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had so imposed upon his master was immediately saluted by his school-fellows with the nickname of leather doup,' which has stuck to him ever since.

An old-fashioned Scottish dominie used to punish the boys of bis school by fastening the culprit upon a desk at the door, and his clothes being removed, it was the rule for every one of bis school-fellows to give him a skelp with the 'taws.' Another Scottish schoolmaster had an odd way of chastising his pupils: he made them take down, or up, their clothes, and caused them to sit upon a large block of marble that had been brought to the parish in order to be hewn into a statue of some local maguate. In some of the schools in Edinburgh 'horsing' was practiced—one boy being flogged on the back of another boy. In English schools .horsing' was also prevalent.

The skins of eels, we are told, were in ancient times used in schools as whips to correct the pupils. In a fishing village near Edinburgh, the schoolmaster, forty years ago, used such skins with which to flog his pupils.

In a bill introduced in the House of Lords by the Marquis of Townsend, for the better protection of children, servants, and apprentices, it was provided that no schoolmaster, usher or tutor, having the charge of children under sixten years of age, should be allowed to inflict corporal punishment except by birch rod; and farther, that there should be no corporal punishment whatever for inattention or inaccuracy in their studies. The bill was withdrawn, in consequence of its being pointed out that 'the safe and efficient instrument of school discipline in Scotland, the taws, would be illegal, and since Scotch boys are not birched, no kind of corporal punishment would remain by which either scholastic or domestic discipline could be enforced.'

An eccentric Scottish nobleman who had, when a child, been frequently whipped at a dame's school which he attended, at a time when he had no expectation of being a man of title, insisted upon being flogged by his old schoolmistress, shortly after coming to his estate! For her 'kindness' on this occasion, it is said, he gave the old dame a present of one hundred pounds.

The Scotch theory and practice of corporal punishment has passed into the literature of our language in consequence of Dr. Samuel Johnson having given an elaborate opinion in defense of a master of a public school at Campbell-town, who had been suspended from his office on a charge of having used immoderate and cruel correction. On this charge Dr. Johnson observed :—Correction in itself is not cruel; children, being not reasonable, can be governed only by fear. To impress this fear, is therefore one of the first duties of those who have the care of children. It is the duty of a parent, and has never been thought iuconsistent with parental tenderness. It is the duty of a master, who is in the highest exaltation when he is a loco parentis. Yet, as good things become evil by excess, correction, by being immoderate, may become cruel. But when is correction in moderate? When it is more frequent or more severe than is required ad monendum et docendum, for reformation and instruction. No severity is cruel which obstinacy makes necessary; for the greatest cruelty would be to desist, and leave the scholar too careless for instruction, and too much hard. ened for reproof. The degrees of obstinacy in young minds are very different; as different must be the degrees of persevering severity. A stubborn scholar must be corrected until he is subdued. The discipline of a school is military. Thero must either be unbounded license or absolute authority. The master who punThe Rod in English Literature. The Rod enjoys a bad pre-eminence among instruments of torture as the source and subject of poetic inspiration. Almost every English writer of note, who has treated of discipline, las introduced it to point a moral and adorn a tale;' and it is the special subject of many poems and a formidable number of epigrams. George Coleman the younger, taking for his motto a line from an old ballad,

The schoolmaster's joy is to flog,
goes on to indite an elaborate defense of this symbol and instrument of au-
thority under the title of the Rodiad. Far from participating in the 'sentimental
twaddle' of schools without birch, and government by moral force, bis hero
exclaims:

I am a schoolmaster of the good old school,
One to whose ears no sound such music seemns,

As when a bold big boy for mercy screams.
Francis Newbury, the friend of Dr. Johnson and Goldsmith, and the publisher
of many books for children, is the author of a poem entitled The Terrors of the
Rod. And terrible is the picture of a young girl, praying for forgiveness, 'and
yet 'across a chair,' receiving the 'rod's reiterations' with the insulting de-
precation :

These stripes I am sorry to impart,

But 'tis for your own good you smart.
The Irish Schoolmaster, as sketched by Hood after the manner of Shenstone's
English Schoolmistress, was

Severe by rule, and not by nature mild,
He never spoils the child and spares the rod,

But spoils the rod and never spares the child,

And soe with holy rule deems he is reconciled.
Samuel: Butler, who is the author of the line which expresses the 'wisdom of
Solomon' in the concise formula,

Spare the rod and spoil the child,
has also given the philosophy of the practice in the following words of Hudibras:

Whipping, that's virtue's governess,
Tutoress of Arts and Sciences;
That mends the gross mistakes of nature,
And puts new life into dead matter;
That lays foundation for renown,

And all the heroes of the gown.
Byron urges the unsparing use of the rod on schoolmasters generally-

Oh, ye! who teach the ingenious youth of nations,

Holland, France, England, Germany, and Spain,
I pray ye, flog them upon all occasions ;

It mends their morals, never mind the pain.
And in this flippant way the most outrageous abuse of parental authority
on the part of schoolmasters and school-mams' has been justified and en-
couraged.

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SCHOOL AND TEACHER IN ENGLISH LITERATURE.

POPE-SOUTH-STEELE.

ALEXANDER POPE.-1688-1744.

ALEXANDER Pope was born in Lombard street, London, May 22, 1688. Both his parents were respectably connected-the father was a linen merchant, who amassed, even under the disadvantages which then environed a Roman Catholic trader, a moderate fortune, and the mother was of an ancient family,“ as well born,” said the son in his defiant letter to Lord Harvey, “ as well born and educated as that lady whom your lordship made choice of to be the mother of your own children”—and both assiduous and affectionate in their care and nurture of an only son born to a delicate and sickly frame. His education, partly owing to the disabilities and prejudices which were attached to a Catholic pupil in the public schools and universities of England at that time, was mainly domestic. He was for a while under the tuition of a priest, who taught him the rudiments of Latin and Greek together, and subsequently, between 10 and 12 years of age, at a celebrated Catholic seminary at Twyford, near Winchester, where he read Homer and Ovid, in translations. From the age of twelve to nineteen he educated himself mainly through books, and natural scenery-getting not much grammatical training of the language, but familiarizing himself with the best authors in Latin, Greek, French and Italian literature - Homer, Virgil, Tasso, and Racine, through the original, in some, and translations in others, and not at the same time keeping himself ignorant of English poets. With Dryden, and all the niceties of his versification he was early familiar, and when he was only twelve years old, he was taken to town by a friend, specially to be introduced to that great master of vigorous English style. We shall not attempt even a reference to his works in which the flexibility, terseness and cadence of the English language are so wonderfully exhibited, but only introduce a picture of the education of his day, which has been pronounced "not too severely true."

22

(337)

PICTURE OF THE SCHOOLS AND THE UNIVERSITIES.

The Third Book of the Dunciad closes with a prophetic vision of the Progress of Dullness over the land, and a glimpse of her sons' ascendant in the seats of Arts and Sciences.

Proceed, great daysl till learning fly the shore,
Till Birch shall blush with noble blood no more:
Till Thames see Eton's sons for ever play,
Till Westminster's whole year be holiday;
Till Isis elders reel, their pupils sport,

And Alma Mater lie dissolved in port I The Fourth Book announces the completion of the prophecies by introducing the advent of the goddess coming in her majesty to destroy order and science, and to substitute the kingdom of the Dull upon earth. How she leads captive the sciences, and silences the muses; and what they be who succeed in their stead. All her children, by a wonderful attraction, are drawn about her; and bear along with them divers others, who promote her empire by connivance, weak resistance, or discouragements of arts; such as halfwits, tasteless admirers, vain pretenders, the flatterers of dunces, or the patrons of them. All these crowd around here; one of them offering to approach her, is driven back by a rival, but she commends and encourages both. The first who speak in form are the geniuses of the schools, who assure her of their care to advance her cause by confining youths to words, and keeping them out of real knowledge. Their address, and her gracious answer; with her charge to them and the universities. The universities appear by their proper deputies, and assure her that the same method is observed in the progress of education. The speech of Aristarchus on this subject. They are driven off by a band of young gentlemen returned from travel with their tutors; one of whom delivers to the goddess, a polite oration, an account of the whole conduct and fruits of their travels; presenting to her at the same time a young nobleman perfectly accomplished. She receives him graciously, and endures him with the happy quality of want of shame. She sees loitering about her a number of indolent persons abandoning all business and duty, and dying with laziness, to whom she recommends proper employments—to this the amusement of the an. tiquary, to that of the virtuoso, and to others, the study of butterflies, shells, &c., with special caution not to proceed beyond trifles to any useful or extensive view of nature, or the Author of nature. The youths thus instructed are oblivious of all obligations divine. civil, moral or rational.

Now crowds on crowds around the goddess press,
Each eager to present the first address.
Dunce scorning dunce beholds the next advance,
But fop shows fup superior complaisance.
When lol a spectre rose, whose index hand
Held forth the virtue of the dreadful wand;
Hiş beaver'd brow a birchen garland wears,
Dropping with infants' blood and mothers' tears.
O'er every vein a shuddering horror runs,
Eton and Winton shake through all their song.
All flesh is humbled, Westminster's bold race
Shrink, and confess the Genius of the place:
The pale boy senator yet tingling stands,
And holds his breeches close with both his hands.

Then thus: 'Since man from beast by words is known,
Words are man's province, words we teach alone.
When reason doubtful, like the Samian letter,
Points him two ways (Y), the narrower is the better
Plac'd at the door of learning, youth to guide,
We never suffer it to stand too wide.
To ask, to guess, to know, as they commence,
As fancy opens the quick springs of sense,
We ply the memory, we load the brain,
Bind rebel wit, and double chain on chain,
Confine the thought, to exercise the breath,
And keep them in the pale of words till death.
Whate'er the talents, or howe'er design'd.
We hang one jingling padlock on the mind:
A poet the first day he dips his quill;
And what the last ? a very poet still.
Pity! the charm works only in our wall,
Lost, lost too soon in yonder house or hall.*
There truant Wyndham every muse gave o'er
There Talbot sunk, and was a wit no more!
How sweet an Ovid, Murray was our boast !
How many marshals were in Pulteney lost !
Else sure some bard, to our eternal praise,
In twice ten thousand rhyming nights and days,
Had reached the work, the all that mortal can,
And South beheld that masterpiece of man.'t

'O, (cried the goddess) for some pedant reign!
Some gentle James, to bless the land again :
To stick the doctor's chair into the throne,

• Parliament House and Westminster Hall.

| Dr. South, who declared that a perfect epigram was as difficult performance as an epic poem.

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