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d. Final diphthongs pass into ā: as, from fel, afara (also परिवीय); from अभिध्यै, अभिध्याय; from अवसो, अवसाय. But from सो with व्यव, व्यवस्य; from आहे, आहूय.

e. A penultimate nasal is generally rejected ; as, from samāsanj, samāsajya; from pramanth, pramathya (used adverbially, “violently "); but from with, W; from wife , afstal

f. If a root end in a consonant the general rule is, that no change takes place; as, from nikship, nikshipya ; from prāp (pra and āp), prāpya; from vīksh (vi and īksh), vīkshya.

g. But some roots ending in am and an may optionally reject the nasal, and interpose 1 between short a and ya; as, from nirgam, nirgatya or nirgamya ; from nihan, nihatya. Jan and khan instead of interposing t, lengthen the a; as, from utkhan, utkhāya.

h. The changes which take place in certain roots before the of the passive (p. 90. f.) are preserved before ya ; as, from face, farça; from we, wz; from ūvyadh, ūvidhya ; from vivas, vyushya. Pain lengthens its vowel before ya; as, far parte

i. In affixing ya to causal bases the characteristic ay is generally rejected :* as, from prabodhay, prabodhya (tema); from Hatta, प्रसार्य; from सन्दर्शय , सन्दर्य.

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Adverbial Indeclinable Participle. There is another indeclinable participle yielding the same sense as those formed with twā and ya, but of very rare occurrence except in the Bhatti kävya. It is equivalent to the accusative case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding am to the root, before which affix changes of the radical vowel take place, similar to those required before the causal affix ay (p. 86. c.). Thus, from ni, “to lead," nāyam, “having led "; from , “to drink," pāyam, “having drunk"; from hwe, hwāyam ; from pach, pācham; from kship, kshepam ; from han,“ to kill,ghūtam. It often occupies the last place in a compound; as in

* It is retained in some few instances; as, feruen, “ having calculated”; Hihice, “having imagined ”; Hote, “having narrated.”

† There are one or two instances of compounded roots formed with twā; as, GHIAT(from), Rām. 1. 2. 20. Especially in the case of causals, as fata furl.

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the expression , “having totally exterminated"; and in the following passage from Bhatti :

लतानुपातं कुसुमान्यगृह्मात् स नद्यवस्कन्दमुपास्पृशञ्च

कुतूहलाचारुशिलोपवेशं काकुत्स्थ ईषत्स्मयमान आस्त “ The descendant of Kakutstha, smiling softly, repeatedly bending down tho creepers, would pluck the blossoms; descending to the streams, would sip (the waters); seating himself on some variegated rock, would recline in admiration (of the scene).”

These participles generally imply repetition of the action, as in the passage above, and in this sense are themselves often repeated; as, dāyam, dāyam, “ having repeatedly given.”

FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 129. These are amongst the most common and useful of all participles, and may be classed under three heads : Ist, as formed with the affix irad tavya ; 2dly, as formed with watu anīya ; 3dly, as formed with a ya. These affixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin dus and the English able and ible, and most commonly denote obligation or propriety and fitness. Thus, from bhuj,to eat," bhoktavya, or bhojanīya, or bhojya, "edible," "eatable," "that ought to be eaten "; from vach, “ to speak,” vaktavya, or vachanīya, or vāchya, “to be spoken," dicendus." They sometimes denote simple futurity; as, at, “about to be eaten ": and as the passive past participle supplies the place of a past tense, so the future passive participle may supply the place of a future tense passive ; as in the following sentence, यदि पक्षी पतति तदा मया खादितव्यः, “If the bird falls, then it shall be eaten by me." Formation of Future Passive Participles with the affix ira tavya.

a. These are formed by substituting tavya for , the termination of the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st future. Thus, from ksheptā, “ he will throw," ana ksheptavya, “to be thrown "; kartā, "he will do,” kartavya, “to be done "; from bhavitā, “ he will be,” bhavitavya, “about to be.” And in the case of roots ending in consonants rejecting i, whatever changes take place before tā, the same take place before tavya (see p. so.); thus, tyaktā, tyaktavya (relinquendus); HET, 40; , ; boddhā, boldhavya; dagdhā, dagdhavya, &c.

niya; from

Formation of Future Passive Participles with the affix watta aniya.

b. This affix is added directly to the root, without any other change than the Guna of the radical vowel. Thus, from fa chi, “ to gather," 14 chayanīya, “to be gathered "; from bhū, bhara

करणीय (r. 21.); from लिख, लेखनीय; from शुथ् , शोधनीय; from स्मृश, स्पर्शनीय; from कृष्, कपणीय (r. 21.).

A final diphthong is changed to ā; as, from , mig; from it, Trala.

Formation of Future Passire Participles with the affix #ya. c. Before this affix, as before all others beginning with y, certain changes of final vowels become necessary. If a root end in ā, or in e, ai, o, changeable to ā, this vowel becomes e (cf. p. 85. a.); as, from ,to measure," meya, “ to be measured," "measurable"; from , heya; from dhyai, dhyeya, &c.

d. If in i, ī, u, or ū, these vowels take Guna; as, from chi, cheya. But the Guna o is changed to av, and sometimes e to ay, before ya (as if before a vowel): thus, from bhū, bhavya ; from ji, to conquer,jayya. The Guna o, however, oftener passes into āv before y; as, from , yraq; from plu, plāvya.

e. If in ri or rõ these vowels take Vriddhi ; as, from कार्य. f. Sometimes if a root end in a short vowel no change takes place, but t is interposed, after the analogy of the indeclinable participle formed with ya (p. 144. a.), so that the crude of the future participle is not distinguishable from the indeclinable, except by the absence of a preposition. Thus, from ji, jitya, “conquerable "; from stu, stutya, “laudable "; from kri, kritya, “practicable." 8

If a root end in a single consonant with a medial a, Vriddhi sometimes takes place; as, froin grah, grāhya : but not always; as, from shak, shakya ; from sal, sahya; from badh, badhya; and rarely if the final is a labial; as, from gam, gamya ; from labh, labhya.

h. If with a medial i or u, Guna generally takes place; as, from bhuj, bhojya; from lih, lehyn.

i. If with a medial ri, no change takes place; as, from Fit, q54.

j. A final ch may be changed to k, and j to g; and other changes may take place, some of which are similar to those before the

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of passives; as, from pach, pūkya ; from rach, vākya ; from bhuj,

bhogya ; from grah, grihya, as well as grāhya; from vad, ūdya ; from yaj, ijya; from shūs, shishya (p. 90. d. f.); from khan, kheya.

k. Many of these latter are used as substantives, and there are other examples of substantives formed with this affix; as, atret (fem.), “a wife," from , “to support,” &c.

Declension of Future Passive Participles. They are all declined like nouns of the first class, pp. 31, 32. Thus, kartavya; nom. m. f. n. kartaryah, kartavyā, kartavyam. Similarly, karaniya and kūrya.

PARTICIPLES OF THE SECOND FUTURE.

Formation of the Crude. 130. These are not very common. They are of two kinds, either as belonging to the parasmaipada, or to the ātmanepada ; the former being formed by changing anti, the termination of the 3d plur. of the 2d fut., into at; the latter by changing ante into amāna. . Thus, from karishyanti and karishyante, “they will do," karishyat and karishyamāna (afera afiumtu), “ about to do"; from the passive 2d fut. vakshyante, “they will be said,” rakshyamūna, “about to be said."

These participles, in the mode of their formation from the 3d pers. plur., by the affixes at and amāna, resemble present participles, r. 123.

Declension of Participles of the Second Future. a. Their declension also conforms to that of present participles.

Those of the parasmaipada are declined according to p. 136. b., and those of the atmanepada according to p. 137. 6.

PARTICIPIAL NOUNS OF AGENCY. 131. These have been already incidentally noticed in Chap. III. As, however, they partake of the nature of participles, and are of great practical utility, some further mention of them is necessary in the present chapter. They may be classed under three heads ; Ist, as formed from the root; 2dly, as formed from the 1st future; 3dly, as formed from the causal base.

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1. The crude of the first class is formed from the root by affixing a, before which Guna, and rarely Vșiddhi, of a final vowel is required; as, from ji,

from ji, “to conquer,” jaya (F70), “conquering." Medial vowels are generally unchanged; as, from rad, to say,” vada,“ saying"; from tud, to vex,tuda,“ vexing": and final ā, am, or an, are dropped ; as, from , “ to give,da (a), “ giving"; from gam, “ to go," ga (01), “going"; from jan,

ga (1), "going"; from jan, “ to be born,” ja, being born” (see their declension, r. 38. 1. and p. 31.). These nouns of agency are constantly used in poetry as a substitute for the present participle,* sometimes governing the same case as this participle, but always united with the word which they govern in one compound; thus, puranjaya (ger), “city-conquering"; priyamvada (parter), “ speaking kind words”; jalechara (7) er) “ going in the water"; sarasija, "lake-born." The word which they govern often remains in the crude form; as, from tejas and kri, tejaskara,“ light-making” (s remaining unchanged, in violation of r. 29.); from manas and hri, manohara,“ mind-captivating” (r. 29.); from bahu and , bahuda, “ giving much"; from what and st, THIT, “self-knowing."

2. The crude of the second class is formed from the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st future of primitive verbs, by substituting the vowel Wri for the final vowel ā, the nominative case being therefore identical with the 3d pers. sing. of that tense (see p. 77. r. 100. p. 37. and r. 41.), Thus, from bhoktā, he will eat," bhoktri, (nom. bhoktā); from that, “ he will fight," ura, “a fighter"; from yāchitā, yāchitri ; from GT, Htę, &c.

This noun of agency is sometimes, but rarely, found as a participle governing the case of the verb; as, tarpi,“ speaking a speech” (Draupadīharanam, 32.); TGT TEHTI, “ bearing the Ganges” (Ratnāvali, p. 1.).

3. The crude of the third class is formed in three ways.

a. By adding in to the root, before which affix changes take place similar to those required before the causal affix ay (r. 107. c. d.); as, from kri, kārin (afg), “a doer"; from han, ghātin, "a killer"; from shi, shūyin, “ a sleeper": y being inserted after roots

an eater"

* Implying, however, habitual action, and therefore something more than present time.

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