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MEMOIR AND EDUCATIONAL WORK...........
Sr. MARY'S COLLEGE CONSTITUTION-STUDIES-CONDITION,
CARDINAL WOLSEY AND IPSWICH GRAMMAR SCHOOL—1528. 155–173
PosrTIONS RESPECTING THE TRAINING OF CHILDREN-1561. .........
DAUGHTERS OF Sir ANTHONY Cook-LADY BACON-LADY BURLEIGU 463
ILLITERACY AND LEARNING-THE SCHOLAR AND THE PEDANT....... 23
THE PUBLIC OR FOUNDATION SCHOOLS OF ENGLAND.
In place of an article for which we have gathered material in our reading, we subjoin some valuable extracts and statistics from a paper "Or the Foundation Schools of England," read before the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, in 1857, by Rev. John Day Collis, M. A., head-master of Bromsgrove School, which we shall follow up with interesting and instructive notes from Timbs’ “Sketches of the Progress of Education in England."
“Where is it that our rising legislators receive their first lesson in cheerful obedience to lawful authority-and I may add, in jealous watchfulness against the excess of lawful authority, or against the growth of tyranny—but in our public schools? Where do they so surely learn to curb their tongues, control their angry passions, conquer their temptation to selfishness, overcome the fear of each other, and learn to speak out boldly in defence of the weak, or in the cause of truth? Where do they acquire habits of self-reliance and manly independence? Where do they learn that submission to lawful discipline is perfect freedom, and that law is a kind though (when they kick against it) a stern master? Where do they learn first to govern themselves, and then to govern others, and so become trained for the onerous duties of magistrates, legislators, instructors of others, as at our public schools? Where do they learn gradually the use of money, the use of time, the responsibility of strength, (mental or bodily,) the responsibility of influence, the necessity for long-sustained and well-regulated exertion? Where do they acquire habits of industry, habits of thoughtfulness, habits of close application, as in the scholastic contests of their boyhood ?
Where can be joined such a thorough freedom of play for all that is in a boy of good and noble as in our public schools? Where such a judicious mixture of liberty and restraint? Where is a boy so thrown upon his own good principle and firmness, and yet protected from the rougher and coarser forms of temptation, as in the guarded, and yet free, atmos. phere of a public school? When we look at these noble and distinguishing institutions of our country, can we wonder at the Duke of Wellington's watching the boys of Eton in their playing-fields, and thinking that it was there Waterloo was won—that such training as there exists, and has existed for centuries, matures the heroic and manly temper of Englishmen into stern fulfillment of duty, stern defence of the injured and the weak, stern repression of the unjust aggressions of other nations.
Can we wonder at the large share Montalembert gives to the public school-life of English boys in the acknowledged superiority of England ?
Can there be a more striking contrast than that which exists between the cramped and confined and constantly-watched training of a foreign school-boy, and the free and healthy play of life and vigor and self-reliance in an English school-boy? Where such results are visible and undeniable, there must be some potent influence at work, to have first established and then maintained it in such vigor for so long a time.
To what can we attribute this traditional training of all our public men, our legislators, our clergy, our barristers and judges, our physicians, our county magistrates, our country gentlemen, but to the fact of the strong impress which our school education-with its wholesome mixture of free. dom and restraint, of lessons and games, of internal self-government under the authority of a responsible head-has stamped upon successive generations of Englishmen?
of the importance which has ever been attached in England to such traditional training we can have no stronger proof than in the great number and variety of our Foundation Schools. Until one looks closely into the matter, it would scarcely be believed how rich England is in such institutions, and their number is hardly more surprising than their inherent vitality. Years pass on-generations die out, dynasties change, revolutions are accomplished—but, through lapse of time, and change of circumstance, here last these wondrous schools of England: one, like Wantage, claiming, with every appearance of truth, Alfred for its founder; others founded but as yesterday, and gaining success just so far as they keep up with the main traditional type of grammatical training. While so much changes around, "these most English institutions in England," as they have been called by the “Times" in a recent review of that racy school-book, “ Tom Brown's School-Days," “ these most English institutions in England " have shown a tenacity of life and a vivaciousness such as could only have resulted from the wise system on which they are conducted, as well as from the wise forethought that founded and endowed them. * * *
A few statistics as to the dates and numbers of our grammar schools may be interesting.
Of course both the invention of printing and the breaking up of the Greek empire, on the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, in 1453, and the consequent spread of the culture of the Greek language in the south and west of Europe, had an immense effect upon education, amongst other ways, in stimulating the foundation of schools; but far beyond these two causes in efficacy must we place the Reformation, with its attendant breaking up of the monastic system. The dissolution of the monasteries gave both an incitement to the foundation of free grammar schools, in order to supply the place of the monastic schools which were thereby broken up, and furnished large pecuniary means for their endowment.
Of schools whose date is ascertained, and which were antecedent to the foundation of Eton College, in the reign of Henry VI., there are but eight-Derby, Huntingdon, Newbury, Ashburton, Wisbeach, Hereford,