Imatges de pàgina

EXTRACTS from "Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners on Certain Colleges and


THE COLLEGE. Endowments, Revenues, and Expenditure.—The endowments of Winchester College consist of landed property and funded stock, which produced, on an average of the seven years ended in 1860, a gross annual income of £15,494 178. 6d.

The total expenditure for 1860 (excluding nearly £1,200 spent in purchase of land and in obtaining the renewal of a lease) was £20,098 68. 7d., exceeding the receipts by £2,476 1s. 2d. The excess was paid out of a balance which remained in band from previous years.

Among the items are expenses of management, £2,610; provisions, lighting, and warming, servants, &c., £3,347; stipends to head-master and other magters, £1,035; warden's share of fines, &c., £1,750; ten fellows' share of fines, &c., £6,598.

The college likewise holds, on special trusts for exhibitioners and other purposes, the large sum of £60,132, with land which produces a net income of £204 14s. lld.

Governing Body.—The warden and fellows (now ten but to be reduced to six) are the governing body of the college.

The warden has the general government of the foundation, like the head of a college, and is elected by the fellows of New College, and to be a candidate he must be a graduate in theology or law, or a Master of Arts, in priest's orders, and thirty years of age. By the ancient statutes, besides a suitable provision for his table, he received £20 a year, and twelve yards of cloth. The salary is now largely increased, besides a house and household expenses, bis shares of leasehold fines and allowances, which in 1860 was £1,750.

The fellows are elected for life, and the vacancies are filled by the warden and fellows; they are non-resident, and visit Winchester four times a year, and when summoned. They hold seven out of thirteen livings in the gift of the college, (of the average value of about £300,) and receive annually at least £500 each from the "Fines and Allowances.” They elect the head and second master, and a majority must consent to the expulsion of a scholar.

Choristers.—The choristers at Winchester are admitted out of regard for charity—"intuitu charitatis," to make the beds of the fellows, and help to wait in hall, and to live upon the “fragments and relics" of the fellows' and scholars' tables, if these were sufficient for them; if not, they were to have suitable nourishment at the expense of the college. The choristers are now boarded, lodged, educated, and at the proper age apprenticed, at the cost of the college. The expense under this head in 1860, including the schoolmaster's salary, board during the holidays, books, and medical attendance, bills for clothing and apprentice fees, was £336 3s. 8d.

Scholars.—The scholars are elected by the warden, sub-warden, and headmaster of Winchester College, and the warden and two fellows of New College. By the ordinance of 1857 the boy must be over eight and under fourteen years of age, with aptitude for study. No inquiry is made as to pecuniary circumstances. Until 1854 the electors nominated the scholars without a competitive examination; in that year the system was exchanged for open competition Eten, which owes so large a debt to Winchester, set her in return the example of this great and beneficial change, which is clearly agreeable to the spirit, and not at variance with the letter, of the statutes of both colleges. The Bishop of Winchester, who was on intimate terms with Dr. Hawtrey, (Eton,) and had heard from him of its success, proposed of his own accord the introduction of it, and it was carried into effect against the expressed opinion of the head-master; “I feared," writes Dr. Moberly,

That we should be liable to have boys brought in among us of whose character and connections we had no assurance, and who might prove to be very undesirable members of our community, and I wished that in our elections (a thing which I still think much to be desired in the competitions of older candi. dates for public positions) a scheme might be devised to combine the advantages of a very real competition with the responsibility of nomination. But I am bound to acknowledge that with us the change has been unmixedly beneficial. The candidates are very young, and we find that we have the best of securities for the character and connections of such young boys, when we find them capable, from ten to fourteen years old, of winning such a race on such subjects. It is not in ill-conducted families that little fellows of that age learn their grammars so well, or know how to write Latin verses. Let me offer my testimony without reserve. The open elections have been excellently successful. In point of ability, good conduct, and general promise, we have lost nothing, and we have gained much. We do not know what it is to have a thoroughly stupid boy a scholar.—Letters to Sir W.' Heathcote, pp. 5, 6.

The whole school has reaped great benefit from it. “Of old we had a small connection and a considerable narrowness in the system altogether. We were comparatively poor in boys. This open competition brings boys of all abilities, of all families, from all parts of the country, and so spreads our connection very widely."

In 1857 the system of open competition was rendered obligatory on the college by an ordinance of the Oxford University Commission, which had been appointed by act of Parliament in 1854.

It is the custom to give previous notice of every election in the “Times," and to send circulars conveying further information to every person who makes inquiries on the subject.

The "children, "* as they were formerly called, still eat their dinners on little trenchers of wood, which they would be unwilling to exchange for plates, and sleep in the six chambers originally allotted to them, (to which, however, the ancient school-room has since been added as a seventh.) on oaken bedsteads more than two centuries old. Until the sixteenth century they slept on bundles of straw, and their chambers were unfloored; the bedsteads and flooring were the gifts of a famous Wykehamist, Dean Fleshmonger. Iu the early part of the seventeenth century a scholar paid, on his entrance, for his bedding, for his surplice, for the making of his gown, for candles, and for his “scob" (box) to hold his books in school. He paid also ls. to his predecessor for “glasse windowes," and 14s. "for learning to write." There is a visitor's letter extant, dated early in the eighteenth century, which orders that bed-makers should be appointed for the chambers, "and the children relieved from the servile and foul office of making their own beds, and keeping the chambers clean." We gather, however, from the warden's evidence, that no bed-makers were in fact provided till lately. The choristers were previously made to perform this office.

• “If you are a commoner you may say your prayers in your own chamber, but if you are a child or a chorister then," &c.—Bishop Ken's Manual, quoted in Mackenzie Walcott's William of Wykeham and his Colleges, p. 196. So also Christopher Johnson, (De Collegio) —"Nomine seu Pueri vociteris sive Choristæ."

The statutes of Winchester, like those of Eton, prohibit the master and usner in the most precise and stringent terms, from "exacting, asking, or claiming" any payment for instruction from the scholars, their parents, or friends; the Eton clause was in fact a copy of the Winchester clause, with the insertion of words extending the privilege of free instruction to non-foundationers. It was nevertheless the practice at Winchester for a charge of £10 to be put into the bills of each scholar, for “ Masters' gratuities,” the words "if allowed" being parenthetically inserted, out of respect for the statutory prohibition. Dr. Goddard, who was head-master for not more than seventeen years, (from 1793 to 1810,) received the money during his tenure of office; but he felt that if not illegal, it was morally questionable, and after his retirement, but several years (Walcott says ten) before bis death, he made a voluntary gift to the college of £25,000 stock, in trust to pay the dividends to the head and second masters for the time being. The head-master now receives from this source £450, and the second master £300. From that time no charge has been made for the instruction of the scholars except in respect of modern languages.

THE SCHOOL. “The School" at Winchester is composed of boysma limited number—who were originally admitted as pupils, but without charge to the college funds, and are termed commoners. They were the sons of nobles and special friends of the college, " filii nobilium et valentium personarum dicti Collegii specialium amicorum." They board with the head-master, and in four other houses specially rented for their accommodation, and numbered in 1861, 131-to be increased to 200. The profits on the boarders are about £25 each.

Government of the School.—The general government of the school is vested in the head-master, subject to such control as is exercised over him by the warden, or by the warden and fellows.

The head-master “must be sufficiently instructed in grammar, and experienced in teaching;” and as officer of the college he is "hired and removable” by the warden and fellows, (who also elect the second master,) and subject to the superintendence of the former. But as the head of the commoners he claims to be exempt from any interference with “ the school" proper. "If you put an adequate man as master at the head of a school of this kind he ought to be supreme," " subject to general rules laid down for his guidance, and removable by a body of men."

It is not the practice, as at Rugby and Harrow, for the head-master and as: sistants to meet for the discussion of matters affecting the studies of the school. “We are all very much together," Dr. Moberly says, “and often talk over things relating to the school." "No doubt,” he observes in his written answers, "the bead-master would always be anxious that the opinion of the under-masters in charge of classes should have great weight in these matters. Practically, indeed, the under-masters, with the control and sanction of the head-master, ar. range these things for their classes." And he is not sure that it would not have been better if on his part there had been rather more systematic interference.

Emoluments of Masters.—The head-master has a house large enough for his family and about one hundred boarders. His net income from all sources (boarders, entrance fee, Goddard Fund, £450) is about £3,000. The second master receives about £1,500; the mathematical tutor, £210; and the college tutor, £200.

Course of Study.The course of study at Winchester is principally classical, but every boy in the school learns, during the whole time that he remains there, both arithmetic and mathematics, and one modern language, either French or German, at the option of his parents.

The classical staff comprises, beside the head and second masters, a third and a fourth master respectively, taking classes in school, an assistant to the head master, who likewise takes a class, and three composition masters, who are employed in looking over and correcting the exercises and compositions of the whole school, except the upper sixth. One of these, called the "college tutor," performs this office for the scholars; the other two, called “tutors in commoners," for the commoners. The two latter are also employed to preserve order and discipline in the head-master's boarding-house.

In 1861 the arrangement of forms (or "books," as they are called at Winchester) and sub-divisions of forms was as follows: Sixth Form, (or Book,).

$ Upper Division.

Lower Divisiou.
Senior Part.
Fifth Book, Middle Part.

| Senior Division.
Junior Part.

Junior Division.
Fourth Book,

Senior Division.

{ Junior Division There were no lower forms. The whole school was thus distributed into eight ascending divisions.*

The distribution of classes among the masters was follows:-The first three divisions, numbering altogether seventy-five boys, were nominally under the head-master; he in fact took the first and third, numbering together fifty-six boys, an assistant having almost exclusive charge of the second. The fourth, fifth, and sixth divisions, numbering eighty-five boys, were under the second master; the seventh and eighth (thirty-seven boys) were under the third master. There was at that time no fourth master.

Boy Tutors-Private Tutors.—To each of the ten senior boys in college some of the juniors are assigned as pupils. It is his duty to overlook and correct & certain part of their exercises before they are shown up, and to help his pupils when they want help in their lessons. He is responsible also, in some measure, for their general conduct and diligence, and is the person of whom the headmaster would make inquiries if he had reason to think that any of them were going on amiss. For each pupil so placed under his charge the “Boy Tutor" receives two guineas a year from the pupil's parents. This practice has been traced to a provision in the statutes whereby the founder directs, that “to each scholar of his own kindred there should always be assigned, by the warden and head-master, one of the discreeter and more advanced scholars to superintend and instruct them in grammar, under the head-marter, all the time that they should remain in the college." Each of these instructors was to receive for each pupil 6s. 8d. a year out of the funds of the college. The functions of the boy tutor were much circumscribed about twenty-six years ago by the appointment of the college tutor or scholars' composition master-a change introduced

* In the sixteenth century there were four forms—the sixth, fifth, fourth, and "second fourth" (quarta secunda )-Walcott, p. 227.

by the then warden on the advice of the second master, the present Bishop of St. Andrew's, who had been educated at Harrow, and against the opinion, though not against the positive dissent, of Dr. Moberly, who was then, as now, head-master. Formerly the boy tutor took all the compositions of his pupils; now he takes only a small part of them. Dr. Moberly regrets the older system, and thinks that much has been lost by abandoning it. " The boy tutor would correct mistakes of the little boys; now he makes all the blunders himself. Again, he dealt with the pupil as a boy; whereas the college tutor, who has these things to do, deals with him as a man. A boy dealing with a boy is more effective in that way than a man dealing with boys."

Private tuition, in the ordinary sense of the words, was, until lately, quite unknown at Winchester. At present three of the masters--the head-master's assistant, the fourth master, and the mathematical master-take a few private pupils, scholars and commoners—perhaps twenty in all-each of whom pays £5 for the half-year, and works with his tutor from two to three hours a week.

Pulpiteers. Among the peculiarities of Winchester teaching is the custom of assembling all the boys of the first three divisions for construing lessons in certain authors, when some of the seniors construe first in presence of all the rest. Another is the practice of writing a Latin epigram, called a “vulgus," thrice a week, which is thought to bring out cleverness and cultivate neatness of expression. Another, again, is that of devoting a week, or a week and a half, in the summer, to what is called “standing-up.” The work of "standing-up week” consists chiefly in repeating portions of Greek and Latin grammar, and in repeating and construing considerable quantities of Latin and Greek verse or prose, which the boy has been able to store up in his memory. One lesson of English verse is allowed to be taken up, and one of Euclid.

History.Neither ancient or modern history is taught in set lessons. Questions in portions of English history, specified beforehand, are set for the halfyearly examinations, as well as for the Goddard Scholarship, and there is also a prize for an English essay on a historical subject.

Reading and Speaking.- An annual prize is given for reading well, and during Easter time (six weeks in the Spring) there is speaking every Saturday by chambers, and at the close there is public speaking by the twenty best, and two medals are awarded.

Arithmetic and Mathematics.-Seven or eight hours in the week are devoted to arithmetic and other mathematical subjects in every division of the scbool, and the marks count for about one-third of the weekly total. French and German.—Every boy is obliged to learn either French or Ger

In 1862 there was forty in German. The marks count for about oneeighth in the weekly total. There are two French masters and one German.

Natural Science.—The Oxford University Commission for Winchester College proposed that three of the fellowships should be filled with especial reference to their being able and required to teach the natural sciences. In their letter addressed to the governing body they say:-"To them it appears that good elomentary instruction in physical science is most essential in the case of many boys, desirable in all cases, and perfectly compatible with a first-rate classical education. The object might be effected without prejudice to other studies, by setting apart two or three hours every week for lectures in the physical sciences, by putting good elementary works on the subject into the hands of the boys, and by examining them on the lectures once at least in every half-year."


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