Imatges de pàgina

8. No scholler of any forme shall bee urged to write more of the taske prescribed within the lymitted howre than hee is well able to perform.

9. If any scholler shal bee found on three several probation-daies either by his owne negligence, or his friends will, to be absent from the schoole; or having been p'sent, by his over-slender and weak exercises, to be unapted and unmeet to learn, or els a non-proficient, that then everie such scholar, that`so shalbe found absent, unapt, or not competently profiting, shalbee (according to the companie's order, heretofore provided in the like behalf,) dismissed the schoole.

10. The mr of the schoole, receaving all the schollers exercises done by them on the said probation-day, shall cause everie formes papers of exercises to bee sowed together into six several volumes or bookes, every forme apart by itself, and afterwards lay them up in some convenient place appointed thereunto. And hee shall not in anie wise diminish any one of them, that the succeeding posterity, as well of the company as of the schoole, by comparing their present exercises with them of former tymes, may see how much and wherein they exceed or come behind them.

11. The mr of the schoole, within fowre daies after the said probacon-day shall enter into a booke, called THE REGISTER OF THE SCHOOLE'S PROBATION, conteining 400 leaves of large paper, in forme of a brief table or callender: First, that the said tryalls were performed the xith day of that present moneth, according to the orders prescribed; Secondly, all the schollers of the six formes, every form by itself in this order, viz., the name of every boy as hee sitteth in his forme, his age, and time of continuance; next, what books and how far in them hee bath read; lastly, what exercises hee usually makes, with the school-master and three ushers own hands subscribed thereunto: wch table or kalendar thus entered into the said register, the mr of the schoole, accompanied with one of his ushers, shal shewe to the mr and wardens at their hall upon the first or second ordynarie court-day, next after following (the day of probacon being past fowre daies before), to th’end that, yf they so please, they may appoint some persons to repaire to the schoole, to take knowledge and view of the exercises done by every boy on the said probacon-day; and also that they themselves, or some other for them, may presently, or after when they think best, compare the last things registred with the like things registred at former probacons, to see every boye's contynuance either in any forne, or in the schoole, and other like circumstances there mentioned. And the mr and wardens, or som one of them shall subscribe to the register so brought and confirmed under the schoole-mr and ushers hands; and also cause to bee entred into their court-book the day on wch the said mr of the schoole, with one of his ushers, came and presented the same, for testimony to the company as well of the said dutifull p'sentment, as also of their care towards the schoole, and desire they have to know how their schollers doe proceede; and even then shall bee given to the said master of the schoole xxvis. viiid. by the name of a reward to bee distributed equally (for considerations in the giver), to himself, and his three ushers, vis. viiid. to each of them for their good care and pains taken in the premisses, and their further encouragement, PROVIDED alwaies herein, that uppon any fraudulent dealing in the master of the schoole, or the three ushers, the aforesaid reward shall cease, and the blame and shame shall rest with them for their wilfull default.

12. It is thought meete that this probation of the whole schoole shalbee committed unto the honest and faithfull trust and disposition of the mr of the schoole and the three ushers alone, without any association, for these three causes : Ffirst, the founders have good experience of their faithfull government and assured confidence of their care of this trust reposed uppon them. Secondly, this triall of the schollers being made by an act onely in writeing, it is without doubt that strange assembly will but hinder them in their said exercises. Thirdly, The watchfull eye of the mr and the 3 ushers onely, wilbee sufficient to make the boyes the more serious and earnest in their work, and cause every boye's act to be entirely his owne worke, without any help; whereas, yf further assembly were, this probacon could not by the mr and the three ushers bee so carefully attended, neither the schollers worke be so heedefully and dutifully intended and done by them as it should.

SHREWSBURY SCHOOL. The Grammar School at Shrewsbury originated in a movement of Hugh Edwards, a London mercer, but a Shrewsbury man, and Richard Whitaker, one of the bailiffs of the town, to secure a portion of the estates belonging to the suppressed Abby and Collegiate Church of St. Mary, and St. Chad's, to supply the loss of the seminaries attached to them, by a Free Grammar School. A charter was issued February 10, 1551, granting certain prebendal tithes toward the establishment of a school with one master and one under-master to be called 'Libera Schola Grammalicalis Regis Edwardi Sexti' – The Free Gram. mar School of King Edward the Sixth.' The precise meaning of the expression Libera Schola, or Free School, is a matter of controversy. It evidently did not mean literally a gratuitous school—in a school which no charge was or or could be made for tuition, for in the original statutes provision is made for the payment of fees. In a controversy which has grown out of the word, Dr. Kennedy the Head Master in 1862, published a pamphlet, with the title Libera Schola. He affirms that Libera was never used in the sense of 'gratuitous,' either in classical Latin, in post-classical Latin, or in mediæval Latin. As respects classical Latin, he refers to the dictionaries of Facciolati and Scheller, where it is seen, on comparing the examples of 'liber' and its adverb 'liberi' with the examples of 'gratuitus' and the adverb gratis,' that the two former words are never used in the sense of the two latter. Liber,' in fact, he contends, means 'unrestrained,'' uncontrolled,' or exempt, but can not be found to describe a thing not to be paid for. So post-classically he gives many in. stances of Liber in the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible, in all of which the meaning is 'unenslaved,' and in none 'gratuitous.' Finally, as regards mediæval Latin, he points to the valuable glossaries of Dufresne, Ducange, and Charpentier, as well as to Lindenbrog's Codex Legum, and declares that, although the word is of the most frequent occurrence, there is not the faintest trace of its use in the sense of 'gratuitous.' From all which be concludes that Libera in the charter of King Edward's schools was designed to distinguish them from other existing schools, most of which were dependent on ecclesiastical power, and were attached and subservient to Chapters and Colleges. In confirmation of this view of the expression it should be remembered that Liber Homo in the Great Charter meant a 'freeman'as distinguished from a serf, and the adjective Liber (Libera, Liberum) was the term universally employed to confer by Royal Charter a liberty or franchise on various objects and institutions. For instance

Libera Capella, a Free Chapel (free from ordinary jurisdiction).
Libera Ecclesia, a Free Church (free from incumbency,-- personatus).
Libera Villa, a Free Town (free from certain burdens).
Liberum Feudum, Frank-Fee (ditto, ditto).
Libera Firma, Frank-Farm (ditto, ditto).

Liber Taurus, a Free Bull (not liable to be impounded).
So Libera Warenna, Free Warren.

Libera Pi Free Fishery.
Libera Chassa, Free Chase.

Libera Eleemosyna, Frank Almoine. In all which, undoubtedly, the word implies 'free from lordship or control,' ‘not liable to services,' by royally-conferred franchise.


First do.

600 for 4 700 45 400

2 300 € 2 400



Present Condition. 1. The School is now governed by 13 Trustees, of which the Mayor of Shrewsbury is ex-officio Chairman. Vacancies are filled by selection of the Corporation from those nominated by the Trustees for each vacancy.

2. The annual value of the property and revenues exceeds 3,0001., and the income of the tuition fees in 1866 was 6,0001. There are four ecclesiastical benefices attached to the foundation.

3. There are eight masters uuder the Head Master—the former receiving in salary and tuition fees over 2,0001., and the latter from 2001. to 5601., with some addition from private pupils. 4. The attendance of pupils varies—is now 198, distributed as follows: Sixth Form, 3 divisions, Third Form, 2 divisions.

Second do.
The Shell, 2

Fourth Form, 2 5. Latin, Greek, and Mathematics are compulsory on the whole school. The following table of marks in the Sixth Form is an index to the grand valuation of studies in a total of 3,000 marks, viz. :1. Translations from Greek and Latin authors,.

papers. 2. Composition, Greek, Latin, and English. 3. Philology, Greek, Latin, and English. 4. Divinity... 5. History and Geography, 6. Mathematics (including arithmetic).. 6. A boy at Shrewsbury rises mainly by proficiency. There are 26 Exhibitions, varying in value from 101. to 631. per annum, tenable from 3 to 8 years -in particular colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. There are more than 20 prizes for Classical, Mathematical, and other attainments.

7. School discipline is maintained in part hy 12 Præpostors, who are 'privi. leged to wear hats, to carry a stick, to go beyond the school bounds, and to go home a day earlier than others.' They read lessons in the chapel; call the school roll; conduct negotiations with the Head Master, and can 'set impositions, but not use physical force. There is no 'individual fagging,' but four fags are allotted to the Præpostor's room, to run messages, lay the breakfast things, &c. These are changed every week. There is a 'Secretary of Discipline' (one of the Masters) who records in a book each boy's merit marks, as well as his penal marks. Four merit marks purchase a half-holiday. The rod can be used only by the Head Master. The greatest number obtainable by one boy in a month is twelve, viz. :For good classical work.

2 For punctual attendance at chapel... 2
mathematical work.

For absence of penal marks......
French work...

Total............ 12 The ancient ordinances direct that the scholars shall play only on Thursday, unless there be a holiday in the week, or at the earnest request of some man of honor, or of great worship, credit, or authority. Their play was to be 'shooting in the long bow, and chess play, and no other games, unless it be running, wrestling, or leaping, and no game to be above ld. or match over 4d.' It is further provided that on every Thursday 'before they go to play,' the scholars shall for exercise declaim and play one act of a comedy.'

There is a play-ground of about three quarters of an acre near the School, with a fives court; and a cricket-ground, rented by the Head Master, five acres in extent, at the distance of half a mile. The games chiefly practiced are cricket, football, fives, quoits, and other athletic sports, as running, leaping, &c.

2 2



WILLIAM WYKEHAM, or William Long of Wykeham, the founder and endower of the two great colleges of St. Mary of Winchester in Oxford, (commonly known as New College,) and St. Mary's College in Winchester, the latter the nursery of the former, was born at Wykeham in Hampshire, in 1324, in the eighteenth year of the reign of Edward II. The names of his father and mother (as well as the month and day of his birth) are not known; but his parents were of good reputation and character, although in such narrow circumstances as not to be able to give the son a liberal education. This greater boon than that of birth-which Wykeham expressed in a motto, that has since his day become celebrated, “ Manners makyth man - was supplied by Nicholas Uvedale, lord of the manor of Wykeham, and governor of Winchester Castle, an officer of great note in those days, who maintained him at the High School in Winchester, (which was as old at least as the days of King Egbert,) and afterwards took him into his family as his secretary. By Uvedale he was introduced to Edyngdon, Bishop of Winchester, and by both to King Edward III.

Whatever may have been his social condition or education, Wykeham possessed talents and executive ability which were equal to every exigency of his fortunate career. In May, 1356, he was made clerk of all the king's works in his manors of Henle and Yeshampsted, and in October following he was made the king's surveyor for the castle and park of Windsor, and superintended the rebuilding of that magnificent residence, as well as of Queenborough Castle in the Isle of Sheppy. During this period he was continuing his clerical studies, and was admitted acolyte in December, 1361, subdeacon in the March following, and ordained priest in June, 1362. In June, 1363, he was made warden and justiciary of the king's forest, and in 1364, keeper of the privy seal, and in 1366, secretary of the king. In 1365, he was one of a commission (consisting of the chancellor, treasurer, and the Earl of Arundel) to treat of the ransom of the King of Scotland and the prolonging of the truce with the Scots, and in 1367 he was consecrated Bishop of Winchester, and in the same year he was constituted Chancellor of England, in which office he remained until March, 1371. Besides enjoying these high offices, as was the custom in those days he held seventeen canonries in different dioceses, besides a deanery and an archdeaconry; and the only apology which a modern church reformer can find for this great plurialist, is the fact that he used the emoluments of his various offices more munificently than did the king himself, and did the country more service than any ordinary seventeen canons, dean, and archdeacon put together. He repaired all the episcopal buildings in his diocese, visited in person, three several times, the monasteries and religious houses, issued injunctions for the reformation of abuses, and established two colleges of students "for the honor of God, and increase of His worship, for the support and exaltation of the Christian faith, and for the improvement of the liberal arts and sciences; hoping and trusting that men of letters and various knowledge, and bred up in the fear of God, would see more clearly and attend more strictly to the obligations lying upon them to observe the rules and directions which he should give them.” To this end and in this spirit, he reopened and enlarged, in 1373, the old High School at Winchester where he was educated, but which had fallen into decay, and in 1394 gave it a complete equipment of building, and invested it with chartered privileges under the name of “Seinte Marie College of Winchester.” At the same time (in 1373) he commenced a school at Oxford, for which he purchased a site, and obtained the king's patent in 1379, procured the pope's bull, and published, in 1380, his charter of foundation, by which he entitled his college "Seinte Marie College of Wynchestre in O.xenford."". The corner-stone was laid at 8 o'clock of the morning of March 5, 1380, and the societyconsisting of a warden, seventy-four scholars, students in theology, canon and civil law and philosophy, ten priests, three clerks, and sixteen boys or choristers to minister in the service of the chapel made their public entrance into the building with much solemnity and devotion, singing litanies, and marching in procession with the cross borne before them, at 9 o'clock in the morning, on the 14th of April, 1386.

Wykeham died in 1404, having enjoyed the pleasure, not only of building up his colleges after his own plan, but of seeing the good effects of his own beneficence, and receiving in them the proper reward of his pious labors of observing them growing up under his

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