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to make it a place of Christian education. At the same time, my object will be, if possible, to form Christian men, for Christian boys I can scarcely hope to make; I mean that, from the natural imperfect state of boyhood, they are not susceptible of Christian principles in their full development upon their practice, and I suspect that a low standard of morals in many respects must be tolerated amongst them, as it was on a larger scale in what I consider the boyhood of the human race.
But I believe that a great deal may be done, and I should be most unwilling to undertake the business, if I did not trust that much might be done.” “You know,” he says to another correspondent, as if in deprecation of exaggerated expectations from his new labors, “ you know that I never ran down public schools in the lump, but grieved that their exceeding capabilities were not turned to better account; and, if I find myself unable in time to mend what I consider faulty in them, it will at any rate be a practical lesson to teach me to judge charitably of others, who do not reform public institutions as much as is desirable." Thus strengthened by humility as well as by zeal, Arnold prepared himself for the responsibilities of the future.
Pause upon the expressions of the preceding paragraph ; review them, group them, and take the sum of them, as they came from Arnold himself. Should we doubt, if we knew no more of him, that he had proposed what few teachers propose, and accomplished what few teachers accomplish? Is he not, as he stands out in bold relief through those words of his own,-is he not, in almost every point of view, an example to men in his position, appointed to places of eminence and of care! He does not gird himself for his duties as if he had nothing more to do than bis predecessors had wrought; nor does he talk of reforms that he is to achieve without respect for the works of those before him. The true reformer appears in him, recognizing that there is something to reform, something, therefore, for which to bonor the past, as well as something to change in serving the present and the future. Nor is this all. The eyes of the reformer are upon a lofty object. It is not to agitate, not to reproach, not to destroy, that he is arming himself; but to purify and to elevate, in love of God and in love of man. Look upon him, ye who are called to great charges, and learn of him. Look upon him, teachers,—whose charges are greater than yours ?-and, if you can not find a work like his to do, or a spirit like bis to do it in, let it alone; be true enough to let it altogether alone.
The foundation of Rugby school was laid in the will of Lawrence Sheriff,“grocer," "servant to the Lady Elizabeth, and sworn unto her Grace," in the year 1567. A second instrument directed the trustees
under the will “ to cause to be builded a fayre and convenient schoole house,” whereof the master is to be “ an honest, discreete, and learned man, being a master of art.” It was not until nearly a century later, (1653,) that the bequests of the founder were secured to the school in such wise as to complete its establishment. Thenceforward, the institution grew apace; its members increased, its funds multiplied, until, at the time of Arnold's connection with it, (1828,) it was one of the most distinguished public schools in England.
Arnold holds the following language in one of his sermons :
There is, or there ought to be, something very ennobling in being connected with an establishment at once ancient and magnificent, where all about us, and all the associations belonging to the objects around us, should be great, splendid, and elevating. What an individual ought and often does derive from the feeling that he is born of an old and illustrious race, from being familiar from his childhood with the walls and trees, which speak of the past no less than of the present, and make both full of images of greatness; this, in an inferior degree, belongs to every member of an ancient and celebrated place of education. In this respect every one of us has a responsibility imposed upon him, which I wish that we more considered.-Life and Correspondence, p. 74.
But to obtain a more definite idea of the school, we will take an account from the pen of Arnold, in an article for the Quarterly Journal of Education, in 1834.
Rugby school was originally a simple grammar school, designed for the benefit of the town of Rugby and its neighborhood. Any person who has resided for the space of two years in the town of Rugby, or at any place in the county of Warwick within ten miles of it, or even in the adjacent counties of Leicester and Northampton to the distance of five miles from it, may send his sons to be educated at the school, without paying any thing whatever for their instruction.
But if a parent lives out of the town of Rugby, his son must then lodge at one of the regular boarding-houses of the school; in which case, the expenses of his board are the same as those incurred by a boy not on the foundation.
Boys placed at the school in this manner are called foundationers, and their number is not limited. In addition to these, there are 260 boys, not on the foundation ; and this pumber is not allowed to be exceeded.
The number of masters is ten, consisting of a head-master and nine assistants. The boys are divided into nine, or practically into ten classes, succeeding each other in the following order, beginning from the lowest : first form, second form, third form, lower remove, fourth form, lower fifth, fifth and sixth.' It should be observed, to account for the anomalies of this nomenclature, that the name of sixth form has been long associated with the idea of the highest class in all the great public schools of England; and, therefore, when more than six forms are wanted they are designated by other names, in order to secure the magic name of sixth to the highest form in the school. In this the practice of our schools is not without a very famous precedent; for the Roman augurs, we are told, would not allow Tarquinius Priscus to exceed the ancient and sacred number of three, in the centuries of Equites; but there was no objection made to his doubling the number of them in each century, and making in each an upper and a lower division, which were practically as distinct as two centuries. There is no more wisdom in disturbing an old association for no real benefit, than in sparing it when it stands in the way of any substantial advantage.
Into these ten classes the boys are distributed in a threefold division, according to their proficiency in classical literature, in arithmetic and mathematics, and in French. There is an exception made, however, in favor of the sixth form, which consists in all the three divisions of exactly the same individuals. All the rest of the boys are classed in each of the divisions without any reference to their rank in the other two; and thus it sometimes happens that a boy is in the fifth form in
the mathematical division, while he is only in the third or fourth in the classical; or, on the other hand, that he is in a very low form in the French division, while he is in a high one in the classical and mathematical. The masters also have different forms in the three different divisions. The masters of the higher classical Sorms may teach the lower forms in mathematics or French; and the masters of the higher fornis in either of those two departments may have the care of the lower forms in the classical arrangement. Each balf year is divided into two equal periods, called language time and history time. The books read in these two periods vary in several instances,—the poets and orators being read principally during the language time, and history and geography being chiefly studied during the history time. This will be more clearly seen from the following table (see page 554) of the general work of the school for a whole year.
Every year, immediately before the Christmas holidays, there is a general examination of the whole school in the work that has been done during the preceding half-year. A class-paper is printed containing the names of those boys who distinguish themselves; and in order to gain a high place on this paper, it is usual for the boys to read some book in one or more of their several branches of study, in addition to what they have read with the masters in school. In this manner they have an opportunity of reading any work to which their peculiar taste may lead them, and of rendering it available to their distinction in the school.
There are exercises in composition, in Greek and Latin prose, Greek and Latin verse, and English prose, as in other large classical schools. In the subjects given for original composition in the higher forms, there is a considerable variety. Historical descriptions of any remarkable events, geographical descriptions of countries, imaginary speeches and letters, supposed to be spoken or written on some great question or under some memorable circumstances; etymological accounts of words in different languages, and criticisms on different books, are found to offer an advantageous variety to the essays on moral subjects to which boys' prose composition has sometimes been confined.
Three exhibitioners are elected every year by the trustees of the school, on the report of two examiners appointed respectively by the vice-chancellors of Oxford and Cambridge. These exhibitions are of the value of £60 a year, and may be held for seven years at any college at either university, provided the exhibitioner continues to reside at college so long; for they are vacated immediately by non-residence.
One scholar is also elected every year by the masters, after an examination held by themselves. The scholarship is of the value of £25 a year, and is confined to boys under fourteen and a half at the time of their election. It is tenable for six years, if the boy who holds it remains so long at Rugby. But as the funds for these scholarships arise only from the subscriptions of individuals, they are not to be considered as forming necessarily a permanent part of the school foundation. Miscellaneous Works, pp. 341-48.
The foregoing description, written six years after Arnold became headmaster, and eight years before his death, represents the school in a transition state,-his reforms begun but not completed. need not fear my reforming furiously,” he wrote to one of his nearest friends, at the very time he was entering upon his charge, “there, I think I can assure you; but of my success in introducing a religious principle into education, I must be doubtful; it is my most earnest wish, and I pray God that it may be my constant labor and prayer ; but to do this would be to succeed beyond all my hopes; it would be a happiness so great, that I think the world could yield me nothing cornparable to it. To do it, however imperfectly, would far more than repay twenty years of labor and anxiety." No purpose of reform could be loftier; none, therefore, could be at once more trying and more sustaining. Arnold appreciated all the difficulty of his undertaking.
" You TABLE.—Course of Study in Rugby Grammar School, under Dr. Arnold.
Language. Latin Grammar. Latin Delectus.
simple and compound to auxiliary verb. tory, abridged.
Latin Grammar. St. Luke, Markham's England, Review of Ist Form. Hamel's Exercises, Latin Delectus. Eu-Genesis,
Rule of three; prac to auxiliary verb; tropius.
the conjugations Gaultier's Geogra
pby. Matthiae's abridged Exodus, Num- Eutropius; Physical Rule of three; prac- Hamel's Exercises, Greek gram.; Val-bers, Judges, St. Geography, (of Soc., tice; vulgar fractions ; part I, continued ; py's Gr. exercises; Matthew, Sam- for Diff. of Useful interest.
irregular verbs. do., do. delectus; uel. Knowledge.)
Elizabeth, ou les Florilegium; trans.
exiles en Siberie. into Latin. Gr. gram; Valpy's St. Matthew, in Justin, parts; Xeno-Vulgar fractions ; in-Hamel, continued ex.; Greek iambics ; Gr. Testament. phon, Arabasis, parts : terest; decimal frac- and reviewed. easy iambics of trag- Acts, English. Markham's France, tions ; square root. Jussieu, Jardin des edies; Virgil, Ecl., to Philip of Valois.
Plantes. Cic. De Senect.
Æschyl., Promethe-Acts, Greek. Xenophon, Hellenics, Decim., invol., evol., Hamd, 2d part; La us. Virg., Æn., 2 & St. John, Eng. part;' Florus, parts; Algebraic add., subtr., Fontaine's fables. 3. Cic. de Amicit. Old Testament History Greece, (Soc. mult., & div; binom.
for D. of U. K.) Mark- theor., Euclid, 1, prop.
Book I. Cic. Epist., parts.
Æschyl., Sept , cont. St. John; Tim. Arrian, parts; Hero- Exchange, alligation, Syntax, idioms. Theb.; Sopho., Ed., & Titus; Bible dotus, parts; Livy, 2 simple equation with Play of Molière : Tyr.; Iliad, 3 & 4; Hist., 1 Kings to & 3, parts; Hallam, two unknown quan- into Eng. and then Æn., 6 & 7; Cicero's Nehemiah. Middle Ages; France, tities, problems; Eu- back into French. Epist., parts; Hor.,
Spain, Greeks, Sara-clid, Book III. parts.
cens. European geug-
political. Æsch., Agam., Iliad, Corinthians 1 & Parts of Herodotus, Quadratic equations, Pascal, Pensées.5, 6; Odyss., 9; De- 2. Paley, Hor. Thucydides, & Livy: Trigonometry, Euclid, Translations, Engmosthenes, Sept. in Paulin. Hallam, Middle Ages, through Book VI. lish into French. Aphob., 1; Æn., 8;
Slate of Society. Horace, pirts; Cic. in Verr. Parts of Virgil and One Prophet, Parts of Thucydides, Euclid, 3–6; simple Parts of Guizot, Homer; one or more Septuagint ver- Arrian, Tacitus, Rus- and quadratic equa- Revol. de l'AngleGreek tragedies, and sion. Parts of sell's Modern Europe. tions, plain trigonom-terre ; and of Migof orations of De New Test.
net, Revol. Franc. mosth.; Cic. in Verr.: part of Aristot. Eth.
The general school hours throughout the week are as follows :
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.–First lesson, seven to eight; second lesson, quarter past nine to eleven; third and fourth lessons, quarter past two to five.
Tuesday and Thursday.—First and second lessons as on Monday. Eleven to one, composition. Half holiday.
Saturday. As on Tuesday and Thursday, except that there is no composition from eleven and one.
There are various other lessons, at additional hours, for different classes.
"I came to Rugby," was his remark, “full of plans for school reform; but I soon found that the reform of a public school was a much more difficult thing than I had imagined.” But there was no shrinking; on the contrary, the earnestness and the rapidity with which the head-master pressed on, were such as to excite apprehensions on the part eren of his friends, while they who doubted or opposed his course, broke out into objections and menaces sufficient to shake the resolution of a less resolute man. Arnold was strong, however, both in the principles which led him to reform and in those which guided him in reform. There was nothing indiscriminate or turbulent in his movements. "Another system,” he said in reference to the constitution of the school, “ may be better in itself, but I am placed in this system, and am bound to try what I can make of it.” So, without attempting to overthrow, Arnold continued his efforts to repair and to uprear, with a degree of considerateness and of prudence remarkable in one so ardent and so determined. “That's the way," wrote one of his pupils, " that all the doctor's reforms have been carried out when he has been left to himself,—quietly and naturally; putting a good thing in the place of a bad, and letting the bad die out; no wavering and no hurry,—the best thing that could be done for the time being, and patience for the rest."
Instead of singling out one reform after another, we shall attempt a more connected delineation of him who wrought them all. It would be difficult, indeed, to say what there was in the school which Arnold did not reform,-if not by outward change, at least by the inward spirit infused into the whole body of which he was the head. As a matter of fact, therefore, as well as of expression, the portrait of Arnold should be drawn, not simply as that of the reformer, but rather as that of the teacher and the administrator,--the head-master of Rugby school.
In his relation to the trustees of the school, Arnold at once took the position that he must be independent of all interference from them. It was his duty, he said, “not only to himself, but to the master of every foundation school in England,” to resist every intrusion into his own province; he, and not the trustees, was the master; he, and not they, must do the master's work and hold the master's authority. He had no mind, on the other hand, to shake off any just control. To the trustees, in their proper places, he looked with a respect and a submission that could not have been greater; nor could the intercourse between him and them have been, as a general rule, more agreeable or more amicable than it was. The point with him was simply this,—that if he was to possess the confidence of the trustees