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against the proceeding; but many of the liberty party, Hegelians even, were so little pleased with the book of Bruno-Bauer, that they were unwilling to make common cause with him. But a crisis, it is generally allowed, must soon come. And the liberals say that a good case alone is wanting for them to stand forth, and assert for the teachers the right of speaking what they think true, without fear or favor.
As for Heidelberg, it is four weeks to-day since I came into the place. We have taken a suite of rooms, which several Americans have occupied before us, in the house of a family who speak English. I have made the acquaintance of Schlosser to whom Mr. Bancroft gave me a letter, and have met him repeatedly. He is a very obliging old gentleman of somewhat more than sixty years, with a fine countenance and perfectly white hair, and all the fire and enthusiasm of a young man. It was amusing to hear him denounce Tholuck and his party, as devilish and infernal hypocrites, who made the religious dispositions of the people the means of reconciling them to despotism. To Professor Park of Andover, who called on him a little earlier, he used similar language. I shall hear him lecture this winter. He has the largest class of all the professors here, excepting Von Vangerow and Mittermaier. The first lectures on the Pandects to an audience of one hundred and fifty; Mittermaier, on Criminal Law, on Commercial and Maritime Law, &c. to one hundred and twenty; and Schlosser to sixty or seventy on recent History. Von Vangerow, a very young and handsome man, is, since the death of Thibaut and the elevation of Von Savigny to a seat in the Prussian Cabinet, the most celebrated lecturer on Roman Law in Germany.
Professor Schlosser introduced us to old Paulus. Eighty-two years have not blunted the acuteness of his intellect, if they have somewhat impaired his memory. We found him hard at work, pen in hand, and the characters on the paper were firmly drawn. It struck us oddly that the name of Dr. Channing, to whom allusion was mad in the conversation, was new to him. But the ignorance of scholars and of professors respecting America is boundless. A noticeable person here is a young lecturer on philosophy, named Roeth. He lectures this winter on the crisis resulting to the philosophical works from the opposition of the systems of Schelling and Hegel. He may fairly represent that newest German school, which undertakes to receive both the a posteriori element of the English philosophers, and the a priori element of the Germans, giving to each its proper place, and which school, as I learn, is daily gaining ground.
Thus far, I have chanced to find but little admiration for Goethe. The statement that he is read in America, is received
with coldness. But when the fact is mentioned, that the letters of Bettine and Gunderode have admirers beyond the Atlantic, many persons are forward to express their indignation, as if they felt a personal responsibility for whatever came from the German press. Some young people, whom I know, are sufficiently enthusiastic in their regard for Goethe. But for Schiller all profess unbounded reverence and admiration; and Jean Paul is spoken of much in the same way except that the praise is sometimes qualified by criticisms on his style. Of English authors they know little here of Wordsworth, nothing of Carlyle, whilst Bulwer and James are found in every parlor. Of Shakspeare you shall hear not uncommonly passages repeated in conversation; and Byron and Scott are familiar names. Cooper seems to be the only American who is really read here, but they do not know that he is an American.
A beautiful memorial of one Ernst Fries, a landscape painter, who died some ten years ago, has just been completed here. His pictures were few in number, but among them were two or three of great merit. The people of Heidelberg, and the friends he had made in his artist-travels, joined in a subscription, and built a fine road from the castle to a higher summit, on which once stood a Roman fort. It winds round the hill in such a manner as to afford the finest views of the valley and town below, and nearly in the middle an inscription is cut in the living rock. This way is called the Friesenweg.
HEIDELBERG, Nov. 11th.
The death of Gesenius will undoubtedly have been known in America a fortnight before this arrives. It took place Sunday, Oct. 23d; the disease was cancer of the stomach. His great Lexicon or Thesaurus of the Hebrew Language wants still a part for its completion. Five of the six have been already published. It is hoped that Professor Rödiger will supply the remainder. The appointment of his successor is watched with jealous eyes; and the K of Prussia must expect a new flood of abuse, if he takes a pietist or a Schellingian. Gesenius was the Professor who made Halle so attractive to theological students; his Auditoriums were of from three to four hundred. Clemens Brentano, the brother of Bettine, and the publisher, in conjunction with Von Arnim, of the Child's Wonder Horn, also has quite recently died.
I spoke in my last of the new edition of Hegel as now publishing; it is complete. Marheineke, Schulze, Gens, Von Ĥenning, Hotho, Michelet, and Förster, were the editors. It fills 18 volumes, 8vo., and was published 1832-41. It is made up as follows: Vol. I., Philosophical Discussions. II., Phenomenology of Spirit. III., IV., V., Logic. VI., VII., Encyclopædia. VIII., Philosophy of Law. IX., Philosophy of History. X.,
VOL. III. NO. III.
Esthetics. XI., XII., Philosophy of Religion. XIII., XIV., XV., History of Philosophy. XVI., XVII., Miscellanies. XVIII., Philosophical Propedeutics. The 12th and last volume of a complete and uniform edition of Kant's works has just been published at Leipzig. The first complete and uniform edition of Zuinglius's writings has lately made its appearance in Zurich. Six new volumes have between 1837 and 1842 been added to the 12 vol. ed. of Schiller's Works. They contain a Life which has the sanction of the family of Schiller, and selections from his MSS. Two new volumes of correspondence have been added to the common edition of Johann Von Müller's Works. new, complete, and cheap edition of Von Chamisso's writings is just published. Varnhagen Von Ense has published the second volume of the new series of his Denkwurdigkeiten. Hammer-Purgstall, (Von Hammer,) has commenced the publication of a work on the Mongolians in Persia; which is a page of the history of the 13th and 14th centuries which is worth some study, it seems. The first volume has already appeared; a second will probably complete the work. Wachsmuth has published a brief history of the French Revolution, in the Library of Modern History projected by Heeren and Ukert. Neander has published a new edition of his Church History, and dedicated it to Schelling. Ranke's History of Germany during the time of the Reformation is in the course of publication, but not yet completed. Von Raumer has just published the volume of his Historical Taschenbuch, or Annual, for 1843. A complete and uniform edition of Creuzer's publications is in progress. Gervinus has completed his History of the Poetic National Literature of the Germans in five volumes, 8vo., and also published a Handbuch on the same in one volume. I met him at Schlosser's table. His history is worth telling. A few years ago, for he is still a young man, he was a grocer's apprentice in Darmstadt. Since then he has raised himself to a Professorship at Göttingen, which he left, rather than submit to the requirements of the present King of Hanover. In his retirement here in Heidelberg, he has written this book, which has already given him a fame throughout Germany. It is considered the best specimen of literary history which Germany has yet produced. Hoffmann of Fallersleben, the Breslau Professor, sometimes styled the Beranger of Germany, who published a year ago some volumes of original poetry, entitled "Political Poems" and "Poems not Political," is extremely popular at present for having incurred the displeasure of the Prussian government by the first of these. Last summer he was forbidden to lecture by the government; and this autumn the savans, who had a great meeting at Stras
bourg, made him one of their vice presidents, to show him that they liked him the better, rather than the worse, for what he had done.
The following books are promised. A complete edition of Mendelsohn's writings. A work on Mythology by Wolfgang Menzel. The first number appears on the first of January. A new and improved edition of Grimm's German Mythology. A new History of Ancient Philosophy, by Dr. Roeth, the learned and promising privat-docent I mentioned in my last. It is to be in four volumes; the two first come out at Easter. Umbreit, who has just published his second and last volume on the Prophecies of Isaiah, announces a Commentary on Jeremiah.
The savans of Germany held a great meeting at Strasbourg during the last week in September. Mainz was the scene of a meeting of the scientific men during the third week of the same month. And the philologists met at Ulm, in the last days of September and beginning of October.
The King of Bavaria has just opened the Valhalla with much pomp and circumstance. This is designed as a sort of Temple of Fame for Germany. It is to contain the busts of all the Teutonic race who have distinguished, or may distinguish, themselves in arms or in arts. Arminius and Blucher, Nibelung Bards and Minnesingers, Schiller and Goethe, poets, heroes, kings, statesmen, artists, musicians, composers, historians, and sages, are all admitted on a common footing. If no genuine bust can be obtained, a fancy piece is substituted. Even if the name of the author of any great work in literature or art is unknown, this does not invalidate his claim to admission. Thus, the architect of the Cologne cathedral lives here in a fancied effigy, though even his name has died out from the records and memory of men. In the Hall of Expectation, a sort of Antechamber, are placed the busts of the living spiritual nobility of Germany, as it were on probation. This Valhalla is the realization of a youthful dream of the present King of Bavaria, a monarch who unites in his character a French love of spectacles, with a real admiration of art, and love of artists. The building stands nearly in the centre of Germany, on an eminence three hundred feet above the Danube. Donaustauf, near Ratisbon, is the town nearest to it. It is a Doric temple, of white limestone, of the proportions of the Parthenon. Leo Von Kleuze was the architect. Schwanthaler has furnished alto relievos for the pediments. One of them represents the victory of the Cheruscii over the Romans; the other the efforts of the Germans against
the French in the War of Liberation. The same distinguished artist has completed a colossal statue of Germania, and symbolical figures of the principal German States.
There are three questions on which all Germany seems to be alive. 1st, The question between Catholicism and Protestantism, in which the Cologne intermarriage troubles form no slight feature. Görres and Neander take part in this discussion. 2d, The question between Schelling and Hegel, in which Schelling himself and Marheineke are the chief figurantes. 3d, The liberty of teaching. The publications on this subject hinge generally on the removal of Bruno-Bauer from his privat-docentship at Bonn. On these subjects pamphlets and newspaper articles are of frequent appearance. Caricatures, rivalling in stupidity and indecency anything of American growth, are fast becoming the order of the day. And, what is the strangest of all, engravings without letter-press have lately, in Prussia, been made free from censorship. As for the second question; suppose Hegelism triumphant, then Marheineke must fight out a battle with Strauss. Strauss, too, is now backed by many who will soon find him too conservative. For he, I believe, wishes to build up a Christian faith and practice on his Dogmatics. But Feuerbach will probably resist such a procedure as rigorously as he now resists Schelling or Marheineke. Strauss is now backed by Ruge, the editor of the Deutsche Jahr Bucher, Feuerbach, and BrunoBauer. Beside these, Mosen, Gutzkow, and Laube, support him by their writings for the stage; and Hoffman, Pratz, Dingelstadt, and Herwigh, by their verses. He himself is living at Heilbronn, in Wurtemburg, which city stands on the Neckar, a few hours ride above Heidelberg. Common report says that he has just married an opera-singer.
HEIDELBERG, Nov. 22.
American books and affairs are noticed more and more in the German journals; such matters, for instance, as Longfellow's recent visit to Europe, with a sketch of his life, and complimentary notice of his writings; Dr. Channing'e death; Morton's Crania Americana; Bancroft's third volume, &c. Dr. Robinson, Prescott, and Sparks, are duly appreciated; one finds the names of Judge Story, Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Wheaton, the Everetts, and Ticknor, in all the Conversations Lexicons; and in Wolff and Schutz's "British Museum," a fair proportion of American authors; among others, Allston, Braynard, Brooks, Bryant, Clark, Miss Davidson, Doane, Frisbie, Gould, Irving, Halleck, Percival, Peabody, Pierpont, Sedgwick, Sigourney, Willis, Woodworth, Flint, and Bird. Irving's Sketch Book is reprinted here with German notes, to be used in schools where