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429 Review.- Waddington's Travels in Ethiopia. (May, about; they collected in numbers to look distance is about sixteen miles in a N.N.E. at it, and were much amused by its motions, direction. till it burst and wounded several; it was “We found the land universally rich and then that they fled, exclaiming, that the well cultivated, and nowhere more so than spirits of Hell were come against them, and near the camp, where the water from the were too strong for them.' To the last sakies is frequently distributed by four chanthey had no fear of man or his invention; nels, side by side, generally elevated by but, astounded by the power and novelty of woodwork or stones, as neatly put together the means employed to destroy them, they as in Egypt. came to the natural but hopeless conclu- “Happening to go out late at night, to sion, that the spirits of Hell were come

breathe a little fresh air in the court before against them. They were pursued by the the door, I heard, to my unspeakable surcavalry and artillery for the whole night; prise, some people in a neighbouring hut and with what effect, we had afterwards an singing and playing “God save the King." opportunity of observing. The first halt of In the heart of Africa, in the centre of the army was at the spot where we found it Mahometan army, surrounded by Turks and encamped, about twelve hours from Djebel Greeks, and slaves and renegades, to hear Dager.

the song of my country; and thus, and so In the mean time, the Cavaliere, who is suddenly, to be reminded of the land which also a poet, has already celebrated, in Tus- contains all that is most dear to myself, all can rhyme, the glory of the conqueror ; and that is most noble in the world; 'I could whatever be the merit of his composition, it only lean and listen by the soft moonlight, was at least a singular incident to have found till the rude minstrelsy was finished, and the Muse of Italy singing the exploits of a then retire, with the consolation that to-day Turk among the mountains of Africa." at least had not been lost to happiness." The natives of Dar Sheygy'a having

On the 14th of December, it was been entirely subdued, Mr. Wadding- agreed 10 pay a visit to the Pasha, who ton and his companions had an oppor- was encamped on the other side of the tunity of pursuing their researches, and river. They were treated with the examining many curious remains. greatest urbanity; the Pasha request

ing them to sit on the same sofa with “We came at last to the city of Malek himself. Chowes, MERAWE; it is singularly built, but much larger than Kádjeba. It was now

". The conversation commenced, of course, nearly dark, and in passing through its long with compliments to the Pasha on his vicand gloomy streets, between the thick mud- tories, his humanity, and his courage ; and walls, we were assaulted by multitudes of this subject gradually led to a comparison half-starved dogs, whose howling in the ab

of European with Turkish warfare; the numsence of all other sound, and whose adher

bers generally engaged in the former rather ence to the habitations which their masters

confounded him, and it would have been difhad deserted, increased the dreariness, if ficult to persuade him that his own battles not the solitude of the place. Our guides leon. He asked some sensible questions,

were at all comparable to those of Napohere desired us to keep close together, and we advance for nearly an hour towards Dje- and had an evident desire to be well inform bel el Berkel, whose outlines are visible in

ed on European politics; and this he will the moonlight. At such an hour as this,

find extremely difficult, as he can scarcely and under such circumstances, we would propose any question to which he will rewillingly have made our first visit to the sa

ceive the same answer from the natives of cred Rock, which we had long hoped was

different kingdoms.” to be the reward, and perhaps the termination of our labours. We approached near derable information on the geography,

The following extract affords consienough to see some of its fragments and of this hitherto little known portion of projections, which, by the uncertain light, the globe : we mistook for columns and colossi; but all pearer examination was prevented by our “The geographical information that we were guides, who obliged us to avoid the moun- able to collect about this country, was de lain, as well as the trees by the river side; rived from such of the natives as we had op as two soldiers had been murdered two portunities of questioning. The kingdom of nights ago by some of the natives, concealed Malek Zobeyr extends from Djebel Dager there for purposes of plunder or revenge, to Zoom, and contains Wady Babeet, Machand who might stil be hid among the ca- foor, Hanneck (the capital), Magásh (the verns of the rock. We therefore steered a name of the wady and town), and Zoom. middle course, and soon after heard the Then comes the district of Mek Medinek, cannon from the camp, which we entered by which contains Choorro, Dette, where the the quarter of the Ababde, in five hours and large castle is, and Kadjeba, the capital. a quester from our leaving the boat. The The next place is Tosaif, the first town of

Malek

1922.) Review.- Waddington's Travels in Ethiopia. 429 Malek Chowes, King of Mérawe, which outer wall, and other appearances, extends as far as Kasinger the other way; that the present remains are works of the chief towns in it are Toraif, Wallad very different periods. Grait, Dabazzeit, Merawe, Wallad Ali, Assoon, Shibbah (the residence of the magi- traced in the inside of the second portail,

“ Some parts of figures may still be cians), Berkel, Kereen (where was our encampment), Gerfel Hamdow, and Kasinger. but in most inexplicable confusion; the head After this comes the kingdom of Malek Ha- of one appears in the place which ought neinet Wallad Asla, called, like its capital, cessarily to be occupied by the feet of the Amri; it is a rocky district, and extends

one above it; and legs and arms appear to three days to the frontiers of Berher. Its be distributed with equal disregard to nachief towns are Zowera, Amri, and Doum el

ture; all, however, are so extremely defaced, Goozár. There is a cataract near Zowera, that I had rather believe my senses to have, and above the cataract is the little island of been deceived, than that such absurdities Doulgá, ' where the buildings (as a Shey have been allowed to disgrace one of the gy'a told me) reach to Heaven.' We were

noblest buildings ever erected. One figure, the afterwards informed that it is quite sur

divinity, 6 or 8 feet in height, is very discernirounded by these buildings, and itself perfo- ble, and sufficient to prove that the wall has rated like the Grotto of Pausilipo at Naples. not been entirely composed of old materials From all accounts, I should suspect that thrown negligently together, as might otherthese buildings are rather fortifications than wise have been suspected. temples, and that this is the island where

“The granite pedestals are extremely well the King of Dóngola, Samamoum, took re- sculptured, as are some broken sphinxes lyfuge, in 688, A. H. against the troops of ing in different parts of the ruins. The stathe Sultan of Egypt, whose five hundred

tues which have ornamented this temple, boats were prevented from pursuing him by may still be buried under the ruins, and the rocks, the first that exist above Dón

would be found near the pedestals where gola."

they have stood. We saw nothing whence We now enter on the antiquities divinity the temple was dedicated.”

we could decide, with any certainty, to what existing in the vicinity of the Camp. The place of these remains is called, It is possible that these temples may by way of distinction, El Djebel, or

have been rebuilt from the materials Él Djelail. Here several temples and of some splendid edifice that surpyramids were discovered.

passed in antiquity, as the ingenious « The remains of antiquity which lie at

author suggests, the venerable remains the foot of Djebel el Berkel, are of two kinds of Egypt, and even the time-hallowed -temples, or rather public buildings, and

remains of Nubia. As this idea prePyramids; the former, which have orna- sents itself to our feelings and undermented the city of the living, are situated standing, it annihilates the vast space towards the river, on the S. E. side of the of time between ourselves and the æra mountain, and all the ground about them, of their existence. The heart flows for several acres, is scattered over with forth in eager surmise, and would learn broken pottery; the latter, which have been the dread secrets of those mystic days the receptacles and monuments of the dead, of yore. Every portion of the varied are on the W. and N.W. side, farther from sculptures of antiquity contains somethe Nile, among the sands and rocks of the thing to engage our contemplation; by Desert.

“ The mountain itself is about a mile and which we may examine and compare. a half from the river, whose banks are no

The times indeed are passed away. The where more fertile than here; it is of consi- antique remains and the vast piles derable height and solitary; and there is an themselves stand alone in the solitudes irregularity in its outline, and a boldness in of space. - The whistling winds bear its precipitous side, which strongly fix the around them mystic sounds, as if whisattention, and render it worthy to have fur- pering the secrets for which they were nished materials for the industry of an 'en- formed; yet the curtain that hides their lightened people, and habitations for the dark language cannot be withdrawn. gods of Ethiopia.

Although wrapt in obscurity, the inIn describing the temples of Djebel quiring mind still clings to the fond el Berkel, Mr. Waddington states, that hope that the veil may be pierced ; one temple was 450 feet long, and 159 some faint gleamings of light encourage wide; but unfortunately so much ruin- and stimulate us to persevere in the ed as to retain nothing of its antient laborious task. grandeur and beauty. He considers, We now proceed with Mr. Wadfrom the discovery of a sculptured dington's description of another temstone among the mortar of the thick ple. Our limits allow us to extract

only

430

Review.- Titsingh's Illustrations of Japan. (May, only a very small portion of his curious and solid rock, that the smaller of the two and ample details :

excavated temples at Djebel el Berkel is “ About forty yards N. W. of (D) are

much the oldest that I ever saw ; older by the remains of a temple, of which all the centuries than those of Nubia, or than the inner chambers appear to have been crush- temple of Bacchus by its side: now the ed by the fall of part of the mountain. few figures and hieroglyphics yet visible The portail is in better preservation than there, are exactly such as are found in that of the large temple, and is in one part greater perfection in Egypt. perfect to the top. It has been dedicated “ By the same reasons I am led to supto Jupiter Ammon. We distinguished the pose that the pyramid, as a sepulchral buildfigure of the ram sitting on an altar-piece; ing, bad also its origin in Ethiopia. The and on the front of the portail, on the first pyramid is naturally of a later date right side, is a thirteen-headed Briareus, than the first temple. Not that tombs or under the hand of the victor; they are in cairns were not numerous before temples the presence of a young divinity with a thin were ever thought of, but because the coabeard, and not of the hawk-headed Osiris, struction of a pyramid requires more skill as is usual in Egypt. The weapon in the and labour than a mere excavation in a rock. hand of the god is of the same form with The one, however, would probably follev that which he is represented as extending the other at no great interval : it is the in Egyptian and Nubian sculptures, with

most natural kind of monument, and, ini this difference, that it has here the ram's land of astronomers, such an elevation might head with the ball on it, at the end. We be of use to them in taking their observaobserved, in another place, a figure bringing tions. Now, the utter destruction and offerings of vases, as is common in Egypt shapelessness of many of those at Berkel and Nubia.

and El Bellál attests their antiquity; while “ The first chamber only can be traced, those of Egypt do not appear to have been and it appears to have been thirty-one feet erected above eleven or twelve hundred years two inches in length, and forty-one feet before Christ, when that country had been five inches in width; the ground beyond, frequently overrun by the Ethiopians. The where the rest of the temple has stood, is pyramids of Memphis are of a later date covered with immense fragments of rock."

than the ruins of Thebes." Some interesting lithographic views

(To be concluded in our next.) of the pyramids are given, accompa. nied by faithful descriptions. At El

70. Ilustrations of Japan; consisting of PriBellal there were the remains of nearly

vate Memoirs and Anecdotes of the reigning forty pyramids of different sizes. The

Dynasty of the Djogours or Sovereigns of base of the most important one was

Japan ; a Description of the Feasts and

Ceremonies observed throughout the year 150 feet square, and the height 103

at their Court; and of the Ceremonies feet. It was built in stories, and con

customary at Marriages and Funerals : tained within itself another pyramid of to which are suljoined Observations on a different age, stone, and architecture.

the Legal Suicide of the Japanese, te Mr. Waddington discusses, with marks on their Poetry, an explanation of considerable learning, the great anti- their mode of reckoning Time, particulars quity of these monuments. Among respecting the Dosia powder, the Preface of other opinions he remarks,

a work by Confoutzee, on Filial Picts, “A people little removed from the &c. By M. Titsingh, formerly Chief Deluge, and living in dread of its return,

Agent to the Dutch East India Company sought the sides of the mountains, and

at Nangasaki. Translated from the French built their habitations in the solid rock:

by Frederick Shoberl. With Coloured such were the oldest dwelling-places of men,

Plates, faithfully copied from Japanese the places of their labours, their studies, and

original designs. London, 4to, pp. 325. their worship ; and when they began in

Ackermann. aftertimes to build temples for their gods, UNLESS we are acquainted with would they not naturally make for them the manners of a nation, it is impossible some larger excavation in the rock, that to know the proper method of doing had so long afforded shelter to themselves ? business with them. Mistake and onIf so, and I think it indisputable, the sculp- intentional offence, accompanied with tured caverns of Gyrshe, of Derr, and Eb- mutual dislike, may be perpetual. sámbal, are of higher antiquity than the Books of this kind are therefore very columns of Thebes, and have received the Gods of Ethiopia in their progress towards

useful to Diplomatists and Merchants the North. I believed at the time, and in particular, as well as curious and do still believe, as far as can be judged interesting to readers of all classes. from rudeness of masonry and sculpture, Forinstance, we have generally ascribed and from the merc effect of time on colours, the failure of Chinese Embassies to figures, and even the surface of the hard political jealousy, but the following

extract

1829.] Review.–Titsingh's Illustrations of Japan.

431 extract will show that this opinion can partitions of rooms, slide in grooves, be only correct in part.

so that large or small apartments may “ The inhabitants [of Nangasaki] are

be formed at option (p. 187). The considered as having degenerated, in conse- teeth are blackened by way of improvequence of their intercourse with foreigners. ment (p. 193). The presence of strangers is almost an abo- Three things are especially noticeable. mination in the rest of Japan. When, in One is an effectual mode of preventmy journeys to Court, I passed through ing duels. If a man receives an insult Sanagosta, and certain hamlets dependent he is either to fight, and afterwards to on it, none of my retinue could procure commit suicide; or, if he does not either fire, tea, or the most trifling neces- fight, he is to be killed for cowardice. sary." P. 237.

The result is, that which might be In the mechanical arts, the Asiaticks expected; viz. that have obtained considerable excellence,

“ Owing to this summary mode of probut in the grand European tests of in- ceeding, the people of the lower class treat tellectual civilization, they are lament- one another with the greatest politeness, ably defective. They have no inge- and are careful to avoid, as much as possible, nious machinery, no Greek taste, no whatever is likely to generate quarrels.” P.80. philosophy, no political, military, or The second remarkable is this, and naval science, and no jurisprudence, as Asiatick customs are ancient, may founded on reason or justice. Except in seem to show, that the butterfly, deemconsiderable assimilations to the feudal ed a symbol of the soul, so common system, and some matters of universal on Greek monuments (at least the use and compact, they have little or no butterfly wings of Cupid and Psyche in resemblance to us in manners and particular), had not the usual meaning habits; nor can any change of mo- ascribed to them. At the Japanese ment be expected, until they shall be marriages, newly cast in the mould of Christia

“ The zakki (a kind of strong beer) is nity, which produces a general confor- poured out by two girls, one of whom is inity of character. Of course we can

called the male butterfly, and the other the therefore have little to offer to our female butterfly. These appellations are Readers, than curiosities, which, as derived from their sousous or zakki jugs, being such, are interesting.

each of which is adorned with a paper but. The largeness of the front door of a terfly, to denote that, as those insects always palace, denoted the rank of the inhabi- Ay about in pairs, so the husband and wife tant (p. 76). The beauty of Japanese ought to be continually together.” P. 199. poetry consists in the verses having a The third particular is, the bridal double meaning (p. 90). Houses were dress of white, which we consider to built on the very edge of volcanick be adopted, as merely emblematick craters, so that the flames broke out of purity, white being ancient mournfrom under them (p. 100). No respec- ing, “ ihe bride is dressed in white, table man is to be seen without a fan, being considered, thenceforward, dead which sometimes serves for a parasol, to her parents.". P. 202. memorandum-book, or as a map of a The assimilations to our ancient or road, and site of the inns. The eti- modern customs are these. Stones for quette to be observed in regard to the sepulchral monuments (p. 83). Confan requires profound study and close spirators signing engagements with attention (p. 123, 329). Instead of their blood (p. 89). Houses built of carpets, rugs are used, which fit accu- planks, and covered with shingles (p. rately together (p. 130). The Feast of 106). Handing the cup in drinking, Dolls, by means of toys, teaches from one to another, in token of amity, girls whatever is necessary for house- like the grace-cup (p. 116). Flowerkeeping (p. 133). Plumb and cherry- pots, screens (p. 187), scented tapers trees are cherished as shrubs, for the

or pastels (p. 138). Almanacks with flower (154). The mechanism of the lucky and unlucky days (p. 167). PaJapanese clocks, very dear articles, per-hangings for rooms (p: 171.) See consists in a horizontal balance, mov- Beckmann's Inventions.] Paper ining upon a pin, forward and backward, stead of glass for windows (187). Iron with a weight on each side. This for ironing linen {p. 193), (formerly clock accurately marks the duration of we used stone). Sandals mounted on day or night, by the approach or reces- pattens (p. 195). Green tea used, sion of these weights (p. 159). The ground into powder (p. 209), and

cloaths' ed;

432

REVIEW. - Parga and the Ionian Islands. [May. cloaths' horses like our own. Pt. ii. belly, at an order from the Sovereign, pl. 3.

which favour the people, from infancy, We shall now notice two things, are tutored to expect, and to die game especially to be regarded by the Philo- accordingly. The philosopher will see sopher and the Antiquary.

how convenient a doctrine it is for The former well knows, that na- despots to quash rising rebellions, to tions may be fanaticized for ages, perpetuate fear, and summarily to diswithout moral improvement, because patch offenders. The second is a pow. means are not adapted to ends, and der, which is pretended to have the because miracles only can, in any other power of rendering Aexible the stiff form, effect the object desired. Habits, limbs of a corpse, and of being a most manners, and customs, favourable to infallible quack medicine ; and the virtue, should, if possible, be abso- third, in filial piety, beinz the chief lutely created. Indolence, a mere pro- and most important of the injunctions vidential propensity, has been found of Confoutzee or Confucius. to check more vices, than all the prin- The Work is elegantly printed; the ciples ever inculcated. Boxing, how- plates are interesting, and finely coever to be reprobated, prevents mur- loured ; in short, the whole is got up der : and our introduction of the fair in a style fit for a luxury book; a li. sex into society has, among other civi- terary Bond-street book of fashion. lizing effects, those of infants being trained up in religious and moral ha- 71. Parga and the Ionian Islands ; comprebits, at least in the higher and mid- hending a refutation of the varios misdling orders (Turner's Anglo-Saxons,

statements on the subject ; with a report of iii. 83), and the prevention of a most

the Trial betaceen Lieut.-Gen. Sir Thomas odious criminality. We find, that a

Maitland, Lord High Commissioner, and most detestable vice is universal in

the Author. With Maps. Qd. Edit. muth Japan, because women are excluded

alterations and additions. By Lieute-Col.

C. P. de Bosset, K. R. H. Order of from society (p. 251). Wales has been

Guelph) C. B. &c. 8vo, pp. 542. deeply fanaticized for more than a century, yet through neglect of education

THE occupation of the Ionian and knowledge, we find perjury still islands is a measure of the first policy, common; women wading through ri

on account of the prospective fall of vers in the sight of men, with their the Ottoman empire. It provides a petticoats up to their hips; and Scotch- secure means of communication, either men rising to wealth and eminence, in with regard to war or commerce, the proportion to Welchmen of a hun. should circumstances require such an dred to one.

aid. But Parga not being insular, The Antiquary has been accustomed could not have been cheaply or easily 10 admire the elegant manner in which retained ; and the cession was a matter the handles of vases are formed from of necessity. We know how hardly the parts of animals. The fashion was

the inhabitants of the West India borrowed from the Asiaticks, for we

Islands feel, at being transferred from find among the Japanese, perfuming of the political necessity, provision

nation to nation; and under admission pans of brass or copper, in the shape of cranes, lions, or other animals." ought to be made, that the transfer P. 187.

should have no other operation than We have now said enough of the the mere exchange of garrisons. UnWork, to give the publick a favourable fortunately, in the case of Parga, the idea of its meritorious character, which alienation was made to a barbarous characteris,in our judgment,due on such power (it could be to no other), and subjects to all patient accumulations of the consequences were as follows: information, confined to the topick; for

“ Landholders would no longer incur esnumerous travellers, in works about fo- pences in cultivating ground, of which they reign countries, give us little than

were not certain of gathering the produce. journals of their adventures, and leave Every one sought to realize and to conces) the reader without any increase of

the money which belonged to him; all comknowledge. As to the particulars spe- in a short time, that class of persons who

mercial undertakings were suspended; and cified in the title; viz. i. the legal sui- depend for subsistence on the passing day, cide;- 2. the Dosia powder;-3. the and those who rely on the future products preface of Confucius, we find, that the of their property, were reduced to the first consisted in coolly ripping up the greatest distress. Provisions were exhanst

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