexion, may be said to be laying the foundation of a life of trial and misery. Like all other selfish wrong acts, it is severely punished. An offspring probably arises, only to be sources of anxiety and affliction to their parents, or to wring their hearts by what reason may afterwards acknowledge as a comparative mercy-premature death. It often happens that such a family observes a regular time in succession for beginning to pine, reaching a crisis, and then dropping into the grave. Imagine the feelings of a parent who sees these nevertheless endeared objects going on to their almost certain doom, conscious that earthly aid is all in vain to counteract the decrees of nature. Or suppose the more agonising feelings with which the first symptoms of a hereditary mental taint are observed arising. The heart of the unconcerned melts with compassion at the mention of such distresses; yet there cannot be a doubt that the parties are only reaping the harvest of the herb of bitterness which they have sowed. Nature tells that certain malignant ailments go from parents to children. Reason therefore infers that persons so affected ought not to marry. This is a counsel which they are bound to obey. Do they disregard the injunction, they have only themselves to blame for the consequences. The most sympathising bystander must see and acknowledge this truth. It is unfortunate that many have but obscure notions of
the government of these matters by invariable natural laws. In perfect ignorance, or in some vague hope of escape, they rush into circumstances which may be said to secure their ruin. Were they fully aware of the truth, they would avoid such circumstances sedulously. Conscientiousness to the other party in the matrimonial contract, demands their doing so. Nay, it is demanded by more than this-conscientiousness towards the possible offspring of the alliance. To usher into existence beings who are only to be a burden to themselves, and condemned from the first to early death, is an act as evil in its consequences as to inflict deadly injury upon a healthy person; and, where this is known, the act is not less strongly forbidden by a right morality. The views of society upon these points are as yet very imperfect; but we do not despair that the time will arrive, when either to marry with disease, or to marry a diseased person, will be shrunk from as one of the most flagitious of acts, and visited, where it occurs, with the same reprobation which is now bestowed on fraudulency and gross outrages of all kinds.
It seems at first sight to admit of some question how far it is right to recommend a selection of the best women and men for husbands and wives, as that would imply that a number are to be left over on account of what are perhaps only natural misfortunes. But, on a more careful consideration, such selection appears quite legitimate. It is better that the weakly and the foolish be left over, than that the sound and rational should be so, because the former are the least likely to enjoy happiness in the married state. Still more clearly is this the case, considering that it is better that the race should be continued from good than from inferior stock. It is therefore only right for both men and women to endeavour to obtain as good specimens of the opposite sex for their partners as possible. A good general figure is a point worth looking to in all cases; but young ladies especially are apt to make it rather too important a one. What would they think of an advice to look for a well-developed head, as a not less important point? The large heads tend to the upper strata of society, the small heads the contrary way. To be married to a youth of perhaps inferior present rank, but who from this cause is rising in life, is apt to turn out much preferable in the long run to marrying a perfect equal, whose development of brain indicates the probability of a declining
course. Let no man, on the other hand, who wishes that his children should possess competent ability, ally himself to a small-headed woman. The volume of brain is hereditary, as well as tallness and a fair skin. Indeed, this is the case with all natural characteristics; and it may be laid down as a general rule, that such qualities as we should like in children, such qualities should we look for in the associate of the conjugal yoke.
come to the rescue; affects respect for the day, which happened to be one of those held sacred by the Jews; and so sheers off, leaving Horace in the hands of his tormentor. At this juncture, the plaintiff in a suit, in which the babbler was defendant, luckily appears, and effects the desired riddance. An allusion here requires a little explanation. When a prosecutor wished to compel the attendance of his adversary before the prætor, the adversary being unwilling to go, he was at liberty to drag him thither by force, provided he first touched the ear of any person present, and secured his attestation to the refusal. If this ceremony were omitted, the arrest was deemed illegal. "The ancients believed that the seat of the memory was in the tip of the ear; and hence their custom of touching it, in order to remind another of a thing, or for the purpose of calling him to witness any circumstance or occurrence."*
THE LIFE AND POETRY OF HORACE.
AFTER the Odes of Horace, his Satires fall under review. Of these he has left eighteen, which are distributed into two books. Luxury, avarice, and affectation, the prevalent vices of the time, he assails with much sound sense and easy raillery. Employing on purpose, in this class of compositions, a homely, conversational style, whence his allusion to his "pedestrian muse," he not only directs his powerful ridicule against the local and ephemeral modes of vice and vanity, but probes, with a steady and scientific hand, those permanent principles in human nature, which are ever ready to throw off a fresh race of follies as soon as their predecessors have vanished. Take the In following verses, which form the introductory section of the First Satire, as a specimen. The poet illustrates the discontent produced by covetousness. He addresses Mæcenas :
How happens it, my friend, that none 's content,
So off! Why linger ye?" Why, each is fain
-Satires, I. 1.
In the satire of which we next translate a portion, Horace describes, with exquisite humour, the molestation he had suffered from the pertinacity of a bore. After various ineffectual attempts to shake off this
weaver of long tales," he hopes at last to carry his point by the connivance of a friend, in a little stratagem which his seasonable appearance has suggested. He is, as the event proves, too sanguine. The waggish acquaintance enjoys the poet's vexation too keenly to
Thus chatter'd he: when Fuscus comes in view,
I summon worlds of meaning into a squint ;
I have my weak side, I must own with pain-
-Satires, I. 9.
At Rome, in the time of IIorace, fortune-hunting had become a profession. In an imaginary dialogue between Ulysses and Tiresias, the blind prophet of Thebes, introduced in the Odyssey, the poet covertly satirises the mean practices of his countrymen. From this performance we extract the following passages. The version is by Dr Dunkin, the coadjutor of Francis.
How poor and naked I return, behold,
Since, to be brief, you shudder at the thought
To some rich dotard. What your garden yields,
If any one desires you to peruse
Roman wills, which were generally written on tablets overspread with wax, the first line or clause was occupied by the name of the testator; the second, as is above intimated, would contain that of the legatee. A man was at liberty to pass by his nearest relatives, and constitute whom he pleased his heirs, provided the persons nominated were Roman citizens. The lively sarcastic vein which pervades and is proper to the satires of Horace, is likewise so characteristic of his Epistles, that many eminent critics have viewed the latter as simply a continuation of the former. The distinction between the two classes of compositions is, however, sufficiently marked by a variety of circumstances. The individuality of address, the range of topics, and the constant exclusion of dialogue, clearly establish the propriety of the title under which the epistles have come down to us.
TO ALBIUS TIBULLUS.
My friendly critic, think you I can guess
The letters of the first book, of which there are twenty, are mostly familiar or moral. The poet skips with great alacrity from gay to grave. At one time" he is eulogising Homer; at another, excusing himself for having ill-pared nails or a threadbare shirt; now he is discoursing on the excellence of virtue, anon he is inviting a friend to supper. These productions are supposed to have been written when their author was verging on fifty. We translate entire, as a favourable specimen of the lighter sort, the epistle to a celebrated contemporary poet :
I know thou art: that form of thine, so fair,
-Epistles, L. 4. the concluding section, may be read as a commentary The epistle to Bullatius, of which we extract only on Milton's emphatic axiom-"The mind is its own place." From an obscure intimation in one of his odes, it would seem that Horace had once been in danger of shipwreck. The remembrance of his former jeopardy might whet the zeal with which he reprobates the rage for travel. We here use the version of Francis:
-Epistles, I. 11. The second book contains only three epistles. In the opinion of Hurd, these are "the best and most exquisite" of the works of Horace. The first and third are throughout critical; an epithet scarcely applicable to the light gossip of the second. former compositions bear a relation to his other epistolary and satirical writings, very similar to that subsisting between Pope's "Epistles" and his "Essay on Criticism." We must reserve our attention for the third, which is better known under the appellation of the Art of Poetry. In this composition he sets out somewhat abruptly, with a very forcible illustration of the grotesque effect produced by patches of false ornament in composition; guards against abuse of the poetic license; enforces the necessity of a just estimate of one's own powers; adverts to the beauty of an unaffected diction, admitting at the same time that words have their generation as well as men, and observes that custom is the supreme arbiter of language; and then specifies the different measures appropriate to the various orders of poetry. Here he launches into a disquisition on the drama, both as written and acted, enjoining a strict attention to the proprieties of situation and character, and counselling the removal of murders and the like revolting spectacles from the stage. He exhorts aspirants to dramatic fame to the daily and nightly study of the Grecian models; ridicules, in his keenest style, the folly and presumption of those who declined to " use the pruning-knife," pleading genius as an apology for the neglect of revision; and yet rebukes the captious criticism, which, passing by without eulogy the conspicuous beauties of a composition, only fastens, like the flesh-fly, on the tainted part. He then, addressing himself especially to the elder of the young Pisos, enlarges on the necessity of distinguished excellence in order to the establishment of such a reputation as he seems to have set his heart on; observing that, though moderate talents might command success in other lines of useful exertion, poetical mediocrity was alike intolerable "to gods, to men, and to booksellers." After delivering the celebrated advice, to suppress a piece till the ninth year after its production, and pronouncing a warm panegyric on the masters of ancient song, he glances at the oft-mooted question, whether art or genius enters the more largely into the composition of good poetry. He declares both indispensable; and holds up, in conclusion, by way of bugbear to all unlicensed trespassers on Parnassus, a highly graphic picture of a bard run mad.
In the passage which we select as a specimen, there occurs a much-quoted line, which runs literally thus: He bears off every point who has blended the useful with the sweet." The allusion is to the manner of recording votes at the elective assemblies of the Romans. Each of these was indicated by a dot on a tablet; consequently, he who bore off all the dots was the successful candidate. Hence is "derived the English phrase, to carry one's point.
Believe me, at delicious Rhodes to live,
Or to a swimmer Tiber's freezing stream,
In desert Ulubræ the bliss you'll find, If you preserve a firm and equal mind.
Poets design to profit, or delight, Or useful things in pleasing verse convey. When morals you instil, be brief; and then Your precepts will be readily retained.
The aged will explode an idle tale,
circumstances; but it is indubitable, that irregulari-
In that class of his writings which has come under review in the present article, Horace appears as the possessor of qualities which rarely enter into the mental conformations of those whom he has himself so felicitously dubbed, the genus irritabile catum. That accurate self-knowledge, that exact measurement of his own intellectual proportions, that fine instinct which taught him the limits of his own strength, and prevented him from overstraining it, to which these, and indeed all his works, are the infallible indices, are
The truth respecting the existence of a hemorrhagic predisposition in individuals, was made strikingly apparent in a case recorded by Mr Blagden in 1816. Joseph Langton had a tooth extracted when a boy; an oozing of blood followed, and ceased only at the end of twenty-one days. The slightest wound, in this boy's case, caused dangerous hemorrhage; and one trifling hurt in the forehead, in 1815, had been followed by a flow of blood, which even the tying of both ends of the small bleeding vessel failed to check. Blood still oozed from the open surface, but caustic endowments but seldom seen allied to that ardent, (potass) at length stopt it. The boy and his friends generous, imaginative temperament, which is the very were so far made aware of the existence of some source and soul of poetry. And yet these apparently dangerous peculiarity in his constitution, that, when antagonist attributes weld together in, and impart its distinctive idiosyncracy to the genius of Horace. toothache again troubled him, it was for a time conHis satires and epistles show the man of the world-sidered better to bear it than risk the extraction. of the upper jaw, was taken out. Profuse bleeding At last, the tooth, one of the grinders on the left side followed; and, on the day succeeding the operation, caustic, cold applications, and pressure by plugging, were all tried, but with, at best, merely temporary advantage. On the fourth day, the hemorrhage still continued, and the actual cautery, or red-hot iron, was applied, which checked the flow for a few hours. On the fifth day, the bleeding went on, and the boy was reduced so low, that it was resolved to tie the carotid artery of the left side of the neck, one of the great sources of the blood in the face and head. The operation was performed; but to the ill-fated youth it proved only a new avenue to dissolution. The wound made by the operation began in the course of a few minutes to bleed profusely; ice checked it; but, on the removal of the ice, it instantly broke out afresh. As for the bleeding from the tooth, it was stopped for a few hours by the operation, but again returned; and, on the seventh day from the removal of the tooth, the boy died.
the keen Crabbe-like observer of every-day life and manners the shrewd yet good-natured unmasker of the faults and the follies of his fellows. He peers into the most secret nooks of the human heart, and lays his finger on the very foibles that seemed best screened from detection. In these admirable performances, there is no straining and no affectation; he does not sink into vulgarity, nor does he strut in heroics. There is no writer with whom one feels so soon on the easy footing of a companion.
There did appear to be in this case something peculiar about the poor lad's tooth, matter of a purulent kind having come from the socket; but the other circumstances prove sufficiently that a remarkable predis- | position to bleeding, from any lesion of the skin whatever, existed in the boy, and was the immediate cause of death. It has been observed that this extraordinary peculiarity was hereditary, and pervaded families. Krimer mentions one family, of which the male descendants, for four generations, had been strangely liable to bleedings; and M. Sanson, in a treatise published in 1836, mentions a case, where a man died from a slight hemorrhage, having been preceded to the grave by six children, all of whom were cut off by the bleeding consequent on casual wounds. In an American essay on the same subject, the following case is recorded among others :-"A. B., of the state of Maryland, has had six children, four of whom have died of a loss of blood from the most trifling scratches or bruises. A small pebble fell on the nail of a finger of the last of them when at play, being a year or two old; in a short time, the blood issued from the end of the finger, till he bled to death." The sister of these children had no such peculiarity. Mr Liston also relates the case of a family of seven brothers, all of whom were affected by the hemorrhagic diathesis, while their five sisters could bear wounds without any unusual danger. Of one of these brothers whom Mr Liston saw, it is mentioned that he was a large, strong-made man, without any thing peculiar or unhealthy in his aspect.
The last instance in proof of a hemorrhagic predisposition in individuals which we shall give here, is a very remarkable one which occurred in Edinburgh in December 1841. Two reports have been given of it in the medical journals-one by Dr Roberts, dentist, and the other by Dr David Hay, who accompanies his statement with a number of analogous cases, of which those already noticed form examples. Mr C. P., a gentleman of middle age, came to Dr Roberts on the 19th of December, and had a decayed wisdom-tooth taken from the under jaw. No unusual bleeding ensued at first; but, on the evening of the same day, a continuous stream of blood was flowing from the socket. Dr Roberts, being applied to, checked it for the time by a plug of lint, compressed with a piece of cork. It soon broke out anew, however, and, for three weeks and two days, continued to bleed, with occasional intermissions caused by the various remedies employed. Full trials were made of caustic, the use of which is to burn and shrivel up the ends of the bleeding vessels, so impeding the sanguineous flow. The cautery, or red-hot iron, was applied more than once; and on the second trial of it, the lip was slightly burned by accident. The result of this accident showed but too clearly what the nature of the case was; an oozing of blood took place from the burn, which continued for days. Cold lotions were used, and pressure exerted in various ways; all was in vain. In place of a lessened flow of blood to the head, it
Nor always can the archer hit the mark.
So, in a work where many beauties shine,
I will not cavil at a few mistakes,
Which inadvertence sometimes may commit,
What then? Suppose a copyer should transcribe
May justly be compared to Charilus;*
"Horace still charms with graceful negligence,
It is in the Odes, however, that Horace towers into the poet, and puts on the grandeur of the "diviner mind." These, in his own judgment, formed the monument on which his name was to stand inscribed for the homage of posterity. For music of cadence, for purity of diction, and for beauty of sentiment and imagery, each of the odes will ever be esteemed a model and a study; and in his hands the Latin tongue becomes an instrument more delicate and flexible than it ever approves itself in those of any other writer.
PREDISPOSITION TO BLEEDINGS. It is now pretty clearly understood that almost every individual human being has something peculiar in his physical organisation-some characteristic which renders him liable to special impressions from certain classes of circumstances and casualties. By this it is not meant that every single person differs in constitution from every other person. Scientific observers have seen grounds for arranging mankind into classes, according to their peculiarities of constitution; and it it is found that, as our temperament may chance to be nervous, or sanguine, or bilious, we will be exposed to particular impressions, in each case, from particular circumstances. There is a species of idiosyncrasy, however, which has not attracted so much attention as other constitutional peculiarities, being, indeed, of comparatively rare occurrence. At the same time, it is a physical singularity of the most remarkable kind, mysterious in its nature and striking in its effects. When it comes before medical men in the case of any patient, they term it the Hemorrhagic Diathesis; that is, a tendency to bleedings or fluxes of blood, from any hurt or lesion of the skin, to an extent far greater than is common with persons ordinarily constituted. So strong is this liability in some instances, that a leech-bite has caused death, the flow of blood having proved irrepressible by all the usual means. Another feature, distinguishing this idiosyncrasy, is its hereditary character. It has been observed to pass from generation to generation, and to pervade whole families. From attending to the cases of this kind on record, both instruction and warning, interesting to many, may perhaps be derived.
The extraction of teeth has frequently called into perilous and fatal action the hemorrhagic diathesis; and surgeons seem to have had their attention first directed to the subject by accidents resulting from that operation. In a work published at Paris in 1778, by M. Jourdain, a dentist, we find various early cases alluded to. Haller mentions a case of mortal hemorrhagy, caused by the extraction of a tooth. Plater gives an example of a locksmith, who had a tooth extracted, and was seized in consequence with a flux of blood, which resisted all remedies, whether in the form of compression, touching with caustic, or cauterisation with red-hot iron, and terminated fatally. In these and other early cases, the surgeons conceived that a small artery, or vessel carrying blood directly from the heart, had been wounded, thus producing the fatal issue. No artery, at least of such a bulk as to cause any danger, lies at the roots of the teeth in ordinary
* A wretched versifier in the train of Alexander the Great. †The irritable tribe of poets.
seemed, after several days, as if more blood were actually directed to that region. The face became much swollen and discoloured, as if from the effects of a blow; and an oozing also commenced from the gums and nostrils. Still considerable hopes were entertained from the 23d to the 31st of December, the oozing remaining comparatively slight, though almost continuous; but the worst symptoms suddenly recurred, and the patient sank on the 11th of January, notwithstanding all the exertions of his able attendants.
It may not be very common for cases to occur, where the predisposition to bleedings is so extremely strong as in the instances recorded. But where they are liable to occur, even in a modified form, guarded conduct is advisable; and, moreover, from what takes place in the instance of one member of a family, another may at least learn a lesson of prudence. The unfortunate gentleman, whose case has just been stated, had a tooth extracted three years before his death, and a bleeding of three days' duration followed. Had he been aware of such a case as that of the boy Langton, or had he been generally informed on the subject, he would in all likelihood have received a warning which might have prolonged his life. He erred, indeed, in not relating his former experience to Dr Roberts, who might have timeously cautioned him.
For these reasons, the relation of such cases to the
public may, it appears to us, be of great service.
The cause of the hemorrhagic diathesis is supposed to be a deficiency of the fibrine or thicker portions of the blood, which prevents the formation of a coagulum or clot at the mouths of wounded vessels. Flows of blood are naturally stopped, in ordinary cases, by such clots. The remedial means to be employed, where bleedings occur in persons predisposed to them, must depend, to a certain extent, upon the site of the bleeding. It is not uncommon for leech-bites to cause long and dangerous bleedings in children. Frequently, the employment of pressure, continued for a lengthened time, is efficacious in checking the flow; but sometimes ordinary pressure, caustics, and even hot iron, are applied in vain. The passage of a very fine needle from lip to lip of the wound, and the twisting afterwards upon the needle of thread in the shape of a figure of eight, has often been found effective where other means have failed. Often, in the case of persons even but slightly predisposed to bleeding, an alarming flux comes from the nostrils, which resists cold applications and other common remedies. Pressure is here the most effective remedy, and it is one, happily, which can be readily used by non-professional persons. Lint may answer the purpose, but other substances have been found more efficacious. One substance, we are assured upon excellent authority, answers the end peculiarly well, and has been long in use among the common people of some districts of Great Britain. This is simply a portion of the blood dried. The fluid matter being expelled by heat, the fibrine and thicker parts are left, which are the very materials wanted by the thin flowing blood to make a clot. This remedy is at once simple, and must necessarily be ever at hand. With regard to bleedings from the socket of an extracted tooth, fatal in so many cases, it seems to us, after an examination of the cases recorded, that, where the hemorrhagic diathesis is marked and strong, pressure is the only safe and effectual remedy. The repeated use of caustics appears to blister the gums, and but to add fresh outlets, ultimately, for the oozing blood. Even the operation of tying the carotid artery, in the boy Langton's case, only accelerated the fatal result. Pressure, while it can do no injury, seems best fitted to do good. The question is-what is the best material to use in exerting pressure on the socket? Obviously such a substance as will best contribute to the formation of a clot in the mouths of the open vessels. The simple pressure of a hard unyielding substance will scarcely do this, as a hard body cannot mould itself into the shape of the cavity, and the blood will too readily force a way past it. One medical gentleman has been successful, where all other remedies failed, with plaster of Paris, introduced into the socket in a soft state. In this case, the liquid parts of the flowing blood would be absorbed by the plaster, and the thick parts, forming the clot, left at the mouths of the vessels. It is probable that this substance will be found a valuable resource in such cases. The other substance mentioned above, namely, blood dried or nearly dried, would in all probability form an equally valuable material for filling the socket, though we are not aware if it has yet been used in the case of bleedings from the teeth. Where either of these substances, or common lint, or any other material, is used to fill up the socket, it is necessary to keep it down and compress it, by means of cork, or something of the kind, properly fixed.
As bleedings are much more easily checked at the outset, for the most part, than after they have been permitted to continue for a time, these hints regarding the use of pressure may prove not altogether unserviceable in guiding the public, where medical aid is not at hand. And, moreover, as already observed, the present remarks may afford that caution which, in the case of Mr C. P., might have lengthened a valuable life. At the same time, it should be kept in mind, that instances of a strong hemorrhagic diathesis are rare; and that, in ordinary cases, fluxes of blood are perfectly under the command of medical men, whether after operations or otherwise. It would
be foolish, indeed, for persons with no constitutional | motives thus mixed up with what is truly the greatest
A little farther on, he says "A fine black man was
light every humane mind, is odious to the great partyleaders of the anti-slavery societies. It is an achievement from which they derive no honour; they did not plan it, and it is proceeding without their assistance. How melancholy is it to find the meanest
JOSEPH STURGE'S VISIT TO THE
JOSEPH STURGE is a respectable and intelligent member of the Society of Friends, who, twelve months ago, left his quiet home near Birmingham to visit the United States, for the purpose of contributing his mite of encouragement to the cause of slave abolition, and the promotion of permanent international peace. On his return he has favoured the world with an account of what he saw, experienced, and thought, during his journey, on these great subjects, but chiefly that of the abolition of slavery. We have perused the work of Mr Sturge not without gratification, both as respects his observations and the circumstances which came under his notice, but with much less satisfaction than we had reason to expect from the production of a man usually so clear-headed. The style is far from being perspicuous, and the account of the journey is so retarded and confused with extraneous matter, that the reader has the greatest difficulty in knowing at any time where the author is, or what he would exactly be at. We fear the volume has been written in haste, and without a precise idea of that great desideratum in the narrative of a tourist-taking the reader in all cases along with him.
* London: Hamilton and Adams. 1841.
sage to the legislature (1839), says, that of 4614 adult
Visiting Lowell, a manufacturing town, which has been called the Manchester of America, he was much pleased with the great propriety of demeanour of the operative classes, particularly the girls employed in the factories. On this subject he quotes the following from a native authority :-"The most striking and gratifying feature of Lowell is the high moral and intellectual condition of its working population. In looking over the books of the mills we visited, where the operatives entered their names, I observed very few that were not written by themselves; certainly not five per cent. of the whole number were signed with a mark, and many of these were evidently Irish. It was impossible to go through the mills and notice the respectable appearance and becoming and modest very favourable estimate of their character and posideportment of the factory girls,' without forming a tion in society. But it would be difficult indeed for a passing observer to rate them so high as they are proved to be by the statistics of the place. The female operatives are generally boarded in houses work, and which are placed under the superintendence built and owned by the corporations' for whom they of matrons of exemplary character, and skilled in housewifery, who pay a low rent for the houses, and provide all necessaries for their inmates, over whom they exercise a general oversight, receiving about one dollar and one-third from each per week. Each of these houses accommodates from thirty to fifty young women, and there is a wholesome rivalry among the mistresses which shall make their inmates most comfortable. We visited one of the boarding-houses, and siderable number of the factory girls are farmers' were highly pleased with its arrangement. A condaughters, and come hither from the distant states of Vermont and New Hampshire, &c., to work for two, three, or four years, when they return to their native hills, dowered with a little capital of their own earnings. The factory operatives at Lowell form a community that commands the respect of the neighbourhood, and of all under whose observation they come. No female of an immoral character could remain a week in any of the mills. The superintendent of the Boott Corporation informed me, that during the five and a-half years of his superintendence of that factory, employing about nine hundred and fifty young women, he had known of but one case of an illegitimate birth, and the mother was an Irish immigrant. Any male or female employed, who was known to be in a state of inebriety, would be at once dismissed." The next "The average wages, clear of board, amount to about extract shows their prosperity in a pecuniary point. two dollars a-week. Many an aged father or mother, in the country, is made happy and comfortable, by the self-sacrificing contributions from the affectionate and dutiful daughter here. Many an old homestead has been cleared of its encumbrances, and thus saved to the family, by these liberal and honest earnings. To the many and most gratifying and cheering facts, which, in the course of this examination, I have had occasion to state, I here add a few others relating_to the matter now under discussion, furnished me by Mr Carney, the treasurer of the Lowell Institution for Savings. The whole number of depositors in this institution, on the 23d July, was 1976; the whole amount of deposits was 305,796 dollars and 70 cents (about L.60,000). Of these depositors 978 are factory girls, and the amount of their funds now in the bank is estimated by Mr Carney, in round numbers, at 100,000 dollars. It is a common thing for one of these girls to have 500 dollars in deposit ; and the only reason why she does not exceed this sum is the fact, that the institution pays no interest on any larger sum than this. After reaching this amount, she invests her remaining
"I subsequently," he observes, "visited, in company with a coloured gentleman, one of the principal coloured schools in New York, in which there were upwards of three hundred children present. All the departments appeared to be conducted, under coloured teachers, with great order and efficiency, and the attainments of the higher classes were very considerable. On the whole, this school would bear comparison with any similar school for white children which I ever visited."
Mr Sturge visited Washington in the course of his tour, one of his objects being to present an address to the President of the United States from the committee of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society, signed by Thomas Clarkson. A communication which he made to the president on the subject met with no reply, and the address was never delivered. The preconsistent with etiquette. We question if an English sident's non-reply was shabby, but perhaps politic and monarch would receive an address from a foreigner, praying his majesty to use his influence in dissolving one of the most prominent national institutions. At Baltimore, a slave-holding city, Mr Sturge was glad to find that free people of colour were fully alive to the importance of education. "One individual told us, that in distributing about two hundred and fifty religious books, which had been sent to be gratuitously supplied to the poor of this class, he found In his general observations on all that had passed only five or six families in which the children were under his notice in the States, the author sums up his not learning to read and write." In Virginia, con- opinions on the social condition of the people at large siderable efforts have been made to promote general as follows:-" In short, whether I consider the relieducation; "yet the governor of Virginia, in his mes-gious, the benevolent, or the literary institutions of the
In addition to this satisfactory account of the working population of Lowell, Mr Sturge mentions the following fact as an instance of the spread of intellectual cultivation :-"I ought not to omit a notice of sisting of original articles, written exclusively by the the Lowell Offering,' a little monthly magazine, confactory girls. The editor of the Boston Christian Examiner' commends this little periodical to those who consider the factory system to be degrading and demoralising; and expresses a doubt whether a committee of young ladies, selected from the most refined and best-educated families in any of our towns and cities, could make a fairer appearance in type than these hard-working factory girls."