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master receives about £1,500; the mathematical tutor, £210; and the college tutor, £200.
Course of Study. The course of study at Winchester is principally classical, but every boy in the school learns, during the whole time that he remains there, both arithmetic and mathematics, and one modern language, either French or German, at the option of his parents.
The classical staff comprises, beside the head and second masters, a third and a fourth master respectively, taking classes in school, an assistant to the head master, who likewise takes a class, and three composition masters, who are employed in looking over and correcting the exercises and compositions of the whole school, except the upper sixth. One of these, called the “college tutor," performs this office for the scholars; the other two, called “tutors in commoners," for the commoners. The two latter are also employed to preserve order and discipline in the head-master's boarding-house.
In 1861 the arrangement of forms (or "books," as they are called at Win. chester) and sub-divisions of forms was as follows:Sixth Form, (or Book,).
Junior Division. There were no lower forms. The whole school was thus distributed into eight ascending divisions.*
The distribution of classes among the masters was follows:- The first three divisions, numbering altogether seventy-five boys, were nominally under the head-master; he in fact took the first and third, numbering together fifty-six boys, an assistant having almost exclusive charge of the second. The fourth, fifth, and sixth divisions, numbering eighty-five boys, were under the second master; the seventh and eighth (thirty-seven boys) were under the third master. There was at that time no fourth master.
Boy Tutors-Private Tutors.-To each of the ten senior boys in college some of the juniors are assigned as pupils. It is his duty to overlook and correct a certain part of their exercises before they are shown up, and to help his pupils when they want help in their lessons. He is responsible also, in some measure, for their general conduct and diligence, and is the person of whom the headmaster would make inquiries if he had reason to think that any of them were going on amiss. For each pupil so placed under his charge the "Boy Tutor" receives two guineas a year from the popil's parents. This practice has been traced to a provision in the statutes whereby the founder directs, that “to each scholar of his own kindred there should always be assigned, by the warden and head-master, one of the discreeter and more advanced scholars to superintend and instruct them in grammar, under the head-marter, all the time that they should remain in the college." Each of these instructors was to receive for each pupil 6s. 8d. a year out of the funds of the college. The functions of the boy tutor were much circumscribed about twenty-six years ago by the appointment of the college tutor or scholars' composition master a change introduced
* In the sixteenth century there were four forms-the sixth, fifth, fourth, and "second fourth " (quarta secunda )-Walcott, p. 227.
by the then warden on the advice of the second master, the present Bishop of St. Andrew's, who had been educated at Harrow, and against the opinion, though not against the positive dissent, of Dr. Moberly, who was then, as now, head-master. Formerly the boy tutor took all the compositions of his pupils; now he takes only a small part of them. Dr. Moberly regrets the older systern, and thinks that much has been lost by abandoning it. "The boy tutor would correct mistakes of the little boys; now he makes all the blunders himself. Again, he dealt with the pupil as a boy; whereas the college tutor, who has these things to do, deals with him as a man. A boy dealing with a boy is more effective in that way than a man dealing with boys."
Private tuition, in the ordinary sense of the words, was, until lately, quite unknown at Winchester. At present three of the masters--the head-master's assistant, the fourth master, and the mathematical master-take a few private pupils, scholars and commoners—perhaps twenty in all-each of whom pays £5 for the half-year, and works with his tutor from two to three hours a week.
Pulpiteers.—Among the peculiarities of Winchester teaching is the custom of assembling all the boys of the first three divisions for construing lessons in certain authors, when some of the seniors construe first in presence of all the rest. Another is the practice of writing a Latin epigram, called a "vulgus," thrice a week, which is thought to bring out cleverness and cultivate neatness of expression. Another, again, is that of devoting a week, or a week and a half, in the summer, to what is called "standing-up." The work of "standing-up week” consists chiefly in repeating portions of Greek and Latin grammar, and in repeating and construing considerable quantities of Latin and Greek verse or prose, which the boy has been able to store up in his memory. One lesson of English verse is allowed to be taken up, and one of Euclid.
History.-Neither ancient or modern history is taught in set lessons. Questions in portions of English history, specified beforehand, are set for the halfyearly examinations, as well as for the Goddard Scholarship, and there is also a prize for an English essay on a historical subject.
Reading and Speaking.-An annual prize is given for reading well, and during Easter time (six weeks in the Spring) there is speaking every Saturday by chambers, and at the close there is public speaking by the twenty best, and two medals are awarded.
Arithmetic and Mathematics.Seven or eight hours in the week are devoted to arithmetic and other mathematical subjects in every division of the school, and the marks count for about one-third of the weekly total.
French and German.—Every boy is obliged to learn either French or Ger man. In 1862 there was forty in German. The marks count for about oneeighth in the weekly total. There are two French masters and one German.
Natural Science. The Oxford University Commission for Winchester College proposed that three of the fellowships should be filled with especial reference to their being able and required to teach the natural sciences. In their letter ad. dressed to the governing body they say:-"To them it appears that good elementary instruction in physical science is most essential in the case of many boys, desirable in all cases, and perfectly compatible with a first-rato classical education. The object might be effected without prejudice to other studies, by setting apart two or three hours every week for lectures in the physical sciences, by putting good elementary works on the subject into the hands of the boys, and by examining them on the lectures once at least in every half-year."
This suggestion was formally but not heartily accepted, as the head-master (Dr. Moberly) declared "that except for those who have a taste and intend to pursue the physical sciences as amateurs or professionally, such instruction is worthless as education.” Prizes are now given, to encourage botanical excursions, for the best collection of wild flowers.
Deviations from Regular Course. This school has co departments. The head-master does not think it large enough to be divided into separate schools, although individual students are allowed to commute some part of the classical course for mathematical or other work duly testified, at the discretion of the master.
System of Promotion-Examinations-Prizes.-A boy rises in this school, not by seniority, but by his success in incessant competition, in which every lesson counts for a certain numerical value, and which never pauses or terminates till he reaches the sixth form. Places are taken in every division below, and each boy receives for each lesson a number answering to the place he holds in the division at the end of the lesson. Thus, if he is twentieth from the bottom he receives twenty marks. But in mathematical and modern language classes the number of marks is less for the place, the maximum being the relative value attached to these studies as compared with classics—mathematics being one-fourth, and French and German one-eighth. The boy's daily record is called his "classicus paper," and his promotion at the end of the half-year depends on the number of marks obtained, and his success in "standing-up," a repeating from memory the largest portions of certain specified books.
Until lately there were no general periodical examinations, although exami. dations for prizes are given, the stimulus of which is felt by only the best por. tion of the school.
The scholarships to New College are now eligible only on a real competitive examination, and open to commoners as well as collegians. They expire at the age of eighteen.
Hours of Work and Play. These have been already given. The boys prepare as well as say their lessons at school, and for every lesson of an hour long an hour of preparation is given. The hard-working boys at Winchester contend successfully with the idle boys in the games of the school.
Monitorial System. The earliest type of the monitorial system of the public schools of England is found in Winchester, and had its origin in the original statutes of the founder. "In each of the lower chambers let there be at least three scholars of good character, more advanced than the rest in age, discretion, and knowledge, who may superintend their chamber-fellows in their studies, and oversee them diligently, and may, from time to time, certify and inform the warden, sub-warden, and head-master respecting their behavior and conversation and progress in study."
There were six chambers, and therefore eighteen "prefects," and the number was not increased when the original school-room was turned into a seventh chamber. The eighteen chamber-prefects still exist; of these, eight have power only in the inner quadrangle, practically only in the chambers; the remaining ten (plenâ potestate præfecti) have power every where; and five of the ten, called officers, are invested also with special authority, and have charge respectively of the hall, school-room, library, and chapel. The prefect of hall is the chief of these five, and has large powers of general superintendence; he is "the governor of the school among the boys," and their organ of communication with the head. master. All the prefects, except the five and the ten respectively, obtain their positions by seniority; the five officers are chosen by the warden, with the advice of the head-master, with reference to their character and power of influencing their school-fellows. All are invested with authority by the warden in a traditional and appropriate form of words, (proficio te sociis concameralibuspræficio te aula, &c.) They are empowered to punish corporally. It is not the practice for them to set impositions.
Dr. Moberly deems it of "vital importance," as substituting a responsible authority, bestowed according to character and progress in the school, for the irresponsible power of mere size and strength; as providing for the maintenance of discipline without espionage; as a safeguard against bullying; and as accustoming boys to exercise over others a control checked by usage and opinion. He admits, at the same time, that it requires careful watching; that it might become extremely mischievous were the prefects themselves to be ill-conducted or disorderly; and that it is necessary, to prevent this, that the boys should be well-trained, the masters watchful, and the right of appeal to the head-master (though seldom used) kept always open. Mr. Fearon's experience is that it works well, and he does not remember any instance of its having been abused. Mr. Thresher, who was a commoner, agrees in this opinion. It is submitted to cheerfully; and if it is not a perfect safeguard against bullying and some of the minor offenses which it would be deemed the prefect's duty to punish, we believe that it serves its intended purposes to a very considerable degree, that there is little bullying, and that the general tone of opinion and conduct is sound.
Fagging.–The system of fagging among the scholars is connected with that of government by prefects. The eighteen prefects, and they only, have power to fag; all the scholars who are not prefects are, strictly speaking, liable to be fagged, but the burden falls chiefly on those most recently elected, whatever may be their position in the school. The system is somewhat complicated. A boy may be "valet" to one prefect, whom he waits on in his chamber; “breakfast fag” to another, whom he attends at tea—not at breakfast-in hall; and liable also to be sent on errands, and to be obliged to field at cricket, at the bidding of any prefect who may happen to want those services. This would ordinarily be the case with a boy who was not one of the seven juniors, but was just above them. If he were one of the seven juniors, he would be general fag (instead of "valet ") in his own chamber. The fagging in college is on a different principle from the fagging in commoners, the one depending on length of standing in college, the other on position in the school; a boy who, being a commoner, is elected a scholar, may have to go through a second period of servitude, after having already served his time, a prospect which might well deter a clever boy from standing for college.
Punishments. The chief punishments at Winchester, as elsewhere, are flogging and impositions. The practice of giving impositions to be written out is however, adopted more sparingly, and the better alternative of setting them to be learnt by heart more frequently, than in some other schools. Flogging, which is administered publicly (as a general rule) and by the head and second masters only, has greatly diminished in frequency. “When I was here," says Dr. Moberly, “in my boy-time, there was a very large number of boys flogged, and nobody cared about it." "I have known twenty in a day, and all for slight offenseg. Sometimes boys did not answer to their names in time. Now we punish in this way very rarely. There are now," he adds, "from ten to twenty floggings in a year, perhaps in some years a few more. The diminution has had a good effect."
Chapel Service. The boys go to chapel every morning for a short service, which consists of a part of the Liturgy with chanting. It omits, however, both the Psalms and the lessons for the day, and in this respect Dr. Moberly desires some alteration. On Sundays there are two choral services in chapel, at 8 A. M. and 5 P. M., and the boys also go once to the cathedral, where they have the Litany, the Communion Service, and a sermon. The late warden introduced the practice of having a sermon also at the chapel service on Sunday evenings, and the present warden has continued it, and has arranged a cycle of preachers
Dr. Moberly prepares the oldest boys with great care for confirmation, reads the Greek Testament for a half-hour every morning with the highest three divisions, and gives catechetical teaching on Monday mornings to the boys who have not been confirmed, and has a daily Bible reading with the fourth form, and prayers were always said at 9 o'clock in the evening before going to bed.
Commoners' Boarding-Houses. The charge for each boy in the head-master's house is £84, in the other boarding-houses £105. This includes all the school charges. German and drawing are the only extras, and are paid for as such by those who learn them. The £105 includes also medical attendance. Dr. Moberly states, that including traveling money, pocket money, and tradesmen's bills, the total expenses of a boy boarding in his house average about £115 a year. Every new boy in the head-master's house pays £11 18s. 6d, for entrance fees.
Out of the £105 charged for each of the other boarders, £26 9s. 6d. is paid to the staff, including £10 10s. to the head-master, and leaving a balance of £78 10s. 6d. The boarding master has likewise paid on the entrance of each new boy £6 11s., which has been divided in certain proportions among the head, second, and third masters. The estimated profits on each boy were nearly £23, after payment of house rent and repairs, servants' food and wages, and two guineas for medical attendance on the boys.
of the three boarding-houses now open in addition to the head-master's, two are kept by assistant masters, the third by a gentleman who was formerly a “Tutor in Commmoners," but now has no educational duties beyond superintending the work of the boys in his house.
The boys sleep five or six in a room, and do not use their bedrooms during the daytime. The twenty seniors in the head-master's house have little private studies; the others, when they are not in school, sit in a common hall, whero each has his "toy" or cupboard. With the scholars it is otherwise; they sit in their chambers after six in the evening. The want of privacy is probably less felt at Winchester, from the fact that the lessons are prepared as well as said in school.
Results. Of the undergraduates at Oxford in Michælmas term, 1861, sixty had been educated at Winchester; of those at Cambridge, two. The average number of the boys leaving Winchester of late years who have gone to the Universities we compute to be about seventeen a year, and the average proportion to be about forty-three per cent. Of those who left Winchester in the year which ended at the summer holidays, 1862, the proportion who went to the Universities was forty-one per cent.