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1928.] Commentators of Shakspeare. Carnival at Malla. 423 mer's credit unimpeached by others; quarto and folio copies exhibited a for Capell, “shocked at the licentious- most corrupt text. They recast senness of Hanmer's plan, projected an tences, substituted words, and shifted edition of the strictest accuracy,” ex punctuation. One Commentator refide codicum. It did not, however, jected the emendation of his predecesappear until more than twenty years sor; another (and Warburton more had elapsed, and was most remarkable than any, left an obscure, or even unfor quaintness of style and peculiarity intelligible passage to stand on the of pointing; in which last indeed he faith of the folio's only; or combated was not exclusively fortunate, or in with the superior authority of the his discoveries, and proposed amend- quarto's, and the interpolations of the ments. The triumph of Warburton Players, adding conjecture to conjecwas not assumed without interruption. tore, and making uncontrolled excurTwo formidable scholars entered the sions into the regions of hypothesis lists against him, and with allowed and fancy. success. These were the learned Up- Some disdained to attend to the low ton, already known by, his valuable accuracy of orthography or printing, notes on Spenser and Edwards, whose treating such criticism with ridicule, legal studies, aided by singular acute- and placed their controversy upon ness, suggested an accuracy of inves- higher ground than “the merit of tigation, under which the fanciful rival readings, or projects of punctu. theories of Warburton were dispersed ation.” In fact, all that is perplexed "into thin air."

or irregular in Shakspeare is not to Upton's “ Critical Observations " be rejected as a corruption of the text. were first published in 1746. To a

(To be continued.) second edition in 1748, he appended a preface, in which we are told, that Warburton had severely noticed this

Mr. URBAN,

May 10. tract; and he accordingly retorts, “but when I read on further, and found er

SEND you an extract of a letter I

received from Corfu, dated March rors of all kinds still increasing upon 1822, which I beg you will insert in me, such as even the most inveterate

your Magazine.

W.R. enemy would pity, did not an unusual

« In a former letter I promised you an insolence destroy every degree of it, account of the Carnival at Malta. It lasted then I thought it but doing common five weeks, but was not held in the open justice to Shakspeare, to check, if pos- streets till the last day or two; the Opera sible, the daring folly of such a phae- was fitted up for the purpose, as well as ton.'

several other places. The Maltese are so Edwards's " Canons of Criticism" taken up with it that they would even sell had reached the seventh edition, from the beds they possess to collect money for 1748 to 1765—an ample and satisfac- the occasion; during the time it lasts they tory proof of their general acceptation. are at liberty to get drunk, gamble, &c. His plan was quite new. Warburton

The admission to the Opera is one shilling, had, in the prospectus of his edition,

and it is generally extremely full. A guard

of English and Maltese soldiers are always promised to give, as an appendix, “Canons of Criticism, and a Glos- who are exceedingly strict. The best charac

in the Opera ; also a strong band of Police, sary,” but when the edition came

ters that have been performed are a drunken forth, these were found to have been

sailor and his wife, and an old cobbler (by amalgamated with the voluminous

some Midshipmen). I have been several notes. Edwards, therefore, in a very times in character of an old-fashioned man successful strain of irony, published (of the old school); at other times as an old twenty-five of these supposed canons, woman (a smyche), that is the common apwith numerous examples of each, taken pellation for the working people, and in sefrom the several plays.

veral other characters. The last day is the Here then closes the sketch of Shaks. grand day, and every smyche is in mask. It pearian literature and controversy, in is the custom to pelt sugar-plumbs at one the course of what may be denominated another. A pig was set a-drift in the crowd

with fireworks made fast to him. its first æra.

“ After 12 o'clock, the last night, The pursuits of this first class of they all run out of the Opera and go to Editors were certainly directed by dis- Church, where they confess all they have tinct principles, but all of them found- done during the Carnival

. Absolution is ed upon the assurance that the early given, and they go into mourning. I re

marked

snow.

A

424 Corfu.-Benefit of a Common-sense Education.-Dr. W. Clarke. (May, marked that all the women wore masks half is lent. About the year 1800 a well regublack and half white.

lated school was conducted by the Rev. T. “ The oranges here are very good, espe- Morgan, with credit to himself and benefit cially the blood orange, the juice of which, to the inhabitants, but fanaticism and suwhen opened, is as red as blood.

perstition have obliterated this fair esta“ The only news that I know of is, that blisbment, and at present no public school the Turks and Greeks are at war, and I think exists. A small portion of the money exafraid of each other. The fleets are in sight pended upon the erection of meeting-houses, of one another, and will not come to an en- and supporting the preachers, if laid out in gagement. We are now in sight of the town, building and endowing a respectable school, after a passage of five days from Malta, du would confer a lasting and invaluable benering the former part of which it blew tre- fit upon the rising generation. Thomas mendously, and carried away the horse and Pritchard, a native of this town, in 1759 main-top sails (or rather split them). It gave 18001. New South Sea Annuities, to is now quite calm. We are not far from the Trustees, to be applied to charitable uses, town, but cannot get to it; the harbour is and in 1759, a bill, in the nature of an inextensive, and surrounded on all sides by formation, was filed by the Attorney Genehigh mountains. The scenery all round is ral to establish this will, which was decreed beautiful, or more properly speaking, aw- in 1766, and the application of the money fully grand. Every now and then the clouds 'directed to be laid out in building a schoolclear away, which enables us to see the house, paying a salary to the master, placing tops of the mountains, now covered with out the children apprentices, &c.; but

no house has been built in pursuance of this decree."-See further, Jones's Breconshire,

ii. 288. Mr. URBAN,

May 12.

In sending you this communication, upon the Scotch plan, in mo- field full of rooks, who will immediral and religious principles, is the best ately take to wing, and caw furiously; method of civilizing and reforming but what is that in the views of a the Poor. Mr. Brougham's Bill was, Statesman? The peasantry of Scotland as I understand, formed upon that

are the best in the world, and the naplan, and as, according to the News- tives do honour to the country by their papers, it has been relinquished, but excellence in science and arms; while only, I hope, consigned to the Bishop of Spain and Portugal show, that there Exeter, permit me, without tolerant or disrespectful principles, to little of knowledge and common sense,

may be too much of religion, and too send you the following extract, in and that this said excess brings a Naorder to convince the publick that no tion below par with its neighbours. Statesman or Philosopher can admit that such a prevention of general edu

Yours, &c. HISTORICUS. cation is justifiable. In Nicholson's Cambrian Traveller's Mr. URBAN,

May 14. Guide, is the following passage, co

AN pied verbatim from col. 229. 2d edit.

NY of your Correspondents who

can impart biographical infor“There are no less than four meeting- mation respecting the family of Wilhouses in this small place, [Builth,] the liam Clarke, D.D. Dean of Winton, population of which, in 1801, was 677 who died in 1679, and left an estate inhabitants, and the number of houses in Essex for the augmentation of se108. These are crowded every Sunday, and veral small benefices, will much on other days of the week. The 1st is for oblige the writer by such particulars the Presbyterians; the 2nd for Baptists ;

as may have been preserved of him the 3d for Calvinistic Methodists; and the 4th for Westleyans. That ignorance lates 10 the situation of the Estate,

or them: and more particularly as reis enlarged with the diffusion of party and polemics, appears evident from the cir

the parishes to which it was given, cumstance of the place containing no pub- its real amount, &c. Perhaps his will lic school. For the purpose of promoting may be in the hands of some of the sectarian dissension by building opposing parties who have derived the benefit chapels, the purses of the inhabitants are of his generosity, and a copy of it liberally emptied; but for the purposes of would be esteemed a favour, if left establishing a good school, and promoting at your office, directed to your old Core useful knowledge, no gratuitous assistance respondent,

VIATOR

any in

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

69. Journal of a Visit to some parts of Nile, the once powerful kingdom of

Ethiopia. By George Waddington, Fel- Ethiopia shone in arts and arms; and low of Trinity College, Cambridge, and her celcbrated towns and cities bear the Rev. Barnard Hanbury, of Jesus Col- testimony to her pristine greatness. lege, M.A. F.A.S. With Maps and other

She even claims a priority, in the eye Engravings. 4to. Pp. 333. Murray.

of philosophy and of history, to her THE river Nile is associated with Northern neighbour. The earliest

а It recalls the most interesting imagery dern researches corroborate the testito the mind, and excites the most mony of antient history. powerful emotions of the heart. It

As so many interesting and importwas always considered as the greatest ant objects are connected with the wonder of the world. The Euphrates, Nile, it cannot excite our wonder that the Tiger, and the Tiber, can bear no all information from that quarter should comparison. As an object of nature, received with the greatest avidity; the Nile excited among the antients and we rejoice that a laudable spirit of the most reverential awe. It brought enterprise is manifesting itself throughfertility every where with its salutary put Europe. Belzoni, Salt, Burckstreams, and united cities one with hardt, and Caillaud, deserve the gratianother. In its vicinity the perfection tude and esteem of their respective of the arts was such, that to this day countrymen; and their names will we have been unable to discover many doubtless be transmitted with admiraimportant secrets connected with tion to posterity. We will also venEgyptian remains. The mystery of ture to predict that Mr. Waddington's embalming is yet unknown, and the truly-interesting Journal will remain mechanical powers by which immense for ages a valuable book of reference cities and towering pyramids were to the traveller and historian; and, we raised, that stood like islands in the may confidently say, acquire its author midst of waters, excite our admiration a niche in the bright annals of fame. and astonishment.

Mr. Waddington is a gentleman and Egypt is associated with our earliest a scholar, in the true sense of the word. impressions ; she was the land of the The style and composition of the prePharaohs and the Ptolenries. She was sent Journal display that unaffected renowned for her warriors and her he- ease, which is so characteristic of the roes, and celebrated for her philoso- man of genius and learning. It has phers and statesmen. She was the unfortunately happened that many cradle of the Arts, the seat of the travellers who have undertaken to re. Sciences, and the great emporium of cord the objects that came under their wealth and commerce. It is said that notice, have been too ignorant to she once contained 20,000 cities. Who determine on what was truly worthy has not heard of Thebes, with her of attention, and what was too triling hundred gates, and Memphis, renown- for observation; or else they have ened for antiquity. The kings of Egypt tered into tedious details of objects have immortalized themselves by that had been amply described by forthe pyramids they have raised, and mer travellers. Mr. Waddington las the canals they have opened. Her studiously avoided this too general erhistory is the highest on record. Early ror. Many writers would have dwelt writers state that her first monarchy with enthusiasm on the sacred spots of existed 11,340 years. At all evenis antiquity which exist on the banks of her history can be traced on the the Nile; but our author being aware “ broad canvass of four thousand that ample and glowing descriptions years.” Those two great theatres of had been given to the world by former human glory, Greece and Rome, can travellers, coinmences his Journal, bear no analogy; but sink into com- dated Nov. 10, 1821, with the deparparative nihility.

ture from Wady Halfa, a Turkish maAlong the fertilizing banks of the gazine on the second Cataract. It emGent. Mag. May, 1922.

braces make

426

Review.- Waddington's Travels in Ethiopia. (May, braces a tour through countries far be- Wady Halfa, on the second Cataraci

, yond where the enterprising Burck- November 11th, 1820. The Aga or hardt penetrated. Burckhardt only the Cataracts provided them with letsucceeded in following the Nile as ters to Abdin Casheff, &c. necessary far as Tinareh, while Mr. Wadding, for their safe conduct and provision on ton and his fellow traveller reached the route. He also furnished them Merawe. It may be in the recollec- with five camels. The party consisted tion of our readers, that the Danish of Messrs. Waddington and Hanbury, traveller Norden proceeded as far as

far as their Dragoman, James Curtin, the this second Cataract; but the difficul- young Irishman who was sometime ties and dangers being considered so with Belzoni, two Maltese attendants hazardous, he was compelled to return. Giovanni and Giuseppe, and a black

The Cataracts of the Nile present a slave, who was returning to his master most awful and tremendous appearance. in Ismael's camp. They are heard at a distance of three We shall for the present pass over leagues. Seneca relates, and his state- the adventures that oocur in proceed. ment is confirmed by modern travel. ing through the countries of Batn el lers, that the inhabitants of the coun- Hadjar, Sukkot, and Dar Mahass, few try exhibit a spectacle to visitors that of which are very striking; and open is more terrifying than amusing. Two our extracts with an account of that men enter a little boat, and after hav- very important personage Mahomed ing long sustained the violence of the Ali, and his wars with the Mameraging surge by dexterous manage- louks and other tribes of Dóngola. ment, they allow themselves to be car- Our Travellers left Old Dóngola on ried away by the impetuous torrent the 7th of December, and entered Dar with the swiftness of an arrow. The Sheygy'a, the seat of hostilities. After alarmed spectator, unaccustomed to a few general remarks, the author gives such a sight, imagines they will be the following interesting statements : swallowed up in the precipice down “. The ambition of Mahommed Ali, is to which they fall. Shortly after they possess all the banks and the islands of the are discovered at a distance on the Nile, and to be the master of all who drink smooth and calm waters of the majes- its waters, from Abyssinia to the Meditertic Nile.

ranean : an ambition worthy of a great In the Preface, Mr. Waddington Prince, if its origin were not to be traced to informs us, that it was originally his his avarice. His designs on Abyssinia be intention only to remain in Greece and seems to have abandoned, on a formal asAsia Minor for few months; but

surance that an attack on a Christian State, meeting there with his friend Mr. Bar- so situated, would probably involve him nard Hanbury, who was preparing for with the English Government, and he detera visit to Egypt and Nubia, he deter: doms of Dóngola, Dar Sheygy'a, Berber

,

mined to limit his conquests to the king. mined to accompany him. They agreed Shendy, and Sennaar; this plan included to travel together, and, after passing the extirpation of his old enemies the Mathe spring and most of the summer in melouks, who were in quiet possession of Greece, they arrived at Alexandria Dóngola." about the niiddle of August. An expedition under Ismael Pasha, the son Pasha's army was opposed, are repre;

The Mamelouks, against which the of Mahommed, Pasha of Egypt, had sented as being lovers of freedom, and just left Cairo for the purpose of reducing the Mamelouks and Sheygy'a Chowes, the king of Merawe, and

possessing courage to defend it. Maleh above the Second Cataract; this pre- Zobeyr, the king of Dar Sheygy'a, are sented a favourable opportunity for the the chiefs of the four tribes into which travellers carrying their designs into effect, and they immediately proceeded they are divided. Their united force to the Second Cataract, examining, in amounted to about ten thousand men. their way, the various objects of cu

“ On his arrival at Dóngola, the Pasha riosity that are scattered along the sent them orders to submit to the power of banks of the Nile. Mr. Hanbury and willing to cultivate their ground, and to pay

Mahommed Ali; they expressed themselves Mr. Waddington kept separate jour. tribute. The Pasha then commanded them nals; and they were both consulted in the composition of the present work. their arins and their horses. They simply

to prove their sincerity by sending to hin Their account, as previously stated, repeated their former offer. The Pasha re commences with their departure from plied, that his father had ordered him to

1822.] Review. - Waddington's Travels in Ethiopia.

427 make them a nation of Felláhs instead of a into the middle of the enemy; he shot senation of warriors, and renewed his de- veral of thein with his own hand, and havmand. They replied, with a defiance, ing disarmed one, he drove his own lance

either go on your business, or come and quite through his body. The Pasha was attack us;' and the Pasha moved his troops giving, in other parts, similar proofs of towards their frontiers.

courage, the only one he could now give of “ The first skirmish seems to have taken generalship, and the pistol of his Highness place near Old Dongola, when the Pasha is said to have been particularly destructive; and some of his generals, with very few he caught the gaiety of his enemies, and soldiers, were surprised by a party of rode among them with a laugh. At last, Sheygy'a, whom they repulsed. In one that the Sheygy'a, finding that their magic had succeeded, Abdin Casheff took prisoner the not been able to stop the course of Turkish virgin daughter of one of their chiefs ; he balls, and that the charm.s of the enemy instantly sent her unseen to the Pasha. were stronger than their owu, said, that The young Turk commanded the half-naked God had declared against them,' and took savage to be brought before him; he re- to flight. They had placed great dependceived her with kindness, and asked her ance on those charms, to which their necrosome questions about her father; he then mancers had given, for this occasion, pecuordered her to be washed and splendidly liar power and efficacy; and their first act dressed, changed her ornaments of dollars after the battle was to put to death the for others of Venetian gold, and sent her, whole race that had thus imposed on their under a strong escort, back to her father. credulity." As soon as the chief recognised his daughter, and saw how she had been honoured,

It is very singular that the Pasha, * All this is well,' said he with impatience, by his superior discipline, had not one

but are you still a virgin' She assured man killed during the action; whilst him that she was; and when he had ascer- the Sheygy'a left six hundred men dead tained the truth of this, he withdrew his on the field ;--so ineffectual is savage troops, and swore that he would not fight bravery, when opposed to the destrucagainst the man who had spared the virgi- tive weapons of modern warfare. We nity of his daughter: au act worthy to be find all the courageous efforts of these recorded among those sacrifices of public brave but unenlightened people totally spirit to private feeling, which have ever abortive; as appears by the sanguibeen condemned by philosophers, and will

nary result: ever be forgiven by other men. This little anecdote was very generally spoken of, and “ 'Those who escaped from the battle of made a great noise in both armies.

Korti, took refuge in some strong stone “ About the same time, in order to in- castles, one of which is built on the site of timidate his enemy by so wonderful a dis- an antient temple at the foot of Mount play of power, the Pasha ordered an exhibi- Dager, on the other bank of the Nile. tion of fireworks. His enemy was less Their horses are taught to swim across the timid, though, perhaps, not less ignorant, river in the broadest parts; they are also than he imagined, and on seeing the rockets trained, by a particular jerk of the bridle, shooting into the air, they only remarked, to advance by springs instead of any regular • What is he come to make war against pace, making their gallop exactly that of an heaven too!' and their courage was con- antelope; they thus prevent the enemy from firmed by the sight. You are come against aiming with certainty, by the uncertainty of us,' they used to shout from their encamp- their own motion, without impeding the ment, “You are come against us from the actions of the rider, who is accustomed to North, and from the East, and from the it. The Pasha pursued them to their casWest ; but we will destroy you.' When tles, in and behind which were drawn up to told by the Ababde, who were escorting the receive him these black horsemen of the chief's daughter, that if they did not sub- Desert, darkening (as an eye-witness demit, the Pasha would drive them to Sennaar. scribed it) the side of the mountain ; they • He may drive us to the gates of the were shouting terribly, and seemed awaiting world; but we will not submit.

the attack with impatience. This time, the · Their first attack was irresistible; the Pasha thought it more prudent to bring Bedouins were driven- back, and Abdin Ca- some pieces of artillery to bear upon them. sheff advanced from the opposite angle of A heavy fire of shot and shells, which they the square to support them; while he was

were equally unable to avoid and to avenge, engaged, the Bedouins rallied in his rear, quickly dissipated the ardour of these unhe returned to his post, and they charged happy men, and they appear to have Aed again. The Moggrebyns had been similarly without making any attempt at resistance. routed and rallied. The Sheygy'a, though Yet even in this case (as we afterwards suffering very severely, repeated their at- learnt), were their terrors derived from tacks, and three times was Abdin Casheff their superstition: a shell fell into one of scen to charge in person, and throw himself the castles, and began rolling and bounding

about i

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