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Holy Communion, to which she urgently entreated them to approach. Nor were her cares confined to her domestic servants only. The poor weeding women, employed in the grounds, were also the objects of her solicitude. Her moruings were sometimes spent in reading to them, her afternoons in catechizing and exhorting them. To guard her attendants against waste of time, she laid in their way books that might engage their attention in any idle moment; and by making their service to herself easy, she gave them the better opportunity of waiting upon the Lord without distraction. She treated all her servants as friends, and cared as much to please them as other persons' servants can do to please their masters.'
But her charity, if it began at home, did not end there. "If any were sick, or tempted, or in any distress of body or mind, whither should- they go but to the good Countess, whose closet or still-house was their shop for chirurgery and physic, and herself (for she would visit the meanest of them personally) and ministers, whom she would send to them, their spiritual physicians ? The poor she fed in great numbers, not only with fragments and broken meat, but with liberal provision, purposely made for them. She was a great pitier, yea, a great lover of the poor, and she built a convenient house on purpose for them, at her London seat (as they had one at Lees), to shelter them from rain and heat whilst they received their dole. And during her absence in London with her family, twice a week, good beef and bread were provided for the poor of four adjacent parishes.' Of the allowance made to her by her husband in his lifetime she de. voted a third to charitable uses; and though she sometimes exceeded, she never fell short of this proportion in her alms; indeed, she was designated as 'the lady that would borrow money to give away.' She considered all in distress and need as having a claim on her bounty. To many scholars at the University she made allowances, varying from five to thirty pounds a year. Foreigners, who forsook their own country on account of their religion, found her hand stretched out for their assistance. Poor children were clothed and kept at school by her, even in Wales, which she aided 'to rescue from its remaining ignorance and semi-barbarism.' Besides these, 'many ministers of both denominations, as well as conformists, whose livings were so small as not to yield them a subsistence, and those who had none at all, were recipients of her bounty.' Animated by the same spirit that prompted that beautiful utterance to 'the dear saint' of Wartburg,-'I tell you it is our duty to make all men as happy as possible,'—her charity even overflowed all ordinary bounds. For it was extended to those, who, if not in actual want, were yet burdened by heavy cares, and involved in harassing difficulties, from which a soft unseen hand quietly released them.
In the altered state of modern society it is of necessity, perhaps, that our alms-deeds should be wrought in a somewhat different fashion to those of an earlier period. Our charitable institutions and religious societies, doubtless, work no less effectually for the accomplishment of their purpose than a simpler system. Yet it may be questioned, whether the benefactor is as much benefited as when, moved by love and pity, his hand supplies the wants, and relieves the sufferings, of another.
Many were the women of this century, who, in a quiet course of alms-giving that sought no praise and shunned observation, have
'Filled their odorous lamps with deeds of light.'
Thus Lady Alice Lucy has been commemorated for her bounty, notwithstand. ing her modest reserve, which made her forbid that any memorial of herself should be inscribed on the magnificent tomb that she erected to her husband. None who sought alms at her gate were sent empty away, whilst the aged, or such as had suffered in the wars, received an additional dole. Every week bread was given away in the neighboring towns; and corn was sold by her in the markets as it were by retail, in such small quantities as might not exceed the poor's abilities to purchase.' Every day a certain number of poor guests sat down to her table. Besides which she continually employed many poor old men and women in such works as were fit and suitable to their skill and strength. When the physician came at any time to her house, she used to make inquiry whether any were sick in the town, that if any were, they might partake of the same benefit with herself. “But at all times when any wanted health she presently had intelligence of it, and most cheerfully communicated whatsoever she conceived conducible to their recovery, having not only great store of cordials and restoratives always by her, but great skill and judgment in the application of them.'
Medical skill, as it is well known, was then a necessary accomplishment amongst country ladies. Marvelous were the cures wrought by, the Countess of Arundel; she even turned her house into an hospital, receiving many intalids there, who came to consult her from a distance. And some remained as long as three months under her roof. Rather a frightful idea of the Lazaruses, by whom her gate was besieged, is suggested by the fact, that in some years 'threescore dozen of sheepskins were spent merely in making plasters.?
Her good works were not limited to the sick. Daily alms were given at her gate; and besides feeding twenty persons every day with what remained from the table of her household, three times a week food was prepared for upward of a hundred poor people in the parish. On the aged and sick a monthly allow. ance of money was bestowed. Widows were pensioned, prisoners released, poor maidens portioned, and schools supported by her. Liberal toward others, in her own expenses she exercised a rigid economy. She never wore any but a dress of cheap black stuff; and a gold cross containing a relic was the only ornament she ever permitted herself, and this only on some holiday. For forty years she never used a looking-glass, and for about as long a period never changed the fashion of her attire.
Her lot was darkened with many trials, and her prayer against prosperity, which we find in one of her Scriptural reflections, was strictly fulfilled :
-0 Lord, I beseech Thee, give me not my portion in this life, uor let me have a short heaven here upon earth, and an eternal hell hereafter.' Her only son died of smallpox, shortly after his marriage with Lady Anne Cavendish. His mother alone attended upon him in his illness, even his young wife removing to her father's house for fear of infection. Lord Warwick, on receiving tidings of his loss, exclaimed with a cry so bitter that it was even heard at a great distance, that this would kill his wife, who was better to him than ten sons. ... On his death, in 1673, he left his wife his sole executrix, and bequeathed his whole estate to her for her life and a year after, 'as a testimony of his grateful esteem of her merits.' Thus, as it was observed, giving all his estate to pious uses. To those ends Lady Warwick wholly devoted it during the few years in which she survived the Earl. She died in 1678.
Margaret Lucas, Duchess of Newcastle. Margaret Lucas, whose darling passion was 'to achieve a remembrance for all time' by her writings, was the daughter of Sir Charles Lucas of St. John's Abbey, near Colchester, in Essex, and the second wife of the Duke of Newcastle. She was born in 1623; and her mother was a woman of the old school of manners and morals, and is thus described by her daughter:
She lived a widow many years, for she never forgot my father so as to marry again. She made her house her cloister, inclosing herself therein; for she sel. dom went abroad, except to church; but these unhappy wars forced her out, by reason she and her children were loyal to the King; for which they plundered her and my brothers of all their goods, plate, jewels, money, corn, cattle, and the like; cut down their woods, pulled down their houses, and sequestered them from their lands and livings. But in such misfortunes, my mother was of an horoic spirit, in suffering patiently where there is no remedy; or to be industrious where she thought she could help. She was of a grave behavior, and had such a majestic grandeur, as it were, continually hung about her, that it would strike a kind of awe to the beholders, and command respect from the rudest, I mean the rudest of civilized people; I mean not such people as plundered her, and used her cruelly; for they would have pulled God out of heaven, had they had power, as they did Royalty out of his throne! Also, her beauty was beyond the ruin of Time; for she had a well-favored loveliness in her face, a pleasing sweetness in her countenance, and a well-tempered complexion, as neither too red, nor too pale, even to her dying hour, although in years; and by her dying one might think death was enamored of her, for he embraced her in a sleep, and so gently, as if he were afraid to hurt her. Also, she was an affectionate mother, breeding her children with a most industrious care and tender love, and having eight children-three sons and five daughters.
Her rule was one of extremest gentleness. She required her children to yield submission to her will, rather through the persuasions of their own reason, than the dictates of her authority. With anxious care she watched over the formation of their character and early habits.
We were bred with respectful attendance, every one being severally waited upon; and all my mother's servants in general used the same respect to her children, (even those that were very young) as they did to herself; for she suffered not her servants, either to be rude before us, or domineer over us; neither were we suffered to have any familiarity with them, or conversation, yet caused us to demean ourselves with an humble civility toward them, as they with dutiful respect towards us; not, because they were servants, were we so reserved ; for many noble persons are forced to serve through necessity; but by reason the vulgar sort of servants are as ill-bred as meanly born, giving children ill examples and worse counsels.
Though supplying them with instructors in all the accomplishments, tlien considered necessary for young ladies, their mother set less value on their intellectual than on their moral culture.
As to tutors, we had all sorts of virtues; as singing, dancing, playing on music, reading, writing, working, and the like; yet we were not kept strictly thereto. They were rather for formality, than benefit; for my mother cared not 80 much for our dancing and fiddling, singing, and prating of several languages, as that we should be bred virtuously, modestly, civilly, and in honest principles.
On the breaking out of the civil war, Margaret Lucas, hearing that the Queen was less numerously attended than formerly, besought her mother to obtain for her the post of maid of honor. This was secured, and, against the appeals of her brothers and sisters, she accepted the fortunes of the Queen and accompanied her in her flight to Paris. Here, in good time, she met the Marquis of 'Newcastle, self-exiled after the disasters of Marston Moor, and in spite of disparity of years, they became attached, and he solicited her hand in marriage.
'Fortune's frowns' were certainly bestowed for awhile on the Marquis and his bride. They were married at the Ambassador's chapel in Paris, in 1645. Before the civil war broke out he was in receipt of an income of £22,000 a year. But of this he was now deprived. So that soon after his marriage, his steward told him that he had not credit enough to procure him another meal. This intelligence the Marquis received quite composedly, and only remarked to his wife, 'in a pleasant manner,' that she must pawn some of her clothes. To escape this alternative she prevailed upon her maid to dispose of some trinkets which she had formerly presented to her, and was glad thus to spare her own wardrobe for awhile. Quitting Paris, they proceeded to Rotterdam. From thence they went to Antwerp, where they lodged in a house belonging to the 'widow of a famous picture drawer, Van Ruben.' The Duchess writes:
With the Restoration peace and affluence once more shone upon them. The Marquis was restored to his estates, and advanced to a Dukedom. But his satisfaction in his renewed prosperity was not unalloyed. His princely domains presented a melancholy spectacle of ruin and devastation. Bolsover, where he had in regal fashion entertained Charles and Henrietta Maria, had been actually pulled down, that money might be made out of the sale of the materials.
Besides her philosophical writings, her biographies, tales, and Social Letters? the Duchess wrote a great number of plays. "The Humorous Lovers,' attributed to her by Pepys, at the performance of which she and the Duke were present, is one of the best plays of the time.
Not content with attiring herself in fancy costumes, her attendants were also tricked out by her in unusual splendor. Her coachman and footman were arrayed in velvet coats, whilst the coach seems to have been of the most lugubri. ous fashion. It is described by Pepys, as 'a large black coach, adorned in silver instead of gold, and snow-white curtains, and every thing black and white.' The 'antick' dress, in which she was herself attired, consisted of 'a velvet cap, her hair about her ears, many black patches because of pimples about her mouth, naked neck without any thing about it, and a black just-au-corps.'
It was in a similar costume that on the 30th of May she was introduced to the Royal Society. Evelyn attended her to the meeting room, where she was received with great pomp by the president. “After they bad shown her many experiments, and she cried, still she was full of admiration, she departed, being led out and in by several lords, among others, Lord George Barkeley and Earl of Carlisle, and a very pretty young man, the Duke of Somerset.'
The Duchess did not excel in any ordinary feminine pursuits. She had no skill with the needle. Her maids had nothing to do but to dress, curl, and adorn themselves. Moved by the complaints of her friends, she says:
I sent for the governess of my house, and bid her give orders to have flax and wheels bought, for I with my maids would sit and spin. The governess, hearing me say so, smiled to think what uneven threads I would spin, 'for,' said she, 'though nature hath made you a spinster in poetry, yet education hath not made you a spinster in housewifery, and you will spoil more flax than get cloth by your spinning.'
The Duchess died in 1673, and the Duke in 1676. On a stately monument in Westminster Abbey is the following inscription :
Here lies the loynl Duke of Newcastle, and his Duchess, his second wife, by whom he had no issue: Her name was Margaret Luens, youngest sister to the Lord Locas of Colchester, a noble family; for n'l the brothers were valiant, and all the sisters virtuous. This Duchess was a wise, witty, and lenrned Lady, which her many books do testify: She was a most virtuous, and careful, and loving wife, and was with her Lord all the time of his banishment and miseries; and when she came home, never parted with him in bis solitary retirements.
ANNE HARRISON-LADY FANSHAWE. ANNE HARRISON, married to Sir Richard Fanshawe, a devoted Royalist, in 1644, was born in London, March 25, 1625. She shared in the perils aud sufferings of the period, and developed under her trials sterling qualities of character, which only such trials could test. She wrote for the instruction of her son a narrative of her life, a few years before her death, which occurred in 1680.*
ADVICE TO HER SON. I have thought it good to discourse to you, my most dear and only son, the most remarkable actions and accidents of your family, as well as the more eminent ones of your father; and my life and necessity, not love or revenge, hath made me insert some passages which will reflect on their owners, as the praises of others will be but just, which is my intent in this narrative. I would not have you be a stranger to it; because, by the example, you may imitate what is applicable to your condition in the world, and endeavor to avoid those misfortunes which we have passed through, if God pleases.
Endeavor to be innocent as a dove, but as wise as a serpent; and let this lesson direct you most in the greatest extremes of fortune. Hate idleness, and curb all passions; be true in all words and actions; unnecessarily deliver not your opinion; but when you do, let it be just, well considered, and plain. Be charitable in all thought, word, and deed, and ever ready to forgive injuries done to yourself, and be more pleased to do good than to receive good.
Be civil and obliging to all, dutiful where God and nature command you; but friend to one, and that friendship keep sacred, as the greatest tie upon earth, and be sure to ground it upon virtue; for no other is either happy or lasting.
Endeavor always to be content in that estate of life which it hath pleased God to call you to, and think it a great fault not to employ your time either for the good of your soul, or improvement of your understanding, health, or estate; and as these are the most pleasant pastimes, so it will make you a cheerful old age, which is as necessary for you to design, as to make provision to support the infirmities which decay of strength brings: and it was never seen that a vicious youth terminated in a contented, cheerful old age, but perished out of countenance. Ever keep the best qualified persons' company, out of whom you will find advantage, and reserve some liours daily to examine yourself and for. tune; for if you embark yourself in perpetual conversation or recreation, you will certainly shipwreck your mind and fortune. Remember the proverb-such
* This Memoir was first printed in 1829. In respect to her own home training she writes :Now it is necessary to say something of my mother's education of me, which was with all the advantages the time afforded, both for working all sorts of fine work with my needle, and learning French, singing, lute, the virginals, and duncing; and notwithstanding I leurned ns well as most did, yet was I wild to that degree, that the hours of my beloved recreation took up too much of my time, for I loved riding in the first place, running, and all active pastimes ; in short, I was that which we graver people call a hoiting girl; but to be just to myself, I never did mischief to myself or people, nor one immodest word or action in my life, though skipping and activity was my delight. But upon my mother's denth I then begnu to reflect, and, as an offering to her memory,
Alung away those little childnesses that had formerly possessed me, and, by my father's command, took upon me charge of his house and family, which I so ordered by my excellent mother's example as found acceptunce in his sight. I was very well beloved by all our relations and my mother's friends, whom I paid a great respect to, and I ever was ambitious to keep the best company, which I have done, I thank God, all the days of my life. We lived in great plenty and hospitality, but no lavishness in the lenst, nor prodigality, and, I believe, my father never drank six glasses of wine in his life in one day.'