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application of the principles of Respiration, Inflexion, &c. Next, the principles of Modulation, and the notations of Force, Time, and Expression, should be made familiar, and the marked illustrations read with as much accuracy as possible. After this, there cannot be too much practice in Expressive Reading from the works of our poets and prose-writers, or from books of well-selected extracts. The custom of marking the leading expressions on the principles of notation given, will be found most useful in accustoming the mind, not only to reard the words—the outward form of language—but to discern the thoughts and feelings which they embody—the spirit and essence of language.

To Stammerers, the Observations and Exercises on the Articulations, (Dictionary of English Sounds, Section second,) will be found of much practical value; though the Author does not assert that they contain his complete system for the eradication of this distressing affection. No two cases of Stammering are precisely alike, and each case requires some peculiar modification in the plan of treatment.

To have fully detailed his own modus operandi, in removing Vocal Impediments, would have been foreign to the proper objects of this work, as well as professionally impolitic : the Author has, however, unreservedly communicated the principles on which the Cure of Stammering must in all cases be conducted.

Early attention to impediments and defects of speech would, in almost every case, be successful in checking their formation, if Parents, Governesses, Tutors, and Teachers, were competent to direct the articulation aright. The necessary knowledge of the Principles of Speech, with many assistant exercises adapted for the youngest pupils, the following pages supply. A little pains taken to direct the first articulative efforts of children, would secure to them distinctness and fluency of utterance, and would render almost unknown that “ cruel malady" STAMMERING, which

“ Not only preys convulsive on the frame,

In its harsh struggle for conceived sound-
But agitates the nerves, infects the brain,

And spreads, like guilt, a terror o'er the mind." This work has had the advantage of a critical perusal, in proof, from the Author's Father, Mr Alexander Bell, Professor of Elocution, London, and from his Brother, Mr D. C. Bell, Professor of Elocution, Dublin ; to both of whom it is indebted for many judicious emendations and suggestions. The Book will, it is hoped, be found as free from errors as could be expected in a work of such various and often difficult typography.

EDINBURGH, 10th November, 1849.

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197

200

205
208

..

211

D, Observations and Exercises, (including Directions for the

removal of Defects and Impediments of Articulation,) page 176

N o

" " " " "

178

Sh, " " " " o

183

Zh, oo oo oo oo

186

oo oo oo o

187

K, " " " " "

or

188

G, 1616 roo

Ng,

16 o co , o co s

194

ARTICULATIVE EXERCISES.

Passages containing Double Articulations, - - . 196

• Difficult Combinations, ..

Alliterations and Difficult Sequences,

197

66

Miscellaneous Difficulties, - -

PART THIRD.

The POWERS OF THE LETTERS, .

203

Illustrations of the fluctuating value of English letters, - 204

Table of the Sounds of the Vowel Marks, -

" “ Silent Vowel Marks, - - - -

« « the Marks of the Vowel Sounds,

208

“ “ the Sounds of the Articulation Marks, .

209

66 « Silent Articulation Marks, - -

o “ the Marks of the Articulations, - - -

211

NOTATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF SPEECH,

212

Phonotypes and Phonographs, - ..

213

Review of Mr Pitman's Phonographic Alphabet as a means of

accurate notation, .

214

PRINCIPLES OF A New PHONOGRAPHIC SCHEME,

. 217

Alphabet of Articulation Marks,

Articulate Combinations,

219

Alphabet of Vowel Marks, . . . . . 220

Stenographic principle of Verbal Arrangement, -

221

Examples of Full, and of Steno-phonographic Notation, 221

PART FOURTH.

ACCENT, - - -

222

Accentual Change on Words of the same Orthography,

223

Examples of Secondarily Accented Words, - -

224

TABLE OF ACCENTS, - - - - - - 227

Emphatic Accentuation, - - - - - 228

RHYTHM, - - .

229

1st Stage of Rhythmical Grouping, with Examples,

231

232

3d "

234

4th "

« - - - 236

5th "

6 . -

238

6th "

239

7th

66 .

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PART FIFTH.

INFLEXION, - - - - -

257

Over-estimate of by Modern Elocutionary Writers,

259

Mechanism of the Simple Inflexions, .

261

Notation 16 66

262

Illustrations of the Mechanism of the Inflexions as applied to

Words of various Accentual Construction, · · 264

Extent of the Inflexions, - - -

Compound Inflexions, Circumflexes or Waves, -

269

APPLICATION OF THE INFLEXIONS, - - - - - 271

REVIEW OF SENTENTIAL RULES OF ELOCUTIONISTS,

272

First Part of a Compact Sentence, . - -

273

The Penultimate Member, - - -

274

Negative Sentences, . -

275

Concessive Sentences, - -

276

The First Part of an Antithesis, ..

Questions commencing with a Verb, - -

276

Repetition or Echo, - - -

277

Loose Sentences, . -

Questions asked by Pronouns or Adverbs,

278

Final Pause or Period, - .

280

Parenthesis, - - - - -

281

Elliptical Member, -

Verb Questions of Two Parts connected by or, .

282

Series, . . . . . . 282

Numeral Inflexions, . - - - - 283

EXERCISES FOR THE ACQUIREMENT OP Vocal Flexibility, - 255

MODULATION, - - - - - - - 287

Modulative Notation, - . . . - 288

Modulative and Emphatic Parsing, - - - - 289

Modulation and Inflexion of Principal and Subordinate Clauses, 290

MARKED ILLUSTRATIONS.

Hamlet's Soliloquy on Death,

291

The Power of Habit, - - - - - 292

Close of a Good Life, .

292

Miscellaneous Short Passages, - - - - 293

Force, TIME, AND EXPRESSION,

296

Notation of their leading varieties, - - -

296

RECAPITULATIVE TABLE of the Marks Employed in the Notation of

Inflexion, Modulation, Force, Time, and Expression, - 299

ILLUSTRATIVE PASSAGES MARKED FOR PRACTICE, ..

300_311

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