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patible with the sternness and simplicity of the most ancient languages. Thus, even the Greek, which of all others is the most copiously provided with these auxiliaries, made comparatively small use of them in the days of Homer, and imitated the Sanscrit in expressing a variety of different relations by some of the cases of its nouns.
It cannot be doubted that much ambiguity may result from this rigid rejection of any other aid to the construction of sentences than nominal inflection ; but when, as in Sanscrit, even this inflection is but sparingly used, and long compounds are formed, consisting of words joined together in their crude state, the last only taking any case; and when even the assistance of a verb is often denied to guide the reader to the nature of the dependence of these words upon each other; we are forced to admit that this language would gain much in ease and perspicuity, if it were more abundantly supplied with such important elements of syntactical arrangement.
But let not the reader imagine that no prepositions exist in Sapscrit. It will be found by a reference to r. 165. that they exist in great abundance, but only as inseparable prefixes, qualifying the sense of roots, and the nouns and verbs derived from roots. There are only three, out of all this list of prepositions, that are ever used in government with nouns; viz. w ā, gfa prati, and ng anu; and of these the two last are never so used, except as postpositions.
a. ut ā, generally signifying “as far as, up to,” governs the ablative case; as, whicha, “as far as the ocean "; wanit, "up to Manu "; and rarely the accusative, as my wisata, “ for a hundred births." But instances are not common of words in regimen with this preposition.
ufa prati, generally signifying “at," "with regard to," against,” governs the accusative ; as, Ti ofa,“ at the Ganges "'; van ufa,“ with regard to justice "; yr afa, “ against an enemy." It sometimes has the force of apud; as, at afat, “apud me, far as regards me."
c. wa is occasionally found governing the accusative; as, agg, after that." The preposition w, however, is not separated from the word
which it governs, and may be regarded as forming with it a kind of adverbial compound, especially as instances are not uncommon of other prepositions united in composition with the neuter form or accusative case of nouns ; as, afrenni,“ upon the shoulders "; afarget, “ face to face "; sfraut,“ upon the tree "'; ugu“ along the Ganges" (see r. 171. 6.).
ADVERBS USED FOR PREPOSITIONS. 139. There are certain adverbs used for prepositions in government with nouns, but generally placed after the nouns which they govern.
a. , “ besides,” governing the accusative and sometimes ablative case.
Yra, "up to," "as far as," sometimes found with the accusative. b. E, H, "with."
with," " along with,” governing the instrumental. c. fari, “without," with the instrumental or accusative, or sometimes the ablative.
d. efet, "out" and warfa, “ inde a," “from a particular time," with the ablative.
e. wo, wit, gati, nit, ant, fafara, on account of," "for the sake of," with the genitive, or more usually with the crude form. yuft, “above" (cf. Úmep, super), with the genitive.
So अधस् or wem, “below ";
“ below"; Hote, Hasi, “near "; Halgia “from "; wa, HTT, &c., “in the presence of"; mq, “after "; ara," before "; WU," without," "except"; warg, “ within "; all governing the genitive. उपरि and षधम् are sometimes doubled; thus, उपर्युपरि, अधो-ध..
140. at:, 7, , are vocative ; ?, ?, less respectfully vocative, or sometimes expressive of contempt. fra expresses “ abhorrence "; BT:, WET, EEE, “surprise "; FT, ETET, HET, ustan, “grief"; hry,
, "approbation "; #f, “salutation."
COMPOUNDS abound in Sanscrit to a degree wholly unequalled in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the principles on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, compound verbs, and compound adverbs.
Observe, that in this chapter a dot placed underneath marks the division of the words in a compound.
SECT. I.-COMPOUND NOUNS.
141. The student has now arrived at that portion of the subject in which the use of the crude state of the noun becomes most strikingly apparent. This use has been already noticed at r. 36., pp. 19, 20; and its formation explained, pp. 21–27.
In all compound nouns (with some few exceptions) the last word alone admits of declension, and the preceding word or words require to be placed in the crude form, this crude form admitting of a plural as well as singular signification.
Native grammarians class compound nouns under five heads : the 1st they call TATPURUSHA, or those composed of two nouns, the first of which (being in the crude) would be, if uncompounded, in a case different from, or dependent on, the last; as, AT,
moon-light” (for TEFTAT,“ the light of the moon "); magti, -OT, 0,* “skilled in arms
skilled in arms" (for any puro:); Afurafunt:, -, - *,
* Observe, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the crude, of a substantive terminating a compound will be given, and in the instance of an adjective forming the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc., fem., and neut. The examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesha, and sometimes the oblique cases in which they are there found have been retained.
" adorned with gems” (for Afufore afun:). The 2d, DWANDWA, or those formed by the aggregation into one compound of two or
nouns (the last word being, according to circumstances, either in the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the preceding word or words being in the crude), when, if uncompounded, they would all be in the same case, connected by a copulative conjunction ; as, tofrut, “master and pupil” (for te: frue); Acuengulat:, “death, sickness, and sorrow” (for
Afr: grau); ifuate,“ hand and foot " (for ufu: VE). The 3d, EARMADHÁRAYA, or those composed of an adjective and substantive, the adjective being placed first in its crude state, when, if uncompounded, it would be in grammatical concord with the substantive ; as, nyata, “a good disposition " (for ary: re:); Gulfu, "all things ” (for agru garu). The 4th, DWIGU, or those in which a numeral in its crude state is compounded with a noun, either so as to form a singular collective noun, or an adjective; as, fauo, “three qualities ” (for mi gur:); fayu: , -UT, -Tİ, “ possessing the three qualities.” The 5th, BAHUVRI* or those formed of any number of words associated to form an epithet to a noun; as, vent:, -47, -**, "brilliant as the moon "; fcuftoni, -a, -a, “liable to death, sickness, and sorrow"; Hygis:, -37, , "welldisposed."
Such then, in brief, is the native division of compound words, a division leading to some confusion, from the incompleteness and want of sufficient comprehensiveness in the definitions, and the absence of sufficient distinctness and opposition between the seve
* These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of compounds, or give some sort of definition of them. Thus, ary 4:, “his servant,” is an example of the 1st kind (for Ter 964:); is a definition of the 2d kind, meaning “conjunction"; Firea: is a definition of the 3d kind, i.e. "containing the object,” (H); feru: is an example of the 4th kind, meaning “any thing to the value of two cows”; uaife: is an example of the 5th kind, meaning “ possessed of much rice." There is a 6th class of compounds called waqira: avyayıbhāvah, i.e. “the indeclinable state"; but these will be noticed under the head of compound adverbs.
ral parts or members of the division. For it is plain, from the examples given, that the 5th class of compounds may often be regarded as another name for the first three, when they take the form of adjectives declinable in three genders; and that the second species of the 4th class is for this reason referrible to the 5th. The student, moreover, finds it difficult to understand why, if the definition of the 5th class of compounds be, that they are epithets of other nouns; such compounds as reaguo and afufun should not be comprehended under it. And further, he is often at a loss to refer a compound to its proper head,* from the inadequacy of the definitions to express all the cases included under each class.
In the following pages the subject is discussed according to a different method, although it has been thought desirable to keep the native arrangement in view.
Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving two or three species of simple compounds under one head.
SIMPLY COMPOUNDED NOUNS. 142. These will be divided into, Ist, Dependent in case (corresponding to Tatpurusha); 2d, Aggregative (Dwandra); 3d, Descriptivet (corresponding
(corresponding to Karmadhāraya); 4th, Collective (corresponding to Dwigu); 5th, Relative (corresponding to Bahuvrihi). This last includes, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent compounds, terminated by substantives ; b. Relative form of Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of Descriptive compounds ; d. Relative form of Collective compounds; e. Relative form of substantives in composition with certain adverbial prefixes.
* As, for instance, such a compound as quai, -, -, “any thing black and white."
† As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and always descriptive of the substantive. Prof. Bopp calls them “Determinativa," a word of similar import. The names “ Dependent” and “Collective” were suggested by Prof. Bopp's “ Dependentia” and “ Collectiva."