« AnteriorContinua »
ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS. * The most remarkable school book of the seventeenth century, both for its immediate and widespread popularity, and for the revolution which it wrought in scholastic methods, and particularly in elementary teaching, not only in Germany where it was first published, but of England and other countries, was the Jauna Reserata of Comenius, first published in 1631, and the Orbis Pictus, which in its plan and text is the same as the former, with pictorial illustrations. The Jauna Reserata was doubtless suggested by the Jauna Linguarum [in Latin and Spanish) of W. Bateus, an Irish Theatin at Salamanca, who adopted the idea from Ludovicus Vives, the eminent Spanish educator who was the friend and correspondent of Erasmus and for a time (1519) a resident in England. This Jauna was published in England in 1615, with the Spanish turned into English ; and in the year following, in France, Germany, and Italy.
The Jauna Reserata was more carefully prepared on the same general plan with the avowed purpose of introducing only words which represented real objects, which the pupil, even the youngest, could understand from actual perception of the objects; and the special object of the Orbis Sensualium Pictus, first published by Comenius in 1657, was, by means of pictorial illustrations of the words of each lesson, 'to bring the chief things in the world, and of men's actions in their way of living, directly into the domain of the perceptive facul. ties'-'a little Encyclopedia of things subject to the senses. This book was reproduced in London in 1658, with a translation by Charles Hoole, who follows the original Preface of Comenius, with an 'Epistle to all judicious and industri
* For a full account of the School Books of John Amos Comenius, see Barnard's American Journal of Education, and Educational Reformers and Teachers-German, (ed. of 1875). 257-298. A reformation of Schooles, designed in two excellent Treatises : The first whereof summarily
sheweth, the great necessity of a generall Reformation of common Learning. What grounds of hope there are for such a Reformation. How it may be brought to passe. The second answers certaine objections ordinarily made against such undertakings, and describes the severall Parts and Titles of Workes which are shortly to follow. Written many yeares ngoe in Latine by that Reverend, Godly, Learned, and famous Divine, Mr. John Amos Comenius (Komensky), one of the Seniours of the exiled Church of Moravia. And now upon the request of many translated into English, and published by Samuel Hartlib, for the generall good of this Nation. 4to.London, Printed for Michael Sparke senior, at the Blew Bible in Greene Arbor, 1642
This translation consists of 94 pages without preface. Page 61, gives a second Title-page:'A Dilucidation, answering certaine objections, made against the endeavours and means of Refor. mation in Common Learning, expressed in the foregoing Discourse.
Commencing at page 90, and occupying four pages, are 'The severall Titles of the seven parts of the Temple of Christian Pansophie.' These briefly are, 1, The threshhold of the Temple of Wisedome ; 2, the Gate ; 3, the outward Court; 4, the middle Court; 5, the innermost Court; 6, the last and most secret, The Holy of Holies, and 7, the Fountain of living Waters. A Continuation of Mr. John-Amos-Comenius School-Endeavours. Or a Summary Delineation
of Dr. CYPRIAN KINNER Silesian his Thoughts concerning Education: Or the Way and Method of Teaching Exposed to the ingenuous and free Censure of all Piously-learned men. The which shall shortly be seconded with an Elucidarium or Commentary to open the sense of whatsoever is herein contained, chiefly of what is paradoxall and obscure (if any such shall appear
to be.) Together with an Advice how these Thoughts may be successfully put in Practice. Translated out of the Original Latine, transmitted to Sam. Harilib : and by him published, and
in the name of many very Godly and Learned Men, recommended to the serious Consideration, and liberall Assistance of such. As are willing to fnvour the 'Regeneration of all Christinn Churches and Common-wealths; but more especially the Good and Happiness of these United Kingdoms. Published by Authority.- Printed for R. L. in Monks-well street. 4to. (1648.)
The treatise opens with · A Brief Information concerning Doctor Kinner and his undertakings,' occupying four pages; next, “The Summary Delineation of Doctor Cyprian Kinner,' of two pages; then the treatise paged 1 to 9, and concludes with a page headed Doctor Cyprian Kinner's Vows to the Almighty God, sent from Dantzick, the fift of Aug., 1684, to Samuel Hartlib,' and another page, with 'An Advertisement to the Noble and Generous Lovers of Learning,' recommending any one, requiring information, to repair to Master Hartlib's House, in the great open Court in Duke's-place, and satisfaction shall be given to all their desires.'
ous schoolmasters,' in which he anticipates many of the best educational suggestions of this century. In the original preface, Comenius insists that all instruction should be true (dealing only with things necessary and useful), fuil (such as will polish the mind for wisdom, the tongue for eloquence, and the hands for a neat way of living), clear, and solid (such as is distinct and articulated, as the fingers of the hand),' or knowledge systematized. The ground of this business is that sensual objects be rightly presented to the senses—and the senses be rightly exercised in perceiving the differences of things, without which there can be no clear understanding, wise discourse, or distinct action.'
This new help for schools is a Picture and Nomenclature of all the chief things in the world, and of men's actions in their way of living. The descriptions are explanations full and orderly, of every important detail in the picture -the picture and description having a corresponding number to assist the senses in seeking the appropriate object; and to make the teaching more clear, both Comenius and Hoole urge that where the things can not be pictured out, the objects themselves should be kept ready so as to be shown.
In the copy before us (a reprint in 1704, of the edition of 1658), Mr. Hezekiah Woodward, an eminent schoolmaster in London, and author of the Gate of Sciences, is cited to this effect, that teachers should make their words as legible to children as Pictures are '-'for next to Nature, Pictures are the most intelligible books that children can look upon-nay,' saith Scaliger, 'Art exceeds her. Although the artist of the 150 pictures in this book has made obvious to the eye and understanding the objects of the several lessons, from the Symbolical Alphabet in which the Crow crieth, and the Lamb blaiteth, to the School sin full operation, the master with his rod or twigs (reposing on the stand), and some things writ down before the children with chalk on a table, hung up like a blackboard on the side of the room), we can not say that his art exceedeth nature. We subjoin the text of cut xcvii. A SCHOOL
SCHOLA. A School, 1.
Schola, 1. is a Shop, in which
eft Officina, in qua Young Wits
Novelli Animi are fahion'd to vertue, and
ad virtutem formantur, it is diftinguished into Forms. & diftinguitur in Classes. The Master, 2.
Præceptor, 2. fitteth in a Chair, 3.
fedet in Cathedra, 3. the Scholars, 4.
Difcipuli, 4 in Forms, 5.
in Subselliis, 5. he teacheth, they learn.
ille docet, hi discunt. Some things
Quædam are writ down before them
præfcribuntur illis with Chalk on a Table, 6.
Creta in Tabella, 6. Some lit
Quidam fedent at a Table, and write, 7.
ad Mensam, & fcribunt, 7 he mendeth their Faults, 8
ipse corrigit, 8. Mendas. Some stand and rehearse things Quidam ftant, & recitant committed to memory, 9.
memoriæ mandata, 9, Some talk together, 1o. and
Quidam confabulantur, io. behave themselves wantonly ac gerunt fe petulantes, and carelesly;
& negligentes; these are chastised
hi caltigantur with a Ferrula, 11.
Feruli (baculo) 11. and a Rod, 12.
& Virga, 12.
II. THE GRAMMAR SCHVOL.*
BY CHARLES HOOLE, A. Xin
Master of Grammar School in Rotherham in 1636, and of a Private School in London in 1660.
CHAPTER I.-—How to help children that are imperfect in reading English when they are brought to the grammar school, and how to prepare them for more easy entrance upon Latin.
The want of good teachers of English in most places where grammar schools are erected, causeth that many children are brought thither to learn the Latin tongue before they can read well; and this chiefly, to prevent their loss of time with those that can teach them no further.
Now such scholars for the most part become the greatest disgrace to the magter of all the rest, partly because indiscreet and illiterate parents, (I will not say servants,) that can scarcely read English themselves, become too severe judges of his work, and partly because he seems to some to undervalue himself by admitting petties into his school. But for the toil and trouble that he hath in teaching such, I rather seek how to remedy it, than go about in words to express it.
To help therefore that defect of reading English aright, you may take this as the most useful course:-
1. Let them read a chapter every morning and every noon in the New Testament, and at ten and four o'clock, a piece of the Accidents, which will require (at least) a quarter of a year to be read over, in case the children be very imperfect; but in case they be any whit ready, it may be gone over in six weeks' time.
2. To exercise their slender memories at their first coming to school, and to find them some little task, (to which they should be inured at the first, that they may not take it more hardly afterward,) let them commit to memory some few staves of such psalms in meter as you in your discretion shall think best to suit with their shallow apprehensions. Psalms i., iv., xii., xv., xix., xxv., xxxiv., Ixvii., C., cii., civ., cxix., are excellent for this purpose.
• The following is a copy of the original title page:
By C. H.
That they may be more perfect in their lessons before they come to say them,
1. It were good if you did now and then read a piece for their imitation, observing the just and full pronunciation of each syllable, and making pauses as they come.
2. But especially as they sit in their form, see that every one after another read the lesson twice or thrice over, (the highest, because the most able, begin. ning to read first,) and cause that every one attend to what is read, looking constantly upon his book, and let them have liberty (who can soonest) to correct him that readeth any word amiss, and to note it as his mistake. But in this a care must be bad that they make no noise nor disturbance to the rest of the school.
3. When they come to say it, let every one in that order you shall appoint (beginning either with the highest or lowest, or otherwise) read the whole lesson, or a piece of it, as the time will best permit you to hear them, and when the lesson is gone over often enough, you may propound a familiar and short question or two out of it, thereby to make somewhat of its meaning stick in their memories, and dismiss them to their places to ask one another the like.
But because the Accidents, as it is now printed, (especially that part of it which concerneth the conjugating of verbs,) is too full of difficult abbreviations for most childreu to read, or some masters (that undertake it) to teach, I have found a great advantage and ease by making use of the examination of the Accidents before I put them to read the Accidents itself, especially with some more dullwitted boys that I could not otherwise fasten upon, and the way I used it was this: I caused
1. That children should read over only the first part of it, which concerneth the introduction of the eight parts of speech, by taking so much at a time as they could well be able to read and belonged to one or more particular heads of grammar. Thus in the first going it over, I made them acquainted with the nsual terms of grammar art, so as to be able (at least) to turn to a noun, pronoun, verb, &c., and to what belongs to them, as the numbers, cases, persons, moods, &c., and to tell how many there are of each.
And in the second reading it over, I taught them to take notice what every part of speech is, and how it differs from others, and what things belong to every one of them. And this I did by English examples, which best help to iustruct their understandings in the meaning of what they read, and confirm their memories to keep it. Ex. gr., having showed them in their book, that a noun is the name of a thing, and that it is substantive or adjective, and hath numbers, cases, genders, declensions, and degrees of comparison, I instance several words, as a horse, of men, sweet honey, with sweeter words, and let the children who can readilest tell me what belongs to them. This is (as Mr. Woodward very well expresseth it in his Light to Grammar, chapter 2) “To teach a child to carry a torch or lantern in his hand, that thereby the understanding may do its office and put to memory to do hers; to slip into a child's understanding before he be aware, so as he shall have done his task before he shall suspect that any was imposed; he shall do his work playing, and play working; he shall seem idle and think he is in sport, when he is indeed seriously and well employed. This is done (saith he) by precognition, for it conveys a light into the understanding which the child hath lighted at his own candle."
Now forasmuch as the way of working hereby is, when the inward senses of the child are instructed by the outward, and the more help one hath of the outward, the surer and firmer the instruction is within, I can not but here give notice of Mr. Comenius' Orbis Pictus as a mostrare device for teaching a child at once to know things and words by pictures, which may also serve for the more perfect and pleasant reading of the English and Latin tongues, and entering a child upon his Accidents, if the dearness of the book (by reason of the brass cuts in it) did not make it too hard to come by.
But where the book may be readily had, (as who would not bestow four or five shillings more than ordinary to profit and please a son ?) I would advise that a child should bring it with him at his first coming to a grammar school, and be employed in it, together with his Accidents, till he can write a good legible hand, and then a master may adventure to ground him well in orthography and etymology, by using that book according to the directions already given in the preface before it, and causing him every day to write a chapter of it in English and Latin.
He that would be further instructed how, by teaching English more grammatically, to prepare his scholars for Latin, let him consult Mr. Poole's English Accidents and Mr. Wharton's English Grammar, as the best books that I know of at present for that purpose.
II.- How to teach children in the first form the grounds or rudiments of grammar contained in the Accidents, and to prepare them for the Latin tongue with ease and delight.
Being here to deliver my mind concerning entering little ones, by way of grammar, to the Latin tongue, (a matter which I may truly say hath, ever since I began to teach, cost me more study and observation than any one point of my profession, and the more, because I see few able schoolmasters youchsafe so far to unman themselves as to mind it,) I desire three things may be considered by all that go about to enter children to grammar learning, viz., that
1. There is a great difference betwixt a man that teacheth, and a child that is to be taught; for though I do not altogether hold with him that sayeth a man in his childhood is no better than a brute beast, and useth no power but anger and concupiscence, nor take upon me here to dispute whether a child learneth more by rote thản by reason, yet this I dare aver, that the more condescension is made to a child's capacity, by proceeding orderly and plainly froin what he knoweth already to what doth naturally and necessarily follow thereupon, the more easily he will learn. A man therefore that hath the strength and full use of reason, must conduct his young learner to follow him in a rational way, though he must not expect him to go, æquis passibus, as fast as himself. And forasmuch as a child is tender, a man must abate of his roughness; seeing a child is slow of apprehension, he must not be too quick in his delivery; and seeing a child is naturally awkward to his work, he must not be too passionate if he do amiss. Tully's observation is, that Quo quis doctior est, eo iracundius docet; and Mr. Mulcaster gives notice that there is a number of discoursers that can say pretty well to a general position, but show themselves altogether lame in the particular applying of it, which is a thing that attendeth only upon experience and years. He would therefore (and that rightly) have a trainer of youth reclaimed unto discretion, whose recommendation Aris.