Elements of chemistry: theoretical and practical, Part 1

Portada
Parker, Son, and Bourn, 1863
 

Què opinen els usuaris - Escriviu una ressenya

No hem trobat cap ressenya als llocs habituals.

Continguts

Law of Equivalent Proportions
16
Tables of Equivalent Numbers
17
TABLE OF CONTEXTS no
19
Combining ProportionsEquivalentsAtoms
21
Application of the Law of Equivalent Proportions
25
Law of Volumes
27
Symbolic Notation
30
CHAPTER II
31
English System of Weights and Measures
32
The Balance
33
Specific Gravity
34
Specific Gravity of Liquids 3o 22 Specific Gravity of Solids
35
The Hydrometer
38
Correction for Weighings taken in Air
39
PABAGBAPH PAGE On some Varieties of Molecular Force 40136
40
Elasticity of Solids and Liquids
41
Repulsion among the particles of Gases
43
The AirPump
44
AirPump with a Single Barrel
45
The Condensing Syringe
46
Weight of the Air
47
The Household Pump
48
The Barometer and Pressure Gauge
49
The Syphon
51
Downward Pressure of the Atmosphere
52
The Pneumatic Trough
53
The Gas Holder
54
The Mercurial Trough
55
Density of the Atmosphere at different heights
57
Cohesion 5963
59
Reunion of Divided Surfaces
60
Cohesion of Liquids
61
Influence of Heat on Cohesion
63
Cements
65
Capillary Action
66
Variation in degree of Capillary Action of Liquids
67
Capillary Depression of Mercury
68
Extensive Operation of Capillary Actions
69
Influence of Surface on Adhesion
70
Solution
72
Adhesion between Liquids 1
74
Cohesion Figures
75
PARAGRAPH PAGE 58 Diffusion of LiquidsMode of measuring it
77
Laws of the Diffusion of Liquids
78
Endosmosis and Exosmosis
82
The OsmometerConditions of Osmose
83
DialysisCrystalloidsColloids
87
Flow of Liquids through Capillary Tubes
88
Adhesion of Gases to LiquidsSolubility of Gases
92
Adhesion of Gases to Solids
94
Desiccation of Gases
96
Diffusion of Gases
97
Effusion of Gases
101
Transpiration of Gases
102
Passage of Gases through Diaphragms
105
Separation of Bodies by Cold or Heat
107
Crystallization 108136
108
Modes of obtaining Crystals
109
Separation of Salts by the process of Crystallization
110
Sudden CrystallizationNuclei m
111
Circumstances which modify Crystalline Form
112
Change of Bulk in the act of Solidification
114
Development of Crystalline Form in Solids
115
Structure of CrystalsCleavage
116
Goniometers
117
The Reflecting Goniometer
118
Symmetry of Crystalline Form
120
Classification of Crystals
122
Isomorphism
128
Chemical bearings of Isomorphism
130
Isomorphous Groups
131
Dimorphism
132
Allotropy
134
CHAPTER IV
137
Theories of LightUndulations
140
Illustration of Undulations from Sound
141
Varieties of SoundQualityPitch
142
Mechanism of Undulation
144
Transparency and Opacity
145
Law of the Diminution of Light by Distance
146
Reflection from Plane Surfaces
147
Reflection from Curved Surfaces
149
Law of the Sines
151
Refraction at Inclined Surfaces
152
Total Reflection
153
Wollastons Method of ascertaining Refractive Power
154
Prismatic Analysis of Light
156
Theory of ColoursAbsorption
157
a Dispersive Power
159
Fixed Lines in the SpectrumFraunhofers Lines 16r 07 Spectrum AnalysisSpectroscope
168
Projection of Spectral Lines on Screen
174
KirchhofTs Theory of Fraunhofers Lines
175
Change in the Refrangibility of LightFluorescence
178
Complex Nature of Radiant Force
181
Phosphorogenic RaysPhosphoroscope
183
Velocity of LightIts Measurement
185
Frequency of Undulation in Different Colours
186
Interference
187
Colours of thin Plates
190
Double Refraction
192
Influence of Crystalline Form on Double Refraction
193
Polarization of Light by Double Refraction
194
Polarization by Reflection
195
Distinction between Common and Polarized Light
197
Polarization by a Bundle of Plates
199
Colours in Plates cut perpendicular to the Axis
200
Coloured Circular Polarization
202
Magnetic Polarization
205
Sources of HeatMechanical Equivalent of Heat
206
Nature of HeatMechanical Theory of Heat
210
ExpansionMeasurement of Tempera ture 212236
212
Expansion of Solids
213
Expansion of Liquids
214
PARAGRAPH PAGE 134 Expansion of Gases
217
Principle on which the Thermometer is Graduated
219
Tests of a good Thermometer
220
Different Forms of Thermometer
221
Increase in the Ratio ot Dilatation with Rise of Temperature
222
PyrometersDaniells Pyrometer
223
Comparative Range of Temperature
225
Force exerted by Expansion
226
Anomalous Expansion of Water
227
Correction of Gases for Temperature
228
Process of taking Specific Gravity of Gases
229
Determination of the Specific Gravity of Vapours
232
On the Equilibrium of Temperature 236263
236
Inequality in the Rate of Conduction in different Directions
240
Convection of Heat
241
Ventilation
243
Trade WindsLand and Seabreezes
245
Gulf Stream
246
Radiation of Heat
247
Absorption of Heat
248
Connexion between Absorption and Radiation
249
Formation of Dew
250
Law of Cooling by Radiation
252
Relative Absorbability of different kinds of Heat
253
Transmission of Heat through ScreensDiathermacy
254
Diathermacy of Gases and Vapours
257
Influence of Structure on Diathermacy
259
Refraction of Heat
262
PARAGRAPH PAOK 174 Disappearance of Heat during LiquefactionLatent Heat
278
Freezing Mixtures
280
Regelation of Ice
285
Evolution of Heat during Solidification
287
Disappearance of Heat during the Formation of Vapour
288
Ebullition
289
Influence of Adhesion on the Boiling Point
291
Influence of Solids in Solution upon the Boiling Point
292
Influence of Pressure on the Boiling Point
294
High Pressure Steam
295
Production of Cold during Evaporation
297
Measurement of the Latent Heat of Vapours
299
Economical Applications of Steam
301
Distillation
305
Evaporation
310
Daltons Law of the Tension of Vapours
311
Limit of Evaporation
313
Circumstances which influence the Rate of Evaporation
314
Dew Point
318
Daniells Hygrometer
319
Wet Bulb Hygrometer
320
Liquefaction and Solidification of Gases
322
Pressure Exerted by Condensed Gases
326
Spheroidal State produced by Heat
332
Atomic Eelations of Heat Evolved in Chemical Combination 334355
334
Early Experiments
336
Researches of Favre and Silbermann
339
Quantities of Heat Evolved during Combustion
340
Influence of Dimorphism
342
Heat evolved during Decomposition
343
Indirect Methods of Estimating Calorific Equivalents
344
Mercurial Calorimeter
346
Heat Evolved during Metallic Precipitation
348
Calorific Equivalents of Elements
350
Heat Evolved during the Action of Acids on Bases
351
Heat Absorbed during Solution of Salts
354
TABLE OF CONTENTS Xlll CHAPTER VI
355
Magnetism 356366
356
Magnetic Induction
357
Preparation of Magnets
359
Influence of Molecular Actions on Magnetism
361
Measurement of the Magnetic Intensity of a Bar
362
Declination or Variation
363
Variation in the Intensity of the Earths Magnetism
364
Static Electricity 366413
366
Two Kinds of Electricity
367
Insulators and Conductors
368
ElectroscopesCoulombsPeltiers Electrometer
369
Electrical Hypotheses
372
Electrical Induction
374
Faradays Theory of Induction
376
Distribution of the Electric Charge
377
Electrical Machines
380
Further Illustrations of Induction
382
The Electrophorus
383
Spread of Induction
384
The Leyden Jar
386
Measures of Electricity
390
Specific Induction
393
Various Modes of Discharge
394
Development of Heat
396
Disruptive Discharge
398
Velocity of Discharge
399
Striking Distance
401
Convection
404
Other Sources of ElectricityHeatFracture
405
Electricity from Chemical Action
407
Atmospheric ElectricityLightning Rods
409
Aurora Borealis
412
Galvanis Discovery
413
Simple Voltaic Circuits
414
Activity of the Conducting Wire
415
Action of the Conducting Wire on a Magnetic Needle
416
The Galvanometer
417
Summary of the Effects produced by the Conducting Wire
419
the Crown of Cups
421
Electric Disturbance produced by Contact
422
Necessity of Chemical Action to produce Voltaic Action
423
Polarization and Transfer of the Elements of the Liquid
424
Energy of the Current proportionate to the Chemical Activity
427
Protection of ShipsSheathing
432
Circuits with One Metal and Two Liquids
433
General Summary
436
Daniell8 Battery
439
Groves Nitric Acid BatteryBunsens Coke Battery
441
Smees Battery
443
Resistances to the Voltaic Current
444
Differences between a Simple and a Compound Circuit
446
Ohms Formula?
449
Chemical Decomposition
451
The Voltameter
453
Further Application of Ohms Formulae
454
Wheatstones Rheostat and Resistance Coils
456
Processes of Voltaic Discharge
459
ConductionConducting Power of Solids
461
Heating Effects in Wires
465
Conduction by Liquids
467
Conducting Power of Gases
469
Chemical Actions
475
Relative Decomposability of Electrolytes
479
Electrochemical Actions
480
Electrolysis of Salts
481
Bearing of Electrolysis on the Theory of Salts
483
Unequal transfer of Ions duriug Electrolysis
488
Electrovection or Electrical Endosmose
489
Secondary results of Electrolysis
492
Nascent state of Bodies
495
Theory of the Electrical Origin of Chemical A ttraction
497
PABAURATH PAGE 292 Electrotype or Voltatype Processes
500
Preparation of Moulds for Electrotyping
502
Electrozincing c
503
Electroplating
504
Electrogilding g06 297 Resemblances between Static and Voltaic Electricity
507
Delucs Dry PileZambonis Pile
508
Water Battery
510
ElectroMagnetism 512529
512
Influence of a Conducting Wire in exciting Magnetism
513
Formation of ElectroMagnets
514
Molecular Movements during the Magnetization of Bars
516
Amperes Theory of ElectroMagnetism
518
Mutual Influence of Wires which are conveying Currents
519
ElectroMagnetic Potations
521
Electric Telegraph
523
MagnetoElectricity 530547
530
MagnetoElectric Induction
531
BuhmkorfFs MagnetoElectric Induction CoilStratified Elec tric Discharge
532
Henrys Coils
539
Aragos Potations
542
MagnetoElectric Machines
544
ThermoElectricity 547553
547
ThermoMultiplier
551
Reduction of Temperature by the Electric Current
552
Animal Electricity 553556
553
Electrical Phenomena of the Gymnotus
554
The Muscular Current in Living Animals
555
Diamagnetism 556572
556
PARAGRAPH PAGE
558
Influence of Chemical Composition upon the Magnetic or Dia
564
Index
573
Heat Evolved during Solution of Gases 355
582

Altres edicions - Mostra-ho tot

Frases i termes més freqüents

Passatges populars

Pàgina 329 - On partially liquefying carbonic acid by pressure alone, and gradually raising at the same time the temperature to 88° Fahr., the surface of demarcation between the liquid and gas became fainter, lost its curvature, and at last disappeared. The space was then occupied by a homogeneous fluid, which exhibited, when the pressure was suddenly diminished or the temperature slightly lowered, a peculiar appearance of moving or flickering striae throughout its entire mass. At temperatures above 88° no...
Pàgina 587 - AKHB A Scotch Communion Sunday, to which are added Certain Discourses from a University City. By the Author of " The Recreations of a Country Parson.
Pàgina 211 - Temperature may be conceived to depend upon the velocities of the vibrations; increase of capacity on the motion being performed in greater space ; and the diminution of temperature during the conversion of solids into fluids or gases, may be explained on the idea of the loss of vibratory motion, in consequence of the revolution of particles round their axes, at the moment when the body becomes fluid or aeriform, or from the loss of rapidity of vibration in consequence of the motion of the particles...
Pàgina 585 - With Additions by Professors AGASSIZ, PIERCE, and GRAY; 12 Maps and Engravings on Steel, some Coloured, and copious Index.
Pàgina 588 - War. Third Edition, Enlarged. Fcap. 8vo, 4?. Plutarch ; his Life, his Lives, and his Morals. Second Edition, Enlarged. Fcap. 8vo, 3*. 6d. Remains of the late Mrs. Richard Trench. Being Selections from her Journals, Letters, and other Papers. New and Cheaper Issue. With Portrait. 8vo, 6s.
Pàgina 211 - It seems possible to account for all the phenomena of heat, if it be supposed that in solids the particles are in a constant state of vibratory motion, the particles of the hottest bodies moving with the greatest velocity...
Pàgina 591 - for the SUNDAYS and HOLIDAYS throughout the Year. By J. 8. B. MONSELL, LL.D. Vicar of Egham and Rural Dean. Sixth Thousand. Fcp. 4s. 6d. The Beatitudes : Abasement before God ; Sorrow for Sin ; Meekness of Spirit; Desire for Holiness; Gentleness; Purity of Heart; the Peacemakers ; Sufferings for Christ. By the same. Third Edition. Fcp. 3s. 6d.
Pàgina 586 - Varronianus. A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Ethnography of Ancient Italy, and to the Philological Study of the Latin Language. By the late JW DONALDSON, DD Third Edition, revised and considerably enlarged. 8vo. 16*.
Pàgina 206 - ... passing from the solid to the liquid, and from the liquid to the gaseous form, or the contrary, occasioning endless vicissitudes of temperature over the globe.
Pàgina 585 - Reprinted from Williams's Holy City. With Illustrations. 9s. Plan of Jerusalem, from the Ordnance Survey. With a Memoir. Reprinted from Wuliams's Holy City.

Informació bibliogràfica