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With लभ,

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times merely gives intensity to the action ; as, oftast,“ to

abandon altogether.' #pra, “ before," "forward " (cf. mpo, pro, pra); as, HTH, 4aq, “ to proceed "; 444, " to set before,” “present "; m,

present "; us, “ to begin "; प्रधाव, , "to run forward "; er,“to set out," "advance "; , "to be superior," "prevail "; uE9, "to foresee. “to deceive." In combination with the causal of its final a; as, tuulfa, “I send." The r influences a following nasal by r. 21.; as, kur,“ to bend before," "

“salute." ufa* prati, “ against," “ towards," " back again "; as, yfirgy,“ to

fight against "; unit,“ to go towards” (pres. umfA); AMA, "to return "; farg, “to counteract "; farea, “to beat back,"

repel"; afirma, “to answer "; afic “to recover "; saat, "to lead back ”; yfir,“ to re-salute." With y, “to promise "; with पद्,

“to arrive at, obtain." fa vi, “apart," implying "separation,"

separation," " distinction," " distribution," "dispersion" (Latin dis, se); as, faer, " to wander about "; fare, “to vacillate "; fare, “to roam for pleasure "; faq, “ to dissipate "; farę,“ to tear asunder "; fanat, “to divide "; fafara, “to distinguish.” Sometimes it gives a privative signification ; as, farge, “to disunite "; farm,“ to forget "; farmi, “to sell." With " to change for the worse." Sometimes it has no

apparent influence on the root; as, faciat, " to perish.” HH sam, with," "together with " (ouv, con); as, afą, E, "to

collect "; fiya, “to join together"; 794, “to meet together "; Hrara, “to happen "; afya, “to contract."

With a it signifies 'to perfect,” and ¥ is inserted, Heit. It is often prefixed without altering the sense; as, H97, “to be produced.”

166. Two prepositions are often combined with a root; as, ICT, "to open” (fe, s); **, “to assemble” (HA, 27, with root 1); uferea, “to prostrate one's self” (#, fa, r. 21.); stą,“ to raise up" (A, M, with root ).

Occasionally three prepositions are combined ; as, toute, “to predict” (#, fa, wt); urcia, “ to answer” (ufa, Ja, ).

* The final i of the prepositions, ofat, oft, fa, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns ; as, प्रतीकार, परीहास, नीकार,

167. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, the augment and reduplication do not change their position, but are inserted between the preposition and the root; as, पर्यणयं, 1st pret. of नी, with परि; उपाविशं, 1st pret. of विश्, with उप; अन्वतिष्ठं, Ist pret. of स्था, with अनु; प्रतिजधान, 2d pret. of हन्, with प्रति प्रोजहार, 2d pret. of , with 4 and 5.

168. Grammarians restrict certain roots to particular voices, when in combination with particular prepositions; as, for example, the root fot, “to conquer," with fa, and the root fad, “to enter," with fa, are restricted to the ātmanepada; but no certain rules can be propounded on this subject : and in the two epic poems especially, the choice of voice seems so entirely arbitrary and subservient to the purposes of metre, that many ātmanepada primitive, and even passive verbs, are occasionally permitted to take a parasmai pada inflection.

Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs with the Roots q and

169. These are of two kinds ; Ist, those formed by combining adverbs with and 4; 2dly, those formed by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. Examples of the first kind are,

" to adorn "; unfaa, “to make manifest” (cf. note, p. 15.) ; afeg, “to eject"; greti, " to place in front " “follow "; franca, "to deprive "; ani,

"to entertain as a guest"; "to revere "; 41&TE, HIC“to become manifest," &c.

170. In forming the second kind, the final of a crude word being a or ā, is changed to i; as, from inte mig,“ to make ready;" from que, quita, “to blacken "; or, in a few cases, to ā, as from प्रिय. A final i or u are lengthened ; as, from yfe, yo "to become pure "; from my, 99, “to lighten." A final ri is

* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Mahābhārata ; as in WWERT (Prof. Johnson's Ed. p. 33.).

+ Thus, TT,“to strive," and mig,“ to beg for,” which are properly ātmanepada verbs, are found in the paras. Instances of passive verbs have been given at p. 89. note t. On the other hand, toe, "to rejoice,” which is properly a parasmaipada verb, is found in the ātm.

changed to trī; as, from ATĘ, Areitag,“ to become a mother.” A final as becomes either t, as, from सुमनस्, सुमनीभू, “ to be of good mind "; or asī, as, from FCE, furchtet,“ to place on the head.”

a. But the greater number of compounds of this kind are formed from crude nouns in a. The following are other examples : Fuigi

, “to esteem as a straw "; Frantaa, “to stiffen "; vafaat,“ to fix the mind on one object."

b. Sometimes at, placed after a crude noun, is used to form a compound verb of this kind; as, from to, "water," foar,“ to reduce to liquid "; from भस्मन्,

“ashes," HEIT

“ to reduce to ashes."

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Sect. III.-COMPOUND ADVERBS (CORRESPONDING TO

AVYAYĪBHAVA COMPOUNDS).

171. Compound adverbs are formed by combining adverbs, prepositions, or adverbial prefixes with nouns in the singular number neuter gender.

a. The greater number are formed with the adverbial preposition E saha, contracted into a sa; as, from ała, "anger," watu, "angrily "; from Wiç, respect," HICI, respectfully"; from WETTA,“ prostration of the limbs,” Hill, "reverentially." As, however, the neuter of all adjectives may be used adverbially, these compound adverbs may be regarded as the neuter of the fifth form of relative compounds (r. 161.).

b. The following may be taken as examples of compound adverbs formed with other prefixes: wg.5, "according to seniority”; HÉ, “over every limb"; fata, “every month "; qurfafg, "according to rule "; renga, or argai, “according to one's power "; 491.5c,“ happily "; FATİ, “ before the eyes” (ww being substituted for wfa, cf. p. 165. b.); wüstü, “undoubtedly"; farasta, “ without distinction."

c. Some of the adverbs at r. 139. may be placed after crude nouns ; thus, a 14 hat,“ near the child "; , "for the sake of protection."

d. A kind of compound adverb is formed by doubling a noun, lengthening the final of the first word, and changing the final of the last to i; as, from 76, “a stick," fusref, "mutual striking."

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e. Complex compound adverbs, involving other compounds, are sometimes found; as, le. Fafastau, “not differently from one's own house"; स्तनभरविनमन्मध्यभानपेक्षं, " regardlessly of the curving of her waist bending under the weight of her bosom."

f. The indec. part. wny,“ having begun," is joined with wat, "to day” (WETC), in the sense of " from this time forward." Aparfo is placed adverbially after words, in the same sense; as, Fafa, “from birth upwards.”

CHAPTER X.

SYNTAX

Strive as we may, it is impossible to free the orthographical and etymological part of Sanscrit Grammar from a certain degree of intricacy and complexity. But admitting, as we do, this complexity in the early part of the subject to be greater than is ordinarily found, we at the same time affirm, that, in the aggregate calculation, the preponderance of difficulty is on the side of the classical languages. When the student has once thoroughly mastered the rules relating to the combination of letters and the inflection of nouns and verbs, the path, in Sanscrit, becomes easy to him, and he passes with the utmost certainty to a complete acquaintance with the subject in all its bearings. Not so in Greek or Latin. At the point in Sanscrit where our labours end, at that point in the others do our real labours begin ; and the young scholar, however versed in the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs, finds, when he enters upon the syntax of these two languages, that he has hardly passed the threshold of his studies. It is in the syntax of Greek and Latin that the true test of scholarship lies.

It is here that an almost interminable field of inquiry opens before the grammarian, and difficulties assail the student, demanding, for their complete mastery, a more than ordinary degree of mental application and capacity. In Sanscrit, on the other hand, the subject of syntax is reducible to a few plain rules, and

might almost be merged in that of compound words. The almost entire absence of prepositions in government with nouns removes one fertile source of difficulty; and such is the extraordinary prevalence of compounds, that the student who has acquired a thorough insight into their formation has little else to learn, and the writer who has properly expounded this portion of the grammar has already more than half completed his investigation into the laws which regulate syntactical combinations. We shall endeavour, in the present chapter, to collect together all the most useful rules for the connection and collocation of uncompounded words, presupposing, as we have done throughout, that the student is acquainted with the general principles of the subject before us. Much vagueness and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, when it is remembered that Sanscrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, and that the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical composition.

Observe, in the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be required by the laws of combination. Whenever compounds are introduced into the examples, a dot, placed underneath, will mark the division of the words. The examples have been, in general, selected from the Hitopadesha, or the Mahābhārata, with the view of serving as an easy delectus, in which the beginner may exercise himself before passing to continuous translation.

CONCORD OF THE VERB WITH THE NOMINATIVE CASE.

wat ga: ,

172. The verb must agree with the nominative case in number and person, as in the following examples: we arefu, “I must perform ;" * verife, “do thou attend "; # gyrfa, “ he gives ";

“we two say "; a nyi, "the pigeons said "; 1 watt च जग्मतुः, “ the king and minister went": यावच् चन्द्राौं तिष्ठतः, “as long as the moon and sun remain "; geit feroneri, “ do you two reflect "; 444 wira, “do ye come "; "a grunt, “good men are honoured "; afa verts, "the wind blows "; suf 1, "the moon rises "; rynfot gai, “the flower blossoms."

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