« AnteriorContinua »
This is a subject in some respects perhaps the most important that has hitherto engaged our attention. We have endeavoured in the last chapter to show, that however complex the structure of the Sanscrit verb, and however repulsive to the student at the commencement of his studies, this complexity is one rather of theory than practice, and one that hardly extends beyond the pages of the grammar, and is little felt, provided the attention be confined to the earlier and purer specimens of Hindu literature. The cause of this has been shown to be, that the difficulty of the verb expends itself on tenses that are rarely if ever used by the best writers. We are now to show that the necessity for these tenses is superseded by participles, the use of which prevails to an extent wholly unparalleled in any other language, even in the Greek. These participles often discharge the functions of the verb itself, and are constantly found occupying the place of past and future tenses, and more especially those of passive verbs ; insomuch that an instance of a passive in any other tense than the present or imperative rarely occurs. The consideration, therefore, of this portion of our subject bears most closely upon the idiomatic structure of the language; and so prominent a position do these verbal derivatives hold in the construction of sentences and collocation of words, that an accurate knowledge of the mode of their formation and the nature of their duties affords the best insight into the peculiarities of Sanscrit syntax, and elucidates many of the difficulties of idiom in the cognate dialects of India.
It may be desirable to premise that the most important of these participles are not derived immediately from the verb, but from a common source with the verb, viz. the root.
The subject, therefore, has not been mixed up with that of verbal inflection,
although in the very first instance, and in others which follow, the participle is deducible directly from a tense.
Formation of the Crude. 123. These are the only participles that have any affinity with the conjugational structure of the verb. The crude is formed by substituting at for anti, the termination of the 3d person plural of the present tense, so that the peculiarities of conjugation necessarily appear in the participle. Thus, from pachanti, " they cook (3d plur. pres. of re, Ist conj.), comes 40 pachat, “ cooking "; from ghnanti (3d plur. of han, 2d conj.), ghnat; from oft,“ they go,” un, “ going "; from utfort, 917 ; from juhwati (3d plur. of hu, 3d conj.), len juhwat; from nrityanti (1th conj.), nrityat; from chinwanti (5th conj.), faran chinwat; from ūpnuvanti (5th conj.), ūpnurat; from rundhanti (rudh, 7th conj.), rundhat; from kurvanti (7, 8th conj.), kurvat; from punanti (pū, 9th conj.), punat. So again from santi (3d plur. of as, “to be "), sat; from the causal darshayanti (p. 125.), darshayat; from the desiderative ditsanti (p. 130. e.), ditsat.
a. It has been remarked (p. 62. and p. 89., note t.) that the passive verb may sometimes assume a parasmaipada inflection ; and that all the neuter verbs placed under the 4th conjugation may be considered as so many examples of this form of the passive. This theory is corroborated by the fact of the existence of a parasmaipada present participle derivable from a passive base. Thus from 94, 947, “ being seen"; from 14, 146, “ being gathered.”
6. This in general conforms to r. 63. Thus, qn, nom. sing. du. pl. masc. pachan, yeni pachantau, em: pachantah; fem. पचन्ती, पचन्यौ, पचन्यः; neut. पचन , पचन्ती, पचन्ति .
c. But in irregular primitives of the 3d conj., and all verbs from polysyllabic roots, and all other verbs which reject the nasal from the plural of the parasmaipada (see p. 69. note), the nom. sing. masc. is identical with the crude, and ends in at instead of an; and the nasal is, moreover, rejected from the du. and pl.
masc., and from the fem. Thus, bibhrat (from “to bear," 3d conj.), nom. sing. du. pl. masc. bibhrat, bibhratau, bibhratah ; fem. bibhratī, bibhratyau, bibhratyah. So also jāgrat (from am) and shāsat (from me. They also drop the nasal in the dual neut. .
d. It must also be taken as a general rule, that all other irregular primitives of the 2d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th conjugations reject the nasal in the feminine, although they retain it in the masculine. Thus, adat (from ad, 2d conj.), nom. masc. adan, adantau, adantah; fem. adatī, &c.; and rundhat (from rudh, 7th conj.), nom. masc. rundhan, rundhantau, &c., fem. rundhatī, &c. But this rule is not universal, for kurvat (from a, 8th conj.) is kurvantī in the nom. fem.
PRESENT PARTICIPLES. ATMANEPADA.
Formation of the Crude. 124. The crude is formed by substituting amāna for ante, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of regular primitive and passive verbs; and by substituting āna for ate, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of irregular primitives. Causal verbs take either amāna or āna, but more frequently the latter. Thus, from you pachante, tahta pachamūna; from from (sthā, 1st conj.), AHTAT ; from नृत्यन्ते (4th conj.), नृत्यमान; from लिम्पन्ने (lip, 6th conj.), लिम्पमान; from the causal darshayante (p. 126.), either darshayamāna, or, more frequently, darshayāna ; from vedayante, vedayāna ; from the desiderative ditsante, ditsamāna. a. But from gan bruvate (q, 2d conj.)
, garu bruvāna; from E (dhā, 3d conj.), Fra; from chinwate (5th conj.), chinwāna ; from युनते (7th conj.), युनान; from कुछते (sth conj.), कुाण; from पुनते (9th conj.), पुनान.
" to sit” (2d conj.), makes चासीन for आसान.
Declension. 6. These participles are declined like nouns of the first class,
Thus, pachamāna, nom. masc. pachamānah, fem. pachamānā, neut. pachamānam.
The root घास,
Passive Past Participle. - Formation of the Crude. 125. This is the most useful derivative in the language, and is
of constant occurrence. It corresponds to the Latin participle in tus, and, like it, often supplies the place of the past tense. In neuter roots, especially those which imply motion of any kind, it is used actively, and often stands for the perfect tense active; as, farqi fay:, "he entered his hole "; TÁ TA:, "he went to the village." And in all cases this participle may be used to supply the place of the past tenses of the passive verb, the agent being placed in the instrumental case, and the participle agreeing with the object: as, a TG fogt, "by him the bonds were cut." Moreover, it may be used with the auxiliary verbs w and , "to be," to form a compound past or future tense, as the Latin participle is used with the auxiliary sum. Thus, in sf," he has obtained "; At waga, "he will have obtained "; vafo, “I am gone "; anafer, “it is done.” Lastly, it is sometimes used in the neuter gender for a substantive; as, ti, “a gift "; ani, “an excavation.”+
This participle may be regarded as falling under four heads : 1st, as derived from roots; 2dly, as derived from causal bases ; 3dly, as derived from desiderative bases; 4thly, as derived from nominal bases.
1. Derived from Roots. a. In general the crude is formed by adding ta (a) directly to the root; as, from fay kship, “to throw," kshipta, “thrown "; or if the root end in rī, by adding na (a); as, from krī, “to scatter," aniu kārna, “scattered.” Some roots in ā, ī, and ū, some in ai preceded by two consonants, with some of those in d, r, and j, rejecting inserted i, also take na instead of ta.
b. Roots ending in vowels do not admit inserted i in this
* This kind of construction is exceedingly common in Sanscrit, and has been transferred from it to Hindūstani. The particle ne in this latter language corresponds most clearly to the Sanscrit na, which is the usual sign of the instrumental case, and can never occasion any difficulty if it be regarded in this light.
† In a few instances this participle has a present signification ; as, tat, “ fearing,” fern,“ standing."
participle, although they may admit it in the futures* (p. 79. a. 6. c.), but attach ta or na directly to the root: as, from yā, yāta ; from ji, jita ; from nī, nīta ; from shru, shruta ; from bhū, bhūta; from q, qa; from , utu (r. 21.); from li, tīna; from , giu; from lū, lūna.
C. But in certain cases the final vowel of the root is changed ; thus, some roots in ā change ā to i before ta : as, from sthā, sthita ; from mā, mita; from daridrā, daridrita. Dhā,“ to place, becomes hita ; dā,“ to give," datta ;t pā, “ to drink," pīta. Hā, “ to quit,” becomes hî before na (eta). Some roots in ā take both na and ta; as, from 9, nu and yta; from a with the
preposition far, fareru and faamat.
d. Roots in rã change rī to ir before na, which passes into na (c) by r. 21.; as, from Į, “to pass," aid, “passed.”
passed.” But from
e. The root dhe,“ to suck,” becomes dhā before ta ; hwe,“ to call,” hū (en); ve,“ to weave," u (JA).
f. Roots in è ai generally change ai to ā, before na or ta ; as, from mlai, “ to fade,” ta mlāna ; from,“to meditate," 49; from &, “to purify,” ETA; from #,“ to rescue,” aru or a. But from it, “to sing," ta; from a, “to waste," #TA.
g. Roots in to change o to i; as, from 80, sita ; from it, fara.
h. Those roots ending in consonants which take the inserted i (p. 79. d.) generally take this vowel also in the past participle. In such cases ta is affixed, and never na; as, from pat,“ to fall," patita, “fallen "; and if u or ri precede the final consonant of the root, these vowels may take Guna; as, from dyut, dyotita ; from
Grah, lengthens the inserted i (TETA, “taken "). i. Roots ending in consonants which forbid the inserted i must be combined with ta, agreeably to the rules at pp. 67, 68. Whatever form, therefore, the final consonant assumes before the termination tā of the 1st future (p. 80.), the same form will gene
शी, however, makes शयित, and पू may be पवित as well as पूत. † When prepositions are prefixed to datta, the initial da may be rejected; thus, ätta for ādatta,“ taken"; pratta for pradatta, “ bestowed"; vyātta for vyādatta, “expanded"; paritta for paridatta ; sūtta for sudatta, the i and u being lengthened.