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who ran away twice, did so because he was unable to bear the hardship. But there are two or three little incidental passages in the biography which make one doubt whether the witty divine's record is altogether an honest one.
Master Courtenay Smith, it appears, owed a little bill of £30 in the town the last time he ran away, so that one of his hardships might have been the difficulty of paying it. And when we hear Sidney's own testimony that both he and his brothers were, before they went to Winchester, “the most intolerable and over. bearing set of boys that can well be imagined,” it is easy to conceive that they would not find a public school exactly a bed of roses. Sidney, too, must have enjoyed himself there occasionally after his own fashion; for Dr. Warton found him one day exercising that rough-and-ready mechanical genius which produced the celebrated "patent Tantalus” of his after-days, in constructing a catapult in chambers by lamp-light; and commended him highly for his ingenuity, little dreaming that it was intended to bring down a neighbor's turkey, on which the boys had fixed devouring eyes with a view to supper. Both brothers held their own there at any rate in point of ability; for the boys, it is said, at last signed a round-robin, refusing to compete for the college prizes if the Smiths were any longer allowed to enter the list, as they were always sure to win them; and Sidney left the school as captain.
On the other hand, William Lisle Bowles, who left Winchester just as the Smiths were entering, speaks with delight of his school-days, and has no morbid reminiscences of his hardships even as a junior; and yet Bowles' poetic and somewhat delicate temperament was at least as little fitted for the roughness of public-school life as the more vigorous nature of the Canon of St. Paul's. But, no doubt, a Winchester education in those days did imply a considerable amount of this rough training. Independently of very early hours and somewhat coarse fare, it was not pleasant to have to wash at the old “Moab, "* as it was called — an open conduit in the quadrangle, where it was necessary, on severe winter mornings, for a junior to melt the ice on the stop-cock with a lighted fagot before any water could be got to flow at all; or for the same unfortunate junior to have to watch out in the cold quadrangle, before early lesson, (without a bat, for in that sacred inclosure no junior is allowed to wear one,) to give notice of the exact moment when the master went into school, that the seniors might waste none of their more precious time, but make their rush at the last available moment.
William Stanley Goddard succeeded Dr. Warton certainly under very difficult circumstances; but an abler or better ruler never was at Winchester. There was no rebellion in his reign; yet his old pupils know that he governed at least as much by appeals to their better feelings as by fear of punishment. He acted constantly on that assumption of a boy's truthfulness and honor, which has always been found a successful principle of government in judicious hands, and which has been somewhat unfairly claimed as an entirely modern notion so far as public education is concerned. But he did not hold his office very long; he resigned in 1810, comparatively a young man, living thirty-seven years afterwards, and always retaining the strongest attachment to the college. He showed it by a remarkable act of munificence, ten years before his death, when he invested £25,000 of his private property in order to provide stipends for the under-masters in the college, on condition of their giving up their claim to “gratuities” from he boys, which had hitherto formed their chief remuneration. In fact, up to this time the expenses of a college boy at Winchester far from being gratuitous, as Wykeham had intended, amounted, including bills and extras of one kind and another, to something like £80 per annum. Now, it does not exceed $17 or £18. The "Goddard” scholarship for proficiency in classics, the blue ribbon of Winchester, was founded in honor of this liberal benefactor in 1846, the year before his death, superseding the prize which had for some years been given by Sir William Heathcote.
* The "wash-pot." Here all the college boys, within living memory, had to wash in the open air, except that there was originally a sort of penthouse over it, replaced afterwards by a wretched Ionic portico, of which a print appears in Ball's "Walks in Winchester," p. 154. In the same Winton tongue the shoe-cleaning place was known as Edom. Other local designations are classical; there is an Arcadia, an Upper and Lower Dalmatia, and a ditch on the way to "Hills " called Tempe.
The Rev. Henry Gabell, who had been appointed second master on Dr. Goddard's promotion, succeeded him again in the head-mastership. He insisted strongly upon accurate scholarship, for which Winchester has never lost its reputation. But his adıninistration was marked by a second rebellion, nearly as formidable as the first, of which it seems to have been a sort of copy. The boys, taking offense at some breach, or fancied breach, of their privileges, wrote up in the school as their adopted motto, "Maxima debetur pueris reverentia", scarcely a less inappropriate quotation of Horace than Warden Huntingford's on the former occasion. Again the keys of the college were seized, the court unpaved, and the stones carried up to the tower as ammunition for an expected siege; but this time the senior prefect and five of his fellow-officers, not choosing to risk the certain loss of their prospects at New College, refused to join in the insurrection. Nevertheless, matters proceeded so far that the Fusilier Guards, then quartered in the barracks, were called out to keep the peace in College street, where the mob had assembled in formidable numbers. The result was, of course, the discomfiture and punishment of the ringleaders; twelve college boys, most of them prefects, were expelled, many others degraded from their places in the school, and forty commoners were not allowed to return after the vacation.
It had become almost the rule at Winchester for the second master to succeed to the head-mastership, and Dr. Williams was so appointed in 1824. His reign was quiet, and on the whole successful. There was indeed a trifling disturbance amongst the junior commoners, owing to an alledged abuse of the privilege of fagging by the prefects, which caused some excitement at the time. It was the rule in those days, both in college and in commoners, that no janior should presume to get his own breakfast until the prefects had finished, which usually necessitated a very hurried affair of mere bread-and-butter and cold milk on the part of the former. In commoners they had to sit on a cross bench in hall to be in waiting during both the prefects' breakfast and supper; and certainly those young gentlemen must have been curious in the matter of toast, for each of them (there were only eight at that time) regularly employed two juniors as toasters. It is difficult at this date to discuss the important rights of the junior fifth, on which the whole question hinged; but they claimed, by custom, exemption from the duties of breakfast-waiters. However, as boys came to school better scholars, fourth-form fags grew scarce and the junior fifth were ordered, as the phrase was, to "go on hall.” One champion stood upon his rights and refused; the indignant prefect proposed to thrash him publicly;
the juniors rose in a body and pinioned the prefects. Fond mammas and otuer declaimers against school tyranny will regret to hear that this spirited resistance was not appreciated by Dr. Williams; after a patient hearing of the pleas on both sides, he supported the prefects' authority, it may be concluded that they had not really exceeded it,) and six of the ringleaders were expelled. One of them was the brother of a baronet, himself a Wykehamist. Dr. Williams was much pressed to reconsider his decision, but steadily refused. He resigned in 1836, and was subsequently elected Warden of New College, Oxford. George Moberly, Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, (the present head-master) succeeded at Winchester.
Buildings, &c. It has been already said that the orginal plan of Wykeham's college has undergone little alteration. Almost a copy, on a smaller scale, of the elder sister in Oxford, it is still, in its arrangements, half a fortress. The visitor who enters the massive gateway feels that he has stepped back at once, as far as all surrounding objects go, into the fourteenth century. Even the college boy whom he meets with his hands thrust into the depths of modern pockets hardly interferes with the illusion; his gown, at least, is medieval. You pass through the small outer court, which, though now occupied in part by the warden's lodgings, contained formerly little more than the extensive offices required to make so large a society independent,—through the middle gate-tower (whence St. Mary of Winton herself, a very graceful figure, with the Angel of the Salutation and the Founder on either side, looks down upon you) into the main quadrangle of the college. Turn to the right up that flight of stone steps, and you reach the hall, a noble room near sixty-three feet long, ith a dais at the upper end, which supposes the presence of the warden and his fellows, as under the original system, which neither Bancroft's nor Laud's injunctions were able to restore They only dine there now on special festivals. There are the old louvres still to be seen in the roof, whence the smoke used to escape from the charcoal fire in the middle. If you regret, for a passing moment, that it has been superseded by a stove, and that the smoke now finds its way underground, remember that for those who dine there such modern appliances are not altogether unsatisfactory. Look in at the ample kitchen at the foot of the steps as you return, and be sure that as good fare comes forth from its ranges now as when they cooked "a pair of porpoises" there (of all imaginable delicacies) feast their visitor the Bishop in 1410. Taste the beer-the college still brews its own-and you will find it excellent. You will not be allowed to pass without being called upon to note the picture on the wall by the kitchen entrance, which you know well enough already from wood-cuts and all kinds of illustrations, the “Trusty Servant Probus Famulus—in his blue-and-red livery; that strange figure, a compound of all the virtues such as these degenerate days have never seen. He has the pig's snout, to signify that he cares not what he eats; a padlock on his lips, for silence; ass' ears, for patience; hind's feet, for swiftness; a right hand open, for honesty; a left hand grasping all manner of implements, to show that he can turn his hand to any thing; and a sword and shield, to fight his master's battles. What wages would such a treasure expect? But in modern service you are as like to moct the literal monster as the paragon whom he symbolizes. The origin and date of the figure are obscure. and (as may be seen from old prints) it
has undurgone alterations in the details, in the process of repainting from time to time; but it is not peculiar to Winchester; a similar figure was not uncommonly painted in dining-halls in France during the sixteenth century.
Through a low ambulatory, under a portion of the hall, is the entrance to Wykeham's beautiful chapel, with its vaulted wooden roof of Irish oak and exquisite stained windows. Let us not utter, in such a place, an anathema against Warden Nicholas, though he did take up the brasses in the chancel, and cut away the beautiful stone-work of the stalls and reredos, (of which just enough remains to show you what it was) in order to set up his Ionic wainscoting of oak; besides, the work is good of its kind, and has had no expense spared on it; he was only acting according to his lights, and was a liberal benefactor of his college in many ways. Nor let our enthusiasm for the past make us forget that there are devotion and heroism even in our own utilitarian age; do not criticise too strictly that arcade of floriated work in the ante-chapel, or pass unread that touching inscription underneath, the tribute of Wykehamists to their thirteen brethren whose names are there recorded as having died "in their harness" in the Crimea:
Think upon them thou who art passing by to-day, child of the same family, bought by the same Lord; keep thy foot when thou goest into the house of God; there watch thine armor, and make thyself ready by prayer to fight and die the faithful soldier and servant of Christ and of thy country.
“Child,” it should be remarked, is the kindly term used by Wykeham for his scholars, and long retained in use by the Wykehamists of early days; Ken always employs it in his “Manual.”
The new stained window in Warden Thurburn's chantry is also interesting, not for its beauty, but as the tribute of gratitude from scholars and commoners to Charles Wordsworth (now Bishop of St. Andrews) on his resigning office as second master. Adjoining the chapel are the cloisters, surrounding the "garth" or burying-ground, in the middle of which stands the beautiful chantry built by John Fromond, priest, steward to the founder. There was to be sung a mass forever for the souls of himself and his wife, who were interred within. Suppressed, so far as it original purpose went, at the Reformation, it has been since used as the college library, and contains some curious and valuable MSS. The small room above was probably at first used as a scriptorium; it had been converted into a granary in 1570. In the quiet square within, and under the pavement of the
many a Wykehamist, old and young, sleeps his last sleep. During the last few years fever has been exceptionally fatal in the place—as niany as, eleven recent tablets may be counted on the cloister walls, bearing the names of young scholars thus early removed-in many cases where the hope of future excellence was brightest. Yet Winchester has never been reckoned unhealthy; Warton, in his notice of the college, speaks of there having been "scarce an instance of death there once in twenty years." The infirmary, or "Bethesda," as it was termed by its builder, Warden Harris, stands in a piece of ground adjoining Meads, and thither every case of illness is at once removed.
Daily Routine-Prefects. Years have worked fewer changes at Winchester than at any other of our public schools. Until the last few years it maintained some curious primitive arrangements which many an old Tykehamist will regret now to miss. The black jacks (still to be seen in the cellar and kitchen) have not long disappeared from hall, and tea has quite lately taken the place of beer. The hour of rising (5 at all seasons) had never altered from the founder's day until, in 1708, Sir John Trelawny, Bishop of Winchester, in his capacity of visitor, suggested and obtained from the college authorities the modification, that from Michaelmas to Lady-day it should be and that the scholars should be "relieved from the servile and foul office of making their own beds, and keeping their chambers clean."
There are still the original number of eighteen prefects in college. The first ten are "in full power," as it is termed; the Latin form of admission to their office being—"Esto præfectus cum plenâ potestate." Besides the responsibility of maintaining discipline, these have a general privilege of fagging all below them, with some few privileged exceptions, both in chambers and out. The five seniors-not invariably appointed from their standing in the school, but
with reference to their character and influence for good "* -are “ officers." 1. Prefect of hall, who has a general superintendence over the school, and is the recognized organ of communication between boys and master; 2. Prefect of li. brary; 3, of school; 4 and 5, of chapel. These ten have also power over commoners so far as discipline is concerned, but not to fag them; that being the right of the commoner prefects only, of whom there are at present thirteen—the number being always proportioned to the number of boys in commoners. The remaining eight college prefects (called in Winchester tongue Bluchers) have a more limited authority, confined to chambers and the quadrangle; the form of making these is—"Præficio te sociis concameralibus." At least two prefects are located in each of the seven chambers-one from the first seven in rank, and one from the next seven; the juniors are also divided into ranks of seven, and out of each rank the prefects, according to their seniority, choose one each to fill up the numbers in their own chamber; so that each chamber has, to a certain extent, ties and associations of its own.
At present the hour for chapel is 6:45 in summer, and 7 in winter, (sometimes, in very cold weather, 7:30 by special license;) "first peal" always ringing three-quarters of an hour beforehand, when the junior in each chamber has to get up at once; but seldom does a senior turn out before “second peal,” which leaves him some fifteen minutes for a hurried toilet. The chapel service lasts half an hour, and first school begins at 7:30; after which comes breakfast served in hall. Middle school is from 9 to 12, comprising two distinct lessons, one in classics, the other in mathematics or modern languages. Third school is from 3 o'clock until 6m-also for two lessons as before. Tuesdays and Thursdays are half-holidays, or, as the Winchester term is, " half-remedies, "t when there is no third school; but an hour in summer and two hours in winter, (from 4 till 6,) called “ books-chamber-time,” is expected to be employed in working under the superintendence of the “Bible clerk,"t as the prefect in daily "course " is termed, who is responsible for a decent amonnt of order and silence at these hours. Whole “ remedies" are occasionally given on a Tuesday or Thursday, at the request of the prefect of ball; when, in accordance
* Sec Dr. Moberly's admirable "Letters on Public Schools," P.
97. ti. e., Remissionis dies. Saints' days only are called “ holidays."
# He has a scob appropriated to him in school, near the door, with the inscription, TS AEI ANAENSETII. His original office was to read the Bible at meals.