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READERS OF THE EVERY-DAY BOOK.
Our ancestors were persons of leisure. They appropriated each day in the year to the memory of remarkable persons or events. THE EVERY-DAY Book will relate the origin of these three hundred and sixty-five celebrations, with interest. ing accounts of the individuals and circumstances commemorated.
It will especially describe the National and Domestic Festivities at the Remarkable Seasons, and on the great Holidays that are still kept ; particularly those on New Year's day-Twelfth day-St. Agnes' eve-Candlemas day-St. Valentine's day-Shrovetide-Ash Wednesday-St. David's day-St. Patrick's day.- Palm Sunday–Lady day-All Fools' day—Maundy Thursday-Good Friday-Eastertide-Hock day-St. George's day-May day-Royal Oak day-WhitsuntideSt. Barnabas' day-St. John's eve-St. Swithin's day-Lammas-tide-Corpus Christi day–Midsummer-tide-Michaelmas-lide-Allhallow e'en — Gunpowder Plot day-St. Andrew's day-Christmas-tidemChildermas day-New Year's eve, &c.
While recording such observances, it will entertain the reader with descriptions of numerous Popular Merriments and Usages, a few of which may be mentioned as instances : namely, Fairs—Wakes-Morris Dancings-Harvest Homes_Shearings-Mayings—Aleings-Wassailings-Mummings - Soulings - Waits — Eton Montem-Hogmany-Yule, &c.
Besides a multitude of subjects of this description, the amusing character of the Every-Day Book will be increased by curious details respecting Flinging the stocking—The Wandering Jew-Hand of Glory-Glastonbury thorn-Wrestling --Kissing—Man in the Moon–Robin Hood—The Merry Thought-Tea—The Drama–Highgate oath-Dunmuw Aitch-Winifred's well-Music-Horn Fair -Old Nick-Joint ring—Robin Goodfellow-Robin Badfellow-Passing bellWedding ring—Death watch-the Grace cup-Archery-Cockfighting-Breaking up-Jack a' Lanthorn-Second sight - Barber's pole — Strewing rushes Bleeding of the Murdered-Under the Rose Sitting cross legged—LongevityCoronation stone-Sneezing-Bear baiting-Lady in the straw-Seventh son of a seventh son—True lover's knot-Blindman's buff-Curfew bell-Divining rod Hunt the slipper-Roodloft— Nightmare-Pricking in the belt-Dress-Cursing by bell, book and candle-Golf-Black's the white o' my eye-Garnish-Barring out at school-Groaning cake-Chiromancy-Cunning men- -Undertakers-Marriages -- Penny weddings — Vanes — Love charms — Toys - Storms MolesCramp rings-Horseshoes-Fools-Jesters-- Apparitions–Babies in the eyes Fairy rings—Antographs_Witch finders_Witches-Wizards-Shop signs--Cries
Amulets-Duels-Charms. - Healths - Exorcisms — Evil eyes - Eclipses Shooting stars-Gypsies-Sin eaters-Corpse candles-Misers-Quacks-Incantations-Crickets-Bonfires–Old sawsPhiltres_Frosts-Fairies-Somnainbulists — Christenings — Pawnbrokers' balls -- Burials— Cuckolds— Processions Spectres-Lucky and unlucky numbers-Newspapers-Christmas boxes-Bogles, Brownies-Spunkies—Kelpies-Wraiths—Dwarfs --Giants-Fascinations — Tobacco - Snuff - Sorcerers-Songs---Hair and Wigs---Vigils--Spirits-Omens
Familiars—Isoly Wells--Gossips—Cards—Wrecks — Divinations—BetrothingsShrouds-Inventions-Phenomena, &c. &c. &c. By the introduction of various topics and facts of a still more interesting and important nature, with suitable Historical, Biographical, Astronomical, and Seasonable Anecdotes-information that is useful to all, will be combined with amusement that is agreeable to most.
The EVERY-Day Book will be a History of the Year. Whether it be consulted respecting to-day or to-morrow, or any other day, it will present acceptable particulars respecting the day sought. It becomes, therefore, a Perpetual Guide to the Year not to any one year in particular, but to every year—and forms a Complete Dictionary of the Almanac, for the daily use and instruction of every person who possesses an Almanac, and desires a Key to it.
In this view it will be the EVERY-Day Book of pleasure and business of parents and children, teachers and pupils, masters and servants : and, as Cowper says, that, “a volume of verse is a fiddle that sets the universe in motion," it is believed that his remark may be somewhat verified by the pleasant images and kind feelings, which the interspersion of much excellent poetry throughout the work is designed to create in all classes of its readers.
Many essential particulars relating to the days of the week, the twelve months, the four seasons, and the year generally, will be arranged by way of Appendix, and there will be a copious Index to the whole.
A number, or sheet of thirty-two columns, price threepence, will be published every Saturday till the undertaking is completed, which will be in about a year--a few weeks more or less. The Engravings in each will vary as to number: in some there may be only one or two ; in others, three, or four, or five-according to the subject.
It will form a large and handsome volume, containing a greater body of curious and interesting anecdotes and facts than exists in any other in the English language; and be illustrated by nearly two hundred Engravings from the original designs of superior artists, or from rare and remarkable prints and drawings,
This mode of publication is adopted with a view to two objects : 1st, the general diffusion of useful facts in connection with curious information ; and 2dly, the attainment of additional particulars during its progress.
To a large mass of materials already collected, communications respecting local usages or customs in any part of the United Kingdom, and Festival Ceremonials abroad, will be especially acceptable. Such communications, or any useful hints or suggestions, or permission to extract from books or manuscripts, will give me great pleasuree to receive, and to acknowledge as circumstances may require. 45, Ludgate-hill,
W. HONE. 31st December, 1824. Note.- This Leaf and the Title are to be cut off, and thrown aside, when the
Volume is bound. A new title, &c. will be given gratis.
THE HISTORY OF PARODY, with ENLARGED REPORTS OF
MY THREE TRIALS, a royal octavo Volume of 600 pages, handsomely printed and illustrated by numerous Engravings on copper and wood, plain and coloured, is in considerable forwardness. The price will be 21. 2s. in extra boards. The favour of additional names to the list of Subscribers is respectfully solicited, in order to regulate the number of copies to be printed-but MONEY WILL BE RECEIVED until the book is delivered.
JANUARY This is the first and the coldest month Discerns sereneness in that brow, of the year. Its zodiacal sign is Aquarius
That all contracted seem'd but now. or the Waterbearer. It derives its name His revers'd face may show distaste, from Janus, a deity represented by the
And frown upon the ills are past; Romans with two faces, because he was
But that which this way looks is clear,
And smiles upon the new-born year. ncquainted with past and future events. Cotton introduces him into a poem on the According to the ancient mythology, new year
Janus was the god of gates and avenues, Hark, the cock crows, and yon bright star
and in that character held a key in his Tells us, the day himself's pot far;
right hand, and a rod in his left, to symAnd see where, breaking from the night, bolize his opening and ruling the year : He gilds the western hills with light. sometimes he bore the number 300 in one With him old Janus doth appear,
hand, and 65 in the other, the number of Peeping into the future year,
its days. At other times he was reproWith such a look as seems to say,
sented with four heads, and placed in a The prospect is not good that way. Thus lo we rise ill sights to see,
temple of four equal sides, with a door
and three windows in each side, as emAnd 'gainst ourselves to prophesy ;
blems of the four seasons and the twelve When the prophetic fear of things A more tormenting mischief brings,
months over which he presided. More full of soul-tormenting gall
According to Verstegan (Restitution of Than direst mischiefs can befall.
Decayed Intelligence, 4to. 1628, p. 59) But stay! but stay! Methirks my sight, the Saxons called this month “ WolfBetter informd by clearer light,
monat," or Wolf-month, because the
wolves of our ancient forests, impelled by which he passed thirty years, and died hunger at this season, were wont to prowl about the sixth century. Bishop Patrick, and attack man himself; the inferior ani- in his“ Reflexions upon the Devotions of mals, on whom they usually preyed, having the Roman Church," 1674, 8vo. cites of reti:ed or perished from the inclemency of St. Mochua, that while walking and praythe weather. The Saxons also called this ing, and seeing a company of lambs runmonth “Aefter-yula," or After Christmas. ning hastily to suck their mothers, he drew In illuminated calendars prefixed to a line upon the ground which none of the catholic missals, or service books, January hungry lambs durst pass. Patrick again was frequently depicted as a man with cites, that St. Mochua having been vifagots or a woodman's axe, shivering sited by St. Kyenanus and fifteen of his and blowing his fingers. Spenser intro- clergy, they came to an impetuous and duces this month in nis Faerie Queene : impassable river on their return, and Then came old January, wrapped well
wanted a boat; whereupon St. Mochua In many weeds to keep the cold away; spread his mantle on the water, and KyeYet did he quake and quiver like to quell; nanus with his fifteen priests were carried And blow his nayles to warme them if he may; safely over upon the mantle, which foated For they were numb'd with holding all the back again to St. Mochua without wrinkle day
or wetting. An hatchet keene, with which he felled wood,
St. Fanchea, or Faine, is said by Butler And from the trees did lop the needlesse spray. to have been an Irish saint of the sixth
century. Patrick quotes that St. Endeus January 1.
desiring to become a monk, his compaA close holiday at all public nions approached to dissuade him ; but, Circumcision. offices except the Excise, Cus
upon the prayers of St. Faine, and her toms, and Stamps. This festival stands in the calendar of stuck to the earth like immovable stones,
making the sign of the cross, their feet the church of England, as well as in that until by repentance they were loosed and of the Roman catholic church. It is
went their way. said to have been instituted about 487 ;
St. Fulgentius, according to Butler, died it first appeared in the reforned English on the 1st of January, 533, sometimes went liturgy in 1550.
barefoot, never undressed to take rest, nor Without noticing every saint to whom ench day is dedicated in the Roman catholic calen- ate flesh meat, but chiefly lived on pulse dars, the names of saints will be given day, by and herbs, though when old he admitted day, as they stand under each day in the last edition of the r “Lives,” by the Rev. Alban
the use of a little oil. He preached, exButler, in 12 vols. 8vo. On the authority of that plained mysteries, controverted with herework the periods will be mentioned when the tics, and built monasteries. Butler conbaints most noted for their miracles flourished; cludes by relating, that after his death, a
be miracles will be given: First, from "The Golden bishop named Pontian was assured in a Legend,” a black letter folio volume, printed by vision of Fulgentius's immortality; that W. de Worde.--Secondly, from History of Britain,” by the Benedictine father, his relics were translated to Bourges, where S. Cressy, dedicated by him to the queen con. they are venerated; and that the saint's sort of Charles II., a folio, printed in 1668.Thirdly, from the catholic translation of the
head is in the church of the archbishop's 1 Lives of the Saints,” by the Rev. Father seminary, Peter Ribadeneira, priest of the society of Jesus, second edition, London, 1730, 2 vols. folio; and Fourthly, from other sources which will be named. By this means the reader will be ac.
NEW YEAR'S DAY. quainted with legends that rendered the saints and the celebration of their festivals popular. The King of Light, father of aged Time, For example, the saints in Butler's Lives on this Hath brought about that day, which is the day occur in the following order :
prime St. Fulgentius ; St. Odilo, or Olou ; To the slow gliding months, when every cye St. Almachus, or Telemachus ; St. Eu- Wears symptoms of a sober jollity; gendus, or Oyend; St. Fanchea, or Faine; And every hand is ready to present St. Mochua, or Moncain, alias Claunus ; Some service in a real compliment. St. Mochua, alias Cronan, of Balla.
Whilst some in golden letters write therr
love, Sts. Mochua, According to Butler, these
Some speak affection by a ring or glove, were Irish saints. One founded the mo
Or pins and points (for ev'n the peasant may, nastery, now the town of Balla, in Con- After his ruder fashion, be as gay naught. The other is said to have founded
the brisk courtly sir,) and thinks that lie 120 cells, and thirty churches, in one 96 anal, without a gross absurdity,
Be this day frugal, and not spare his friend kind feelings in former times; and wly Some gift, to show his love finds not an end should they be unfashionable in our own! With the deceased year.
Dr. Drake observes, in "Sbakspeare and Pooles's ENG. PARNASSUS.
his Times," that the ushering in of the new In the volume of “ ELIA,” an excellent year, or new year's tide, with rejoicings, paper begins with “ Every man hath two
presents, and good wishes, was a custom birthdays : two days, at least, in every observed, during the 16th century, with year, which set him upon revolving the great regularity and parade, and was lapse of time, as it affects his mortal dura- cordially celebrated in the court of the tion. The one is that which in an especial prince as in the cottage of the peasant. manner he termeth his. In the gradual « Encyclopedia of Antiquities," adduces
The Rev.T. D. Fosbroke, in his valuable desuetude of old observances, this custom
various authorities to show that congratuof solemnizing our proper birthday hath nearly passed away, or is left to children, the Romans on this day. The origin, he
lations, presents, and visits were made by who reflect nothing at all about the matter, nor understand any thing beyond the says, is ascribed to Romulus and Tatius, cake and orange. But the birth of a
and that the usual presents were figs and new year is of an interest too wide to be dates, covered with leaf-gold, and sent by pretermitted by king or cobbler. No one
clients to patrons, accompanied with a ever regarded the first of January with piece of money, which was expended to indifference. It is that from which all purchase the statues of deities. He mendate their time, and count upon what is
tions an amphora (a jar) which still exists, left. It is the nativity of our common
with an inscription denoting that it was a Adam.
new year's present from the potters to " Of all sound of all bells- bells, the Count Caylus a piece of Roman pottery,
their patroness. He also instances from music nighest bordering upon heaven), with an inscription wishing a happy most solemn and touching is the peal which rings out the old year. I never
new year to you;" another, where a person hear it without a gathering-up of way medallions, with the laurel leaf, fig, and
wishes it to himself and his son; and three mind to a concentration of all the images date; one, of Commodus; another, of that have been diffused over the past Victory; and a third, Janus, standing in a
; done or ;
new year to the emperor. New year's gifts a person dies. It takes a personal colour; until they were prohibited by Claudius.
were continued under the Roman emperors nor was it a poetical flight in a contem- Yet in the early ages of the church the porary, when he exclaimed,
Christian emperors received them; nor did • I saw the skirts of the departing year.'
they wholly cease, although condemned
by ecclesiastical councils on account of the “ The elders with whom I was brought pagan ceremonies at their presentation. up, were of a character not likely to let The Druids were accustomed or certain slip the sacred observance of any old in- days to cut the sacred misletoe with a stitution; and the ringing out of the old golden knife, in a forest dedicated to the year was kept by them with circumstan- gods, and to distribute its branches with ces of peculiar ceremony. In those days much ceremony as new year's gifts among the sound of those midnight chimes, the people. though it seemed to raise hilarity in all The late Rev. John Brand, in his around me, never failed to bring a train “Popular Antiquities” edited by Mr. Ellis, of pensive imagery into my fancy. Yet I observes from Bishop Stillingfeet, that then scarce conceived what it meant, or among the Saxons of the North, the festhought of it as a reckoning that cou- tival of the new year was observed with cerned me. Not childhood alone, but the more than ordinary jollity and feasting, young man till thirty, never feels practi- and by sending new year's gifts to one cally that he is mortal.”
another. Mr. Fosbroke notices the conRinging out the old and ringing in the tinuation of the Roman practice during new year, with “
a merry new year! a the middle ages; and that our kings, and happy new year to you!
!" on new year's the nobility especially, interchanged preday, were greetings that moved sceptred sents. Mr. Ellis quotes Matthew Paris, pride, and humble labour, to smiles and who appears to show that Henry III cr