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This suggestiyn was formally but not heartily accepted, as the head-master (Dr. Moberly) declared "that except for those who have taste and intend to prirsue the physical sciences as amateurs or professionally, such instruction is worthless as education.” Prizes are now given, to encourage botanical excursions, for the best collection of wild flowers.
Deviations m Regular Course. This school has co departments. The head-master does not think it large enough to be divided into separate schools, although individual students are allowed to commute some part of the classical course for mathematical or other work duly testified, at the discretion of the master. System of Promotion Examinations-Prizes.
A boy rises in this school, not by seniority, but by his success in incessant competition, in which every lesson counts for a certain numerical value, and which never pauses or terminates till he reaches the sixth form. Places are taken in every division below, and each boy receives for each lesson a number answering to the place he holds in the division at the end of the lesson. Thus, if he is twentieth from the bottom he receives twenty marks. But in mathematical and modern language classes the number of marks is less for the place, the maximum being the relative value attached to these studies as compared with classics—mathematics being one-fourth, and French and German one-eighth. The boy's daily record is called his "classicus paper," and his promotion at the end of the half-year depends on the number of marks obtained, and his success in "standing-up," a repeating from memory the largest portions of certain specified books.
Until lately there were no general periodical examinations, although examinations for prizes are given, the stimulus of which is felt by only the best portion of the school.
The scholarships to New College are now eligible only on a real competitive examination, and open to commoners as well as collegiang. They expire at the age of eighteen.
Hours of Work and Play.—These have been already given. The boys prepare as well as say their lessons at school, and for every lesson of an hour long an hour of preparation is given. The hard-working boys at Winchester contend successfully with the idle boys in the games of the school.
Monitorial System.—The earliest type of the monitorial system of the public schools of England is found in Winchester, and had its origin in the original statutes of the founder. "In each of the lower chambers let there be at least three scholars of good character, more advanced than the rest in age, discretion, and knowledge, who may superintend their chamber-fellows in their studies, and oversee them diligently, and may, from time to time, certify and inform the warden, sub-warden, and head-master respecting their behavior and conversation and progress in study."
There were six chambers, and therefore eighteen "prefects," and the number was not increased when the original school-room was turned into a seventh chamber. The eighteen chamber-prefects still exist; of these, eight have power only in the inner quadrangle, practically only in the chambers; the remaining ten (plenâ potestate præfecti) have power every where; and five of the ten, called officers, are invested also with special authority, and have charge respectively of the hall, school-room, library, and chapel. The prefect of hall is the chief of these five, and has large powers of general superintendence; he is "the governor of the school among the boys," and their organ of communication with the headmaster. All the prefects, except the five and the ten respectively, obtain their positions by seniority; the five officers are chosen by the warden, with the advice of the head-master, with reference to their character and power of influencing their school-fellows. All are invested with authority by the warden in a traditional and appropriate form of words, (præficio te sociis concameralibus præficio te aula, &c.) They are empowered to punish corporally. It is not the practice for them to set impositions.
Dr. Moberly deems it of“ vital importance," as substituting a responsible authority, bestowed according to character and progress in the school, for the irresponsible power of mere size and strength; as providing for the maintenance of discipline without espionage; as a safeguard against bullying; and as accustoming boys to exercise over others a control checked by usage and opinion. He admits, at the same time, that it requires careful watching; that it might be. come extremely mischievous were the prefects themselves to be ill-conducted or disorderly; and that it is necessary, to prevent this, that the boys should be well-trained, the masters watchful, and the right of appeal to the head-master (though seldom used) kept always open. Mr. Fearon's experience is that it works well, and he does not remember any instance of its having been abused. Mr. Thresher, who was a commoner, agrees in this opinion. It is submitted to cheerfully; and if it is not a perfect safeguard against bullying and some of the minor offenses which it would be deemed the prefect's duty to punish, we believe that it serves its intended purposes to a very considerable degree, that there is little bullying, and that the general tone of opinion and conduct is sound.
Fagging.—The system of fagging among the scholars is connected with that of government by prefects. The eighteen prefects, and they only, have power to fag; all the scholars who are not prefects are, strictly speaking, liable to be fagged, but the burden falls chiefly on those most recently elected, whatever may be their position in the school. The system is somewhat complicated. A boy may be “valet” to one prefect, whom he waits on in his chamber; "breakfast fag” to another, whom he attends at tea—not at, breakfast—in hall; and liable also to be sent on errands, and to be obliged to field at cricket, at the bidding of any prefect who may happen to want those services. This would ordinarily be the case with a boy who was not one of the seven juniors, but was just above them. If he were one of the seven juniors, he would be general fag (iustead of "valet ") in his own chamber. The fagging in college is on a different principle from the fagging in commoners, the one depending on length of standing in college, the other on position in the school; a boy who, being a commoner, is elected a scholar, may have to go through a second period of servitude, after having already served his time, a prospect which might well deter a clever boy from standing for college.
Punishments.—The chief punishments at Winchester, as elsewhere, are flogging and impositions. The practice of giving impositions to be written out is, however, adopted more sparingly, and the better alternative of setting them to be learnt by heart more frequently, than in some other schools. Flogging, which is administered publicly (as a general rule) and by the head and second masters only, has greatly diminished in frequency. “When I was here," says Dr. Moberly, “in my boy-time, there was a very large number of boys flogged, and nobody cared about it.” “I have known twenty in a day, and all for slight offenses. Sometimes boys did not answer to their names in time. Now we punish in this way very rarely. There are now,” he adds, "from ten to twenty floggings in a year, perhaps in some years a few more. The diminution has bad a good effect."
Chapel Service. The boys go to chapel every morning for a short service, which consists of a part of the Liturgy with chanting. It omits, however, both the Psalms and the lessons for the day, and in this respect Dr. Moberly desires some alteration. On Sundays there are two choral services in chapel, at 8 A. M. and 5 P. M., and the boys also go once to the cathedral, where they have the Litany, the Communion Service, and a sermon. The late warden introduced the practice of having a sermon also at the chapel service on Sunday evenings, and the present warden has continued it, and has arranged a cycle of preachers to share the duty with himself.
Dr. Moberly prepares the oldest boys with great care for confirmation, reads the Greek Testament for a half-hour every morning with the highest three divisions, and gives catechetical teaching on Monday mornings to the boys who have not been confirmed, and has a daily Bible reading with the fourth form, and prayers were always said at 9 o'clock in the evening before going to bed.
Commoners' Boarding-Houses.—The charge for each boy in the head-master's house is £84, in the other boarding-houses £105. This includes all the school charges. German and drawing are the only extras, and are paid for as such by those who learn them. The £105 includes also medical attendance. Dr. Moberly states, that including traveling money, pocket money, and tradesmen's bills, the total expenses of a boy boarding in his house average about £115 a year. Every new boy in the head-master's house pays £11 188. 6d. for entrance fees.
Out of the £105 charged for each of the other boarders, £26 9s. 6d. is paid to the staff, including £10 10s. to the head-master, and leaving a balance of £78 108. 6d. The boarding master has likewise paid on the entrance of each new boy £6 11s., which has been divided in certain proportions among the head, second, and third masters. The estimated profits on each boy were nearly £23, after payment of house rent and repairs, servants' food and wages, and two guineas for medical attendance on the boys.
of the three boarding-houses now open in addition to the head-master's, two are kept by assistant masters, the third by a gentleman who was formerly a “Tutor in Commmoners,” but now has no educational duties beyond superintending the work of the boys in his house.
The boys sleep five or six in a room, and do not use their bedrooms during the daytime. The twenty seniors in the head-master's house have little private studies; the others, when they are not in school, sit in a common hall, whero each has his "toy” or cupboard. With the scholars it is otherwise; they sit in their chambers after six in the evening. The want of privacy is probably less felt at Winchester, from the fact that the lessons are prepared as well as said in school.
Results.--Of the undergraduates at Oxford in Michælmas term, 1861, sixty had been educated at Winchester; of those at Cambridge, two. The average number of the boys leaving Winchester of late years who have gone to the Universities we compute to be about seventeen a year, and the average proportion to be about forty-three per cent. Of those who left Winchester in the year which ended at the summer holidays, 1862, the proportion who went to the Universities was forty-one per cent.
Within the ten years ending in 1861, Winchester obtained at Oxford in the final examinations, seven classical "Firsts," one mathematical and two in law and modern history; in Moderations, thirteen classical and two mathematical "Firsts;" one Craven scholarship, one Latin verse and three Latin essay prizes, and several prizes for English essays, with other distinctions. We have no return of honors gained at Cambridge, and the number of boys who go thither is probably too small to supply material for a return.
Of the nine Winchester boys who were candidates for commissions in the army, or admission to Sandhurst and Woolwich, in the course of three years four failed, and five passed.
Recommendations. All the general recommendations made by the Commissioners in their report, are applicable to Winchester with the single exception of XXIV. Among the special recommendations are, " that the warden shall be elected by the governing body, shall reside at Winchester, and not be necessarily a graduate of the school, but educated at Oxford and Cambridge, with a salary of £1,700, and a house."
“That the advertisements respecting the elections to scholarships and exhibitions should afford information respecting the limits of age, the subjects of examination, the value of the scholarships or exhibitions, and, as far as possible, the number of vacancies; and that such advertisements should be inserted in the newspapers three months at least before the day of election.
That the exhibitions should be awarded by competitive examination, open to both scholars and commoners.
That natural science should be open to all.
That the promotion of the boys from division to division should not depena wholly, as it has hitherto done, upon the marks gained for class-work and compositions during the half year, but should depend also in part upon their performances in a special competitive examination occurring once at least in the year.
That a larger amount of translation from English into Latin and Greek verse and prose should be introduced; that the amount of original composition in these two languages should be diminished; and that some part of the original composition in them should be exchanged for translations from Greek and Latin into English, both oral translation (as distinct from construing) and written, and that in estimating the merit of such translations, due regard should be paid to the correctness and purity of the English.
That English composition should be cultivated in the junior division of thu sixth form.
That the practice of learning by heart passages from Latin and English authors should be introduced in the sixth form.
That arrangements should be made by which the scholars under the sixth form, instead of being left almost wholly to themselves after six in the evening, should preparo their lessons for the next day in the presence of a tutor or mas ter, as is now the practice in commoners."
JOHN COLET, AND ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL, LONDON.
John COLET, D. D., Dean of the Cathedral Church of St. Paul's, London, who, as founder of St. Paul's School in 1509–10 and the regulator of its original course of study, exerted a controlling influ. ence on the curriculum and methods of secondary instruction in England, was born in London in 1466--the son of a wealthy silk merchant, Sir Thomas Colet, who was mayor of the city in the years 1486 and 1495. Having improved diligently the best opportunities of education which St. Anthony's School in Threadneedle Street, London, and St. Mary Magdalene College, at Oxford, afforded, he resorted to the Continent, residing four years abroad, and pursuing his studies and holding intercourse with famous teachers and scholars, in France and Italy, as Gaguinus, Deloine, Budæus, Demetrius, Politianus, Hermolaus Barbarus, and Sabinus, and his own countrymen, Grocyne, Latymer, Linacer, and Lilly. His knowledge of Cicero and the best Latin authors, of logic and mathematics, and the Fathers of the Church, was profound, but of Greek literature, was quite limited. But in this last particular he shared the imperfections of that period, especially in England. Dr. Knight in his Life of Dean Colet, from which this memoir is compiled, observes :
Such was the infelicity of those times, that the Greek tongue was not taught in any of our grammar schools, nor was there thought to be any great need of it in the two universities by the generality of scholars. It is worth notice, that Standish, who was a bitter enemy to Erasmus, in his declamation against him, styles him Græculus isie, which was for a long time after the phrase for an heretic, or one falling under the suspicion of heretical pravity. And for this very reason, those very few that understood Greek were afraid to teach it, lest they should be thought to propagate heresy.
But Dr. John Fisher, reputed the best preacher and the deepest divine in those times, head of Queen's College in Cambridge, chancellor of that university, chaplain at .court, and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, was of another mind, and very sensible of this imperfection, which made him desirous to learn Greek in his declining years; and for that purpose he wrote to Erasmus, to persuade William Latyiner, an Englishman, (who from his travels had brought home that language in perfection,) to be his instructor in it. Erasmus accordingly wrote to Latymer, and importuned him to it. But he declined the undertaking to teach the bishop at those years, alleging the long time it would require to make any proficiency in that tongue, from the examples of the greatest masters of it then in England, Grocin, Linacer, Tonstal, Pace, and Moore; and to excuse bim