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only in a man, to whom he has made himself the imperative object, does he approach men, in all points, in such degree as to make them divine. He is no less free (sovereign) in coming to each man in Christ, than, in the first instance, in making Jesus of Nazareth the Christ. Men are only free inasmuch as they are open to this majestic access, and are able to pray with St. Augustine, "What art thou to me, oh Lord? Have mercy on me that I may ask. The House of my soul is too strait for thee to come into; but let it, oh Lord, be enlarged by thee. It is ruinous, but let it be repaired by thee," &c.
The Unitarian Church, as Mr. Brownson thinks, indicates truth, in so far as it insists on the life of Jesus as being that wherein we find grace; but in so far as it does not perceive that this life is something more than a series of good actions, which others may reproduce, it leans on an arm of flesh, and puts an idol in the place of Christ. The Trinitarian Church, he thinks, therefore, has come nearer the truth, by its formulas of doctrine; and especially the Roman Catholic Church, by the Eucharist. The error of both Churches has been to predicate of the being, Jesus, what is only true of his life. The being, Jesus, was a man; his life is God. It is the doctrine of John the Evangelist throughout, that the soul lives by the real presence of Jesus Christ, as literally as the body lives by bread. The unchristianized live only partially, by so much of the word as shines in the darkness which may not hinder it quite. This partial life repeats in all time the prophecies of antiquity, and is another witness to Jesus Christ, "the same yesterday, to-day, and forever."
Mr. Brownson thinks that he has thus discovered a formula of "the faith once delivered to the saints," which goes behind and annihilates the controversy between Unitarians and Trinitarians, and may lead them both to a deeper comprehension and clearer expression of the secret of life.
Lectures on Modern History, from the Irruption of the Northern Nations to the close of the American Revolution. By Wм. SMYTH, Professor of Modern History in the University of Cambridge.
THIS work is not exactly what it professes to be. It is rather a series of lectures on the method in which modern history is to be studied. It directs the student to the most important subjects in the modern history of Europe and America, and points out to him the sources in the English and French languages, where he is to seek information. It is, in short, a guidebook of modern history, and as such of great value. Mr. Smyth
gives a running commentary on the works also to which he refers. His criticisms are always valuable. He is above the general cant of criticism, which judges a man and his work by the hair balance of the critic's own coterie.
The judgment he passes on the three great English writers, Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson, appears just and impartial. His estimate of Gibbon is manly and just, and well worthy the attention of the student of history. Vol. I. p. 82, sqq. Vol. II. p. 421, et al. It is a word in season to caution youth against the dangerous influence of that dazzling genius. Mr. Smyth refers to the most celebrated sources; appears familiar with most of the French and English writers; but never mentions the German laborers in the historical field. The omission of their rich and beautiful works in this department we regard as the most serious defect of the "Lectures."
The sentiments and opinions of the author must commend him, we think, to every friend of man. It is seldom we have risen from a book with so high a sense of moral approbation of its author. He is always on the side of Justice, Freedom, and Truth. The unobtrusive spirit of Religion gives a charm to his pages. Among the portions of the work which have struck us as most ably treated, are the Laws of the Barbarians, Lecture II; The Dark Ages, Lect. IV; Charles the First, and the Events that followed his Time, Lect. XV-XVII; The Revolution, Lect. XX; Prussia and Maria Theresa, Lect. XXIX; and the American War, Lect. XXXI – XXXVI.
We will only add, that the work is furnished with a list of books on European History, and another, by Mr. Sparks, on American History. A brief chronological table is conveniently put at the end of Vol. II.
In the present Number we have already drawn largely from sources opened to us by our new correspondents in England, to whom also the article on Cromwell is to be credited, yet have not found room for all the papers sent us from London. Especially we acknowledge the kindness which has sent us a fair manuscript copy of the old English Translation of four out of the seventeen books of Hermes Trismegistus. We design to make use of this document as part of our series of uncanonical scriptures, although the due chapter of that series is also omitted in this Number. We are indebted to two other English correspondents; to one for an article on Hennell, which we have at last decided not to print, and shall return to the author; to another for a curious volume entitled "The Natural Origin and Progress of Theology," with whose contents we are not yet sufficiently acquainted to enable us to express at present more than our thanks.
From London we learn that John A. Heraud, Esq. contemplates a visit to Massachusetts, and proposes to deliver in Boston a course of six Lectures" on Christism as distinct from Christianity."
Lecture I. A difference recognised and justified by accepted Orthodox Writers, between the Religion of the New Testament and the Religion of the Church. As great a difference between Sect and Sect, and all and each of the sects and the New Testament. Practical and speculative differences between the lives of Christians and the life of Jesus the Christ. Substitution of the doctrines of the Scholars for those of the Master. The former first called Christians at Antiochhence Christianity-which, as the word implies, is the Doctrine of Christians, not of the Christ. Another name wanted for the Truth as taught by the Master himself. The name of Christism proposed.
Lecture II. - What is Christism?
Lecture III. What is Christianity?
Lecture IV.-The Evils which have attended Christianity not chargeable on Christism. Infidel objections not applicable to Christism.
Lecture V.-Origin, Influence, and End of Infidelity. Downfall of Christianity.
Lecture VI.-Final Triumph of Christism. The Kingdom of Heaven upon Earth.
Those who are interested in education will learn with satisfaction, that Mr. Henry G. Wright, the Principal of the Alcott-House School, with his friend Mr. Lane, will soon visit Boston, and perhaps establish a school in this country on the spiritual principles of which they are the earnest and enlightened advocates.
We copy from M. Vericour's book on Modern French Literature the following account of the French Journals.
"It has hitherto been found impracticable to maintain a French Review on the plan of the best English Reviews, for which we cannot well account. It may be that the impossibility arises from the public mind in France being too versatile and transient, and from parties and opinions undergoing such rapid and frequent changes and modifications. We are justified in affirming that the only Reviews, which possess the recommendation of long standing and general popularity, are the Revue des Deux Mondes and the Revue de Paris, and they are published more in the form of the English Magazines than of the great Reviews. And yet scarcely a year passes but painful efforts to establish new critical periodicals are witnessed, which invariably prove abortive; the puny productions perish for lack of sustenance, after the most ephemeral of existences. One exception, however, must be noted in favor of the Revue de Progrès, which is edited with powerful energy by M. Louis Blanc. It has drawn the attention of the French public, by the strong democratic principles it upholds, the bold tenets it has avowed in the face of the world, and the host of superior men who cooperate in its publication. The Revue de Paris is a weekly journal, containing critical notices, light tales, and worldly chit chat, always elegant and sprightly in tone and matter, and especially calculated to beguile the leisure hours of the boudoir. The Revue de Deux Mondes frequently gives masterpieces of criticism; such are the articles of De Carné, Saint-Beuve, Mignet, Marmier, Lerminier, Chasles, Charles Mag
nin, and others. * With respect to Reviews, we have specified the only two that have had any standing and permanency of merit. As to the monthly review called Journal des Savants, it would be a gross error to rank it among the ordinary periodicals of any country. It is in fact a review of the highest order, but at once private and national; it only notices works of the first merit and utility; it is printed by the royal press, and the committee of authors, who prepare its articles, is composed of sixteen members belonging to the various sections of the Royal Institute. It is in the Journal des Savants that the admirable classical dissertations of Letronne and Burnouf, the valuable scientific investigations of Biot and Libri, the philosophical analyses of Cousin and Villemain, are found."
Berlin. We alluded in our last Number to the installation of Schelling, as Lecturer on Philosophy at Berlin. The seventh volume of Hegel's Works, containing the second part of the Encyclopädie now in the course of publication, we have since received. The editor Michelet speaks thus in the preface respecting Schelling, his author's successor in the professional chair.
"That the appearance of this work should happen to be cotemporaneous with the arrival of Schelling in Berlin, is one of those turns of fate in which history is rich. Here let the author of the Natur Philosophie behold the completion of the edifice, of which he could only lay the foundation. Here let him salute the Genius of the friend who came after him in a work, from which he himself, as the father of this science, among all the living derives the greatest honor. But if he supposes it to be his mission to 'conduct philosophy out of the undeniably difficult position in which it now finds elf,' and to save it from miserable shipwreck and the destruction of all great convictions,' in order to actually lead it through into the promised land of philosophy; he must not expect that he can resume the sceptre of philosophy long since wrested from his grasp, without a scientific refutation of these genuine children of his own philosophizing. The leaf in the history of philosophy,' which he left half written forty years ago, has long since been turned over by his successor and filled up. The results have been deduced and acknowledged by life. The history of philosophy has not been silent, because Schelling held his peace. Philosophy has not wanted a 'free, unembarrassed, on all sides unfettered movement,' because Schelling, on account of his inward nature,' feels himself hampered and uncomfortable in the scientific strictness of a dialectically progressive method. If he does but repeat again in this Metropolis of German philosophy, where its fortunes are to be decided,' the promises of forty years if the whole world is still to misunderstand himif his first philosophy has yielded only the unthinkable' (das nicht zu denkende) while his second fetches all that is positive in it from a region without the rational; then, notwithstanding his most explicit assurances to the contrary, he has sacrificed the genuine freedom of scientific reasoning, and will founder against the shadow of the giant, whom he thought to overpass.
"At all events we await him here on the battle ground, where the hero-forms of modern German philosophy still go about; and so far from being troublesome' to us, - - so far from our not being able to 'dispose of him,' we may see cause to ascribe his relapse into a philosophy of Revelation to the impossibility of remaining still on the dizzy height of the youthful stand-point of his intellectual intuition."
JAMES PIERREPONT GREAVES.
(Continued from the last Dial, page 255.)
VIGOR, rather than elegance, must necessarily be a principal characteristic in the intelligent manifestations from a truly deepened soul. By such a being all antique lore and modern science are contemplated, from a position the very opposite of that whence they are viewed by the literary student. The course of the latter is to be introduced to the recorded wisdom, or rather to the record of the sayings of the wise, and step by step he comes into these as acquirements or possessions, which, like money for the commercial man, are made the end of his pursuits. The former, the true student, on the contrary, expands from within, reaches from a central point into all circumferential points; fills out old expressions with new life; and animates scientific axioms from a depth and purpose, of which even their enunciators were mostly unconscious. Accordingly we find that whether in conversation, in correspondence, or in books, the untiring spirit in Mr. Greaves constantly descended in livingness, in warmth, in energy, into every various form or terminology presented to it. Whatever may have been the terms offered, the interpreting power laid hold of them and turned them inwards, giving to every expression a newer and larger value. As far as any theory or plan may be attributed to him, as a preconception in his own mind, it appears to have been constantly to throw the speaker, or writer, or reader from the exterior to an interior or antecedent position, from doing and knowing, to BEING. Whenever the sentence or sentiment had a relation to either of the former, he would invert or introvert it to the latter, as 36
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