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dows east and west, a gothic oak canopy, and a carved oak gallery over the space dividing the hall from the buttery. The oak panelling around the room is cut all over with the pames of Etonians of several generations.
Among the Eton festivals was, the Montem, formerly celebrated every third year on Whit-Tuesday, and believed to have been a corruption of the Popish ceremony of the Boy Bishop. It consisted of a theatrical procession of pupils wearing costumes of various periods, for the purpose of collecting money, or "salt," for the captain of Eton, about to retire to King's College, Cambridge. To each contributor was given a small portion of salt, at an eminence named therefrom Salt-Hill; the ceremony concluding with the waving of a flag upon this hill or Montem.* Boating and cricket are the leading recreations at Eton : the College walks, or playing-fields, extended to the banks of the Thames, and the whole scene is celebrated by Gray, the accomplished Etonian, in his wellknown Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College, commencing
"Ye distant spires, ye antique towers
That crown the watery glade.' “Waynflete was the first Provost of Eton. Among the eminent scholars are Archbishop Rotherham, and Bishop West; Croke, the celebrated Hellenist, one of the first who taught the Greek language publicly in any university north of the Alps ; Bishop Aldrich, the friend of Erasmus; Hall, the chronicler; Bishop Foxe; Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charterhouse ; Sir Thomas Smith, and Sir Henry Savile, provosts; Admiral Sir Humphrey Gilbert; Oughtred, the mathematician ; Tusser, the useful old rhymer; Phineas and Giles Fletcher, the poets; the martyrs, Fuller, Glover, Saunders, and Hullier; Sir Henry Wotton, provost; Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex ; Waller, the poet ; Robert Boyle; Henry More, the Platonist ; Bishops Pearson and Sherlock ; the evermemorable John Hales, 'the Walking Library;' Bishops Barrow and Fleetwood; Lord Camden; the poets Gray, Broome, and West; Fielding, the novelist; Dr. Arne, the musical composer; Horace Walpole; the Marquis of Granby; Sir William Draper; Sir Joseph Banks; Marquis Cornwallis; Lord Howe; Richard Porson, the Greek Emperor; the poets Shelley, Praed and Milman; Hallam, the historian; and W. E. Gladstone, the statesman.
The Premiers of England, during the last century and a half, were mostly educated at Eton. Thus, Lord Bolingbroke, Sir William Wyndham, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Townshend, Lord Lyttleton, Lord Chatham, the elder Fox, Lord North, Charles James Fox, Mr. Wyndham, the Marquis Wellesley, Lord Grenville, Canning, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, and the Earl of Derby — were all Etopians.
Among the celebrities of the College should not be forgotten the periodical work entitled The Etonian, the contributors to which were Eton scholars, and the author-publisher was the Etonian Charles Knight - a name long to be remembered in the commonwealth of English literature."
King's College, which Henry founded in 1441, at Cambridge, to be recruited from Eton, is the richest endowed collegiate foundation in that University.
* The last Montem was celebrated at Whitsuntide, 1844. The abolition of the custom had long been pressed upon the College authorities, and they at length yielded to the growing condemnation of the ceremony as an exhibition unworthy of the present enlightened age. A memorial of the last celebration is preserved in that picturesque chronicle of events, the Wustrated London News, June 1, 1844.
MERCHANT TAYLORS' GRAMMAR SCHOOL. The Grammar School of the Merchant Taylors' Company originated in an offer in 1560-1 by Mr. Richard Hills, a member of the fraternity, of the sum of 500L to purchase for the purpose of a school a portion of the spacious mansion of the 'Rose' mentioned in Shakspeare's King Henry VIII. :
— within the parish
St. Lawrence Poultney. The school was completely organized with a master, wardens, and assistants before the close of 1561. The statutes for the governmeut of the school were copied from those of Dean Colet for St. Paul's School—the scholars being the children of any nation resident in London. The first High Master-who, by the statutes, must be 'a man in body whole, sober, discrete, honest, virtuous, and learned in good and cleare Latine Literature, and also in Greeke, yf such may be gotten,' was Richard Mulcaster, M. A., of Christ Church, Oxford. Such was his reputation that pupils poured in from all quarters at once, and this immediate success was made permanent by the appropriation of forty-three Fel. lowships in St. John's College, Oxford, to the scholars of this school—the gift of Sir Thomas White, a member of the company.
System of Probation or Examination—1606-7. 1. A probacon of the whole schoole shall bee made onely by the master of the schoole and the three ushers, and at these three tymes, viz., the first on the eleaventh day of March; the second on the eleaventh day of September; the third on the eleaventh day of December; not being Sundaies, And if anie of the said daies happen on the Sunday, then upon the next day following
2. The mr of the schoole, eight or nine daies before the said probacon-day, shall admonish all the schollers of the schoole, as well them that bee absent, by messengers, as them that bee present, by himself: first, that they prepare all guch necessaries as are required on the probacon-day; secondly, that they com to the schoole, on the said probacon-day, in the morning, at half an houre after six of the clock at the furthest, and so to continue till an eleaven; and in the afternoone, likewise, at half an hour after twelve, and to contynue till five.
3. The mr of the schoole, the day before the probacon-day, shall see that every scholler in the schoole bee furnished with paper, pennes, and ynck, for the next daies exercise; and also that every ones name, his age, the day, moneth, and yeare of his coming first to schoole, bee written with his own hand on the outside of his paper, or paper-book, or on the topp of his first page.
4. The mr of the schoole shall propound to every form in the schoole, for fowre howres in the forenoone, and as manie in the afternoone of the probationday, several exercises to bee done in writeing by every one of them within the sett-tyme hereafter mentioned.
5. The mr of the schoole, and the three ushers (while the schollers are doing their work, and dureing the prescribed time,) shall carefully, and with a watchfull eye, provide, that no scholler of anie forme do prompt or once lean towards his fellow for help, that the founders may the better know how they proceed, by doing of their own act and exercise, without any help.
6. The mr of the schoole and the three ushers at th' end of every howre (dureing the whole day), shall see that every empty space, and also the last line of every exercise, bee crossed, that afterwards there may bee no adding of apie thing, but that the work of every boy doe stand to be viewed hereafter as hee of himself did perform it in that sett-time; and that the forenoon's worke shall be alwaies taken from the scholars at their going away by the ushers, and delivered to the mor, wch at one a clock shall be delivered to them again to write the rest of their tasks.
7. The mr of the Schoole shall not propound to anie forme the same dialogue, epistle, theme, sentence, or verse, twice in one yeare.
8. No scholler of any forme shall bee urged to write more of the taske prescribed within the lymitted howre than hee is well able to perform.
9. If any scholler shal bee found on three several probation-daies either by his owne negligence, or his friends will, to be absent from the schoole; or having been p'sent, by his over-slender and weak exercises, to be unapted and unmeet to learn, or els a non-proficient, that then everie such scholar, that'so shalbe found absent, unapt, or not competently profiting, shalbee (according to the companie's order, heretofore provided in the like behalf,) dismissed the schoole.
10. The mr of the schoole, receaving all the schollers exercises done by them on the said probation-day, shall cause everie formes papers of exercises to bee sowed together into six several volumes or bookes, every forme apart by itself, and afterwards lay them up in some convenient place appointed thereunto. And hee shall not in anie wise diminish any one of them, that the succeeding posterity, as well of the company as of the schoole, by comparing their present exercises with them of former tymes, may see how much and wherein they ex. ceed or come behind them.
11. The mr of the schoole, within fowre daies after the said probacon-day shall enter into a booke, called THE REGISTER OF THE SCHOOLE'S PROBATION, conteining 400 leaves of large paper, in forme of a brief table or callender: Ffirst, that the said tryalls were performed the with day of that present moneth, according to the orders prescribed; Secondly, all the schollers of the six formes, every form by itself in this order, viz., the name of every boy as hee sitteth in his forme, his age, and time of continuance; next, what books and how far in them hee hath read; lastly, what exercises hee usually makes, with the school-master and three ushers own hands subscribed thereunto: wch table or kalendar thus entered into the said register, the mr of the schoole, accompanied with one of his ushers, shal shewe to the mr and wardens at their hall upon the first or second ordynarie court-day, next after following (the day of probacon being past fowre daies before), to th' end that, yf they so please, they may appoint some persons to repaire to the schoole, to take knowledge and view of the exercises done by every boy on the said probacon-day; and also that they themselves, or some other for them, may presently, or after when they think best, compare the last things registred with the like things registred at former probacons, to see every boye's contynuance either in any forme, or in the schoole, and other like circumstances there mentioned. And the mr and wardens, or som one of them shall subscribe to the register so brought and confirmed under the schoole-mr and ushers hands; and also cause to bee entred into their court-book the day on wch the said mr of the schoole, with one of his ushers, came and presented the same, for testimony to the company as well of the said dutifull p'sentment, as also of their care towards the schoole, and desire they have to know how their schollers doe proceede; and even then shall bee given to the said master of the schoole xxvis. virid. by the name of a reward to bee distributed equally (for considerations in the giver), to himself, and his three ushers, vis. viiid. to each of them for their good care and pains taken in the premisses, and their further encouragement, PROVIDED alwaies herein, that uppon any fraudulent dealing in the master of the schoole, or the three ushers, the aforesaid reward shall cease, and the blame and shame shall rest with them for their wilfull default.
12. It is thought meete that this probation of the whole schoole shalbee committed unto the honest and faithfull trust and disposition of the mr of the schoole and the three ushers alone, without any association, for these three causes: First, the ffounders have good experience of their faithfull government and assured confidence of their care of this trust reposed uppon them. Secondly, this triall of the schollers being made by an act onely in writeing, it is without doubt that strange assembly will but hinder them in their said exercises. Thirdly, The watchfull eye of the mr and the 3 ushers onely, wilbee sufficient to make the boyes the more serious and earnest in their work, and cause every boye's act to be entirely his owne worke, without any help; whereas, yf further assembly were, this probacon could not by the mr and the three ushers bee so carefully attended, neither the schollers worke be so heedefully and dutifully intended and done by them as it should.
SHREWSBURY SCHOOL. The Grammar School at Shrewsbury originated in a movement of Hugh Edwards, a London mercer, but a Shrewsbury man, and Richard Whitaker, one of tbe bailiffs of the town, to secure a portion of the estates belonging to the suppressed Abby and Collegiate Church of St. Mary, and St. Chad's, to supply the loss of the seminaries attached to them, by a Free Grammar School. A charter was issued February 10, 1551, granting certain prebendal tithes toward the establishment of a school with one master and one under-master to be called 'Libera Schola Grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti' – The Free Grammar School of King Edward the Sixth. The precise meaning of the expression Libera Schola, or Free School, is a matter of controversy. It evidently did not mean literally a gratuitous school—in a school which no charge was or or could be made for tuition, for in the original statutes provision is made for the payment of fees. In a controversy which has grown out of the word, Dr. Kennedy the Head Master in 1862, published a pamphlet, with the title Libera Schola. He affirms that Libera was never used in the sense of 'gratuitous,' either in classical Latin, in post-classical Latin, or in mediæval Latin. As respects classical Latin, he refers to the dictionaries of Facciolati and Scheller, where it is seen, on comparing the examples of 'liber' and its adverb "liberi' with the examples of 'gratuitus' and the adverb gratis,' that the two former words are never used in the sense of the two latter. “Liber,' in fact, he contends, means 'unrestrained,'' uncontrolled,' or exempt, but can not be found to describe a thing not to be paid for. So post-classically he gives many instances of Liber in the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible, in all of which the meaning is 'unenslaved,' and in none 'gratuitous.' Finally, as regards mediæval Latin, he points to the valuable glossaries of Dufresne, Ducange, and Charpentier, as well as to Lindenbrog's Codex Legum, and declares that, although the word is of the most frequent occurrence, there is not the faintest trace of its use in the sense of gratuitous.' From all which be concludes that Libera in the charter of King Edward's schools was designed to distinguish them from other existing schools, most of which were dependent on ecclesiastical power, and were attached and subservient to Chapters and Colleges. In confirmation of this view of the expression it should be remembered that Liber Homo in the Great Charter meant a 'freeman'as distinguished from a serf, and the adjective Liber (Libera, Liberum) was the term universally employed to confer by Royal Charter a liberty or franchise on various objects and institu. tions. For instance
Libera Capella, a Free Chapel (free from ordinary jurisdiction).
Liber Taurus, a Free Bull (not liable to be impounded).
Libera Piscaria, Free Fishery.
Libera Eleemosyna, Frank Almoine. In all which, undoubtedly, the word implies 'free from lordship or control,' * not liable to services,' by royally.conferred franchise.
4. Divinity ....................................................
Present Condition. · 1. The School is now governed by 13 Trustees, of which the Mayor of Shrewsbury is ex-officio Chairman. Vacancies are filled by selection of the Corporation from those nominated by the Trustees for each vacancy.
2. The annual value of the property and revenues exceeds 3,0001., and the income of the tuition fees in 1866 was 6,0001. There are four ecclesiastical benefices attached to the foundation.
3. There are eight masters uuder the Head Master-the former receiving in salary and tuition fees over 2,000k, and the latter from 2001. to 5601., with some addition from private pupils. 4. The attendance of pupils varies—is now 198, distributed as follows:
Sixth Form, 3 divisions, Third Form, 2 divisions.
First do. Fourth Form, 2 " 5. Latin, Greek, and Mathematics are compulsory on the whole school. The following table of marks in the Sixth Form is an index to the grand valuation of studies in a total of 3,000 marks, viz. :1. Translations from Greek and Latin authors ........
600 for 4 pa pers. 2. Composition, Greek, Latin, and English... 3. Philology, Greek, Latin, and English........
.. 300 42 5. History and Geography......
400" , " 6. Mathematics (including arithmetic).........
................ 600 " 3 " 6. A boy at Shrewsbury rises mainly by proficiency. There are 26 Exhibi. tions, varying in value from 101. to 631. per annum, tenable from 3 to 8 years -in particular colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. There are more than 20 prizes for Classical, Mathematical, and other attainments.
7. School discipline is maintained in part hy 12 Præpostors, who are 'privi. leged to wear hats, to carry a stick, to go beyond the school bounds, and to go home a day earlier than others. They read lessons in the chapel; call the school roll; conduct negotiations with the Head Master, and can 'set impositions,' but not use physical force. There is no 'individual fagging,' but four fags are allotted to the Præpostor's room, to run messages, lay the breakfast things, &c. These are changed every week. There is a 'Secretary of Discipline' (one of the Masters) who records in a book each boy's merit marks, as well as his penal marks. Four merit marks purchase a half-holiday. The rod can be used only by the Head Master. The greatest number obtainable by one boy in a month is twelve, viz. :For good classical work............. 2 For punctual attendance at chapel... 2 mathematical work.
For absence of penal marks.....
Total............ 12 The ancient ordinances direct that the scholars shall play only on Thursday, unless there be a holiday in the week, or at the earnest request of some man of honor, or of great worship, credit, or authority. Their play was to be 'shooting in the long bow, and chess play, and no other games, unless it be running, wrestling, or leaping, and no game to be above 1d. or match over 4d.' It is further provided that on every Thursday 'before they go to play,' the scholars shall for exercise declaim and play one act of a comedy.'
There is a play-ground of about three quarters of an acre near the School, with a fives court; and a cricket-ground, rented by the Head Master, five acres in extent, at the distance of half a mile. The games chiefly practiced are cricket, football, fives, quoits, and other athletic sports, as running, leaping, &c.