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good grammarians is a great impediment of doctrine. And here I would the readers should mark, that I note to be few good grammarians, and not none. I call not them grammarians, who can only teach or make rules, whereby a child shall only learn to speak good Latin, or to make six verses standing in one foot, wherein perchance shall be neither sentence nor eloquence. But I name him a grammarian by the authority of Quinctilian, that speaking of Latin elegantly, can expound good authors, expressing the invention and disposition of the matter, their style or form of eloquence, explicating the figures, as well of sentences as words, leaving nothing, person or place named by the author, undeclared or hidden from his scholars Wherefore Quinctilian saith, it is not enough for him to have read poets, but all kinds of writing must also be sought for, not for the histories only, but also for the property of words, which commonly do receive their authority of noble anthors. Moreover, without music, grammar may not be perfect; forasmuch as therein must be spoken of metres and harmonies, called rythm in Greek. Neither if lie bare not the knowledge of stars, he may understand poets, who in description of time (I omit other things) they treat of the rising and going down of planets. Also he may not be ignorant in philosophy, for many places that be almost in every poet, fetched out of the most subtle part of natural questions. These be well nigh the words of Quinctilian. Then behold how few grammarians, after this description, be in this realm.
Undoubtedly there be in this realm many well learned, which if the name of a schoolmaster were not so much had in contempt, and also if their labors with abundant salaries might be requited, were right sufficient and able to induce their hearers to excellent learning, so they be not plucked away green, and ere they be in doctrine sufficiently rooted. But now-a-days, if to a bachelor or master of arts study of philosophy waxeth tedious, if ye have a spoonful of Latin, he will show forth a hog's head without any learning, and offer to teach grammar, and expound noble writers; and to be in the rooi of a master, he will, for a small salary, set a false color of learning on proper wits, which will be washed away with one shower of rain.
Some men peradventure do think, that at the beginning of learning it forceth not although the masters have not so exact doctrine as I have rehearsed, but let them take good heed what Quinctilian saith. It is so much the better to be instructed by them that are best learned, forasmuch as it is difficult to put out of the mind that which is once settled, the double burden being painful to the masters who shall succeed, and verily much more to unteach than to teach. Wherefore it is written, that Timothy, the noble musician, demanded alway a greater reward of them whom other had taught, than of them that never any thing learned. These be the words of Quinctilian or like.
Also the common experience teacheth that no man will put his son to it butcher to learn, or bind him apprentice to a tailor. Or if he will have him a cunning goldsmith, will bind him first apprentice to a tinker. In these things poor men be circumspect, and the nobles and gentlemen, who would have their sons by excellent learning come unto honor, for sparing of cost, or for lack of diligent search for a good schoolmaster, willfully destroy their children, causing them to be taught that learning which would require six or seven years to be forgotten, by which time the more part of that age is spent wherein is the chief sharpness of wit, (called in Latin acumen,) and also then approacheth the stubborn age, where the child brought up in pleasure disdaineth correction.
" The Governour” commends with some limitations that the future magis. trates of the land acquire a mastery of music, both vocal and instrumental, that it may serve "for recreation after tedious or laborious affairs," and he cites with approbation the choice of Alexander-after the conquest of Ilium—" to see, not the liarp of Paris where he allured the wanton pleasures of love, but the harp of Achilles whereto the valiant acts and noble affairs of excellent princes were duly celebrated.” “A wise and circumspect tutor will adapt the pleasant sci. once to a necesary and laudable purpose."
PAINTING AND CARVING-POETRY AND ORATORY. In the chapter on Painting and Carving "The Governour," in striving to show that "it is commendable for a gentleman to paint and carve exactly," anticipates the arguments which are now used to introduce Drawing and attention to the Fine Arts, and generally the culture of the esthetical part of our nature, in our systems of school or formal instruction.
If the child be of nature inclined (as many have been) to paint with a peu, or to form images in stone or tree, he should not be therefrom withdrawn, or nature be rebuked, which is to him benevolent; but putting one to him, which is in that craft, wherein he delighteth, most excellent, in vacant times from other more serious learning, he should be in the most purewise instructed in painting or carving. Aud now, perchance, some envious reader will hereof take occasion to scorn me, saying that I had well bied me, to make of a nobleman a maison or painter. And yet if either ambition or voluptuous idleness would have suffered that reader to have seen histories, he should bave found excellent princes, as well in painting as in carving, equal to noble artificers. Such were Cladius Titus, the son of Vespasian, Adrian, both Antonines, and divers other emperors and noble princes, whose works of long time remained in Ronie and other cities, in such places where all men might behold them; as monuments of their excellent wits and virtuous occupation in eschewing of idleness. And not without a necessary cause princes were in their childhood so instructed; for it served them afterward for devising of engines for the war; or for the making them better that be already devised. For as Vitruvius (which writeth of building to the Emperor Augustus) saith, all torments of war, which we call engines, were first invented by kings or governors of hosts, or if they were devised by other, they were by them made much better.
Also by the feat of portraiture or painting, a captain may describe the coun. try of his adversary, whereby he shall eschew the dangerous passages with his host or navy; also perceiving the places of advantage, the form of embattling of his enemies, the situation of his camp, for his greatest surety or weakness of the town or fortress which he intendeth to assault. And that which is most specially to be considered, in visiting his own dominions, he shall set them out in figure, in such wise, that at his eye shall appear to him where he shall employ his study and treasure, as well for the safeguard of his country, as for the commodity and honor thereof, having at all times in his sigbt the surety and feebleness, advancement and hinderance of the same. And what pleasure and also utility is to a man, who intendeth to edify himself to express the figure of the work that he purposeth, according as he hath conceived it in his own fantasy, wherein, hy often amending and correcting, he finally shall so perfect the work unto his purpose, that there shall neither ensue any repentance, nor in the employment of his money he shall be by other deceived. Moreover the feat of portraiture shall be an allurement to every other study or exercise. For the wit thereto disposed shall alway covet congruent matter wherein it may be occupied. And when he happeneth to read or hear any fable or history, forthwith he apprehendeth it more dextrously, and retaineth it better than any other that lacketh the said feat; by reason that he hath found matter apt to his fan. tasy. Finally, every thing that portraiture may comprehend will be to him delectable to read or hear. And where the lively spirit, and that which is called the grace of the thing, is perfectly expressed, that thing more persuadeth and steereth the beholder, and sooner instructeth him, than the declaration in writing or speaking doth the reader or hearer. Experience we have thereof in learning of geometry, astronomy, and cosmography, called in English the description of the world. In which studies, I dare affirm, a man shall more profit in one week by figures and charts well and perfectly made, than he shall by tho only reading or hearing the rules of that science, by the space of half a year at the least. Wherefore the late writers deserve no small commendation who added to the authors of those sciences apt and proper figures. And he that is perfectly instructed in portraiture, and happeneth to read any noble and excel. lont history, whereby his courage is inflamed to the imitation of virtue, he forthwith taketh his pen or pencil, and with a grave and substantial study, gathering to him all the parts of imagination, endeavoreth himself to express actually in portraiture not only the fact or affair, but also the sundry affections of every personage in the history recited, which might in any wise appear or be perceived in their visage, countenance, or gesture; with like diligence as Lysippus made in metal King Alexander tighting and struggling with a terrible lion of incomparable magnitude and fierceness; whom, after long and difficult battle, with wonderful strength and clean might, at the last be overthrown and vanquished. Wherein he so expressed the similitude of Alexander, and of his lords standing about him, that they all seemed to live. Among whom the prowess of Alexander appeared excelling all other, the residue of his lords after the value and estimation of their courage, every man set out in such forwardness, as they then seemed more prompt to the helping of their master, that is to say, one less afraid than another.
Phidias, the Athenian, whom all writers do commend, made of ivory the image of Jupiter, honored by the Gentiles on the high hill of Olympus; which was done so excellently that Pandenus, a cunning painter, thereat marveling, required the craftsman to show him where he had the example or pattern of so noble a work. Then Phidias answered, that he had taken it out of their verses of Homer, the poet; the sentence whereof ensueth as well as my poor wit can express it in English :
" Than Jupiter, the father of them all,
Thereto assented with his brows black,
A countenance, that made all heaven to quake." Sir Thomas defends the reading of the ancient poets and orators, although there are many things even to offend the tastes and corrupt the imagination, unless the wise tutor guards against these results by timely interposition, explanation, and antidotes, and especially by withdrawing his pupils' minds to other studies, and especially to moral and politieal philosophy.
But in defending of orators and poets, I had almost forgotten where I was. Verily there may no man be an excellent poet nor orator, unless he have part of another doctrine, especially of noble philosophy. And to say the truth, no men can apprehend the very delight that is in the lesson of noble poets, unless he have read very much, and in divers authors of divers learnings. Wherefore, as I lately said, to the augmentation of understanding (called in Latin Intellectus et mens) is required to be much reading, and vigilant study in every sentence, especially of that part of philosophy named moral
, which instructeth men in virtue and political governing. Also no noble author, especially of them that wrote in Greek or Latin, is not for any cause to be omitted. For therein I am of Quinctilian's opinion, that there is few or no ancient work that yieldeth not some fruit or commodity to the diligent reader.
The author adds by the way of caution, that the reading of poets and orators, and "all other pure and excellent learning, though it be sown in a child never so timely, and springeth up and buddeth never so pleasantly, unless the same take deep root in the mind and be incorporated into his habits of thought, will vanish and come to nothing;" and he particularly protests against "putting children at the age of fourteen or fifteen years to the study of the laws of the realm of England;" as well as denying to those children who have a capacity for elegant and useful studies and arts, an opportunity of pursuing the same in preference to the law. “For how many men be there whose sons in childhood are aptly disposed by nature to paint, carve, or grave, to embroider, or do other like things wherein is any art commendable concerning invention, which, as soon as they espy it, be therewith displeased, and forthwith bindeth them apprentices to tailors, weavers, and sometimes to cobblers! which hath been the inestimable loss of many good wits, and hath caused that in the said arts En.
glishmen be inferiors to all other people, and be constrained, if we will have any thing well painted, carved, or embroidered, to leave our own countrymen, and resort unto strangers." "If children were brought up in the right study until they were passed the age of twenty-one years and then set to the laws of this realm, being reduced to good English, Latin, or French, they would become men of so excellent wisdom and most noble counselors, to be surpassed in no common weal throughout the world—our laws being gathered and compacted of the pure meal or flour sifted out of the best laws in all other countries." After citing the experience of other men, the author falls back on the example of Cicero.
In like manner Tully, in whom it seemeth that eloquence hath set his glorious throne most richly and preciously adorned for all men to wonder at, but no man to approach it, was not let from being an incomparable orator, nor was by the exact knowledge of other sciences withdrawn from pleading infinite causes before the senate and judges, they being of most weighty importance. Insomuch as Cornelius Tacitus, an excellent orator, historian, and lawyer, saith:-"Surely in the books of Tully men may discern that in him lacked not the knowledge of geometry, nor music, nor grammar, finally, of no manner of art that was honest he of logic perceived the subtlety, of that part that was moral all the commodity, and of all things the chief motions and causes." And yet for all this abundance, and as it were a granary heaped with all manner of sciences, there failed not in bim substantial learning in the laws civil, as it may appear as well in the books which he himself made of laws, as also, and most especially, in many of his most eloquent orations; which, if one well learned in the laws of this realm, did cede and understand, he should find, especially in his orations called Actiones against Verres, many places where he should espy by likelihood the fountains from whence proceedeth divers grounds of our common laws.
Moreover, when young men have read laws expounded in the orations of Tully, and also in histories of the beginning of laws, and in the works of Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle, of the diversities of laws and Public Weals, if nature (as I late said) will dispose them to that manner of study, they shall be thereto the more incensed, and come unto it the better prepared and furnished. And they whom nature thereto moveth have not only saved all that time which many now-a-days do consume in idleness, but also have won such a treasure whereby they shall alway be able to serve honorably their princo; the Public Weal of their country principally, if they confer all their doctrines to the most noble study of moral philosophy, which teacheth both virtnous manners and civil policy; whereby at the last we should have in this realm sufficiency of worshipful lawyers, and also a Public Weal equivalent to the Greeks or Romans.
MUSCULAR EXERCISES NECESSARY FOR EVERY GENTLEMAN. Although “The Governour" commends learning in gentlemen, it thinks "continual study, without some manner of exercise, shortly exhausteth the spirits vital, and hindereth natural decoction and digestion,” whereby man's body is corrupted and weakened, and his life shortened. “Contrariwise by ex. ercise, the health is preserved and strength increased, the spirits made strong, the appetite quickened, and all parts of the body nourished by the rapid assimilation of food.” And in this connection it urges that tutors hold these general principles in remembrance, and put them in frequent practice both such as ad. mit of outdoor as well indoor application. of the latter it commends “ laboring with poises made of lead, or other metal, called Alteres, lifting or throwing the heavy stone or bar, and similar exercises." It exhorts tutors and pupils to read Galen on the governance of health, both in the original and in the translation into Latin by Dr. Linacre. Of those exercises which at once are recreating, adapt the body to hardness, strength, and agility, and provide for the exigences of peace and war, it speaks more at length.
Wrestling. Wrestling is a very good exercise in the beginning of youth, so that it be with one that is equal in strength, or somewhat under, and that the place be soft, that in falling their bodies be not bruised. There be divers manners of wrestlings, but the best, as well for health of body, as for exercise of strength, is, when laying their hands mutually over one another's neck with the other hand, they hold fast each other by the arm, and clasping their legs together, they enforce themselves with strength and agility, and throw down each other, which is also praised by Galen. And undoubtedly it shall be found profitable in wars, in case that a captain shall be constrained to cope with his adversary hand to hand, having his weapon broken or lost. Also it hath been seen that the weaker person, by the sleight of wrestling, hath overthrown the stronger almost cre he could fasten on the other any violent stroke.
Running. Running is both a good exercise and a laudable solace. It is written of Epaminondas, the valiant captain of Thebans, (who as well in virtue and prowess, as in learning, surmounteth all noblemen of his time,) that daily he exerciseth himself in the morning with running and leaping, in the evening in wrestling, to the intent that likewise in armor he might the more strongly, embracing his adversary, put him in danger. And also that in the chase, running and leaping, he might either overtake his enemy, or being pursued, if extreme need be required, escape him.
In like manner before him did the worthy Achilles, for whilst his ships lay at road, he suffereth not his people to slumber in idleness, but daily exercise them and himself in running, wherein he was most excellent and passed all other; and therefore Homer throughout all his work calleth him swift-footed Achilles.
The great Alexander, being a child, excelleth all his companions in running. Wherefore, on a time, one demanded of him if he would run at the great game of Olympus whereto, out of all parts of Greece, came the most active and valiant persons to essay the mastery. Whereunto Alexander answereth in this form:-"I would very głudly run there if I were sure to run with kings; for if I should contend with a private person, having respect to our both estates, our victories should not be equal."
Needs must running be taken for a laudable exercise, since one of the most noble captains of all the Romans took his name from running, and was called Papirius Cursor, which is in English Papirius, the Runner. And also the våliant Marius, the Roman, when he had been seven times consul, and was of the age of fourscore years, exercised himself daily among the young men of Rome in such wise, that there resorted people out of far parts to behold the strength and agility of that old consul, wherein he compared with the young and lusty soldiers.
Swimming. There is an exercise which is right profitable in extreme danger of wars, but because there seemeth to be some peril in the learning thereof, and also it hath not been of long time much used, especially among noblemen, perchance some readers will little esteem it, I mean swimming. But notwithstanding, if they revolve the imbecility of our nature, the hazards and danger of battle, with the examples which shall hereafter be showed, they will (I doubt not) think it as necessary to a captain or man of arms as any that I have yet rehearsed. The Romans, who above all things had most in estimation martial prowess, had a large and spacious field, without the city of Rome, which was called Marcus' field, in Latin Campus Martius, wherein the youth of the city was exercised. This field adjoined to the river of Tiber, to the intent that as well men as chil. dren should wash and refresh them in the water after their labors, as also learn to swim. And not men only but also the horses; that by such usage they shu uld more aptly and boldly pass over great rivers, and be more able to resist,