Imatges de pàgina

418 Character of the late Sir H. C. Englefeld, Bart. [May, been hitherto observed in the selec- mitted to lay before our readers the tion of persons to discharge this very following eulogium from the elegant important trust, and the rules which pen of William Sotheby, Esq. regulate their duties and the time of their continuance in office, have been An Address to the Society of Dilelfound very insufficient to the useful tanti, on their first Meeting (March purposes for which they were origi- 31, 1822) after the Decease of their nally designed.

Secretary, Sir Henry Englefield. But a recent Act of Parliainent has

Mr. PRESIDENT, empowered parishes to appoint, in the

My apologies are due to you, Sir, character of an assistant, an officer of and to the Society, for this interrupincreased usefulness,

very efficient


: but I should feel it a dereliction powers, a Perpetual Overseer, paid for of what weighs on my mind as a duty, his services by the measure of his abi- if, when authorised by relationship, to lities and their reasonable application notify the decease of our late Secretary, to the public good; and the good he I failed briefly to mention some of his really does, must afford far greater ad- distinguishing qualities; qualities which vantages than can be expected from cannot but painfully enhance the sense the unwilling and reluctant labours of of the loss we have sustained. persons compelled to make large sacrifices of personal comfort, convenience, merate the various talents, each in ii

It is far from my intention to enuand interest, in the discharge of a pain- self far from common, far more un ful thankless trust. After the most mature deliberation, other, and all

, the more remarkable

common from their union with each my reason tells me, and experience from that accuracy of judgment with confirms the truth of her admonition, which they were combined, in the that wherever a Select Vestry and a Per- clear and conprehensive intellect of manent Overseer mutually do their re- Sir Henry ENGLEFIELD. spective duties, without fear or influence, and wholly under the guidance bour, is, to disencumber myself from the

The difficulty under which I now laof the authority committed to them by multitude, and to select, where each justParliament, a great part of the difficu! ly claimsdue notice, those talents and atties now complained of will be ameli- tainments, which may be most approorated, the farmer be relieved from many heavy burthens, and the honest sion. For, with that branch of know

priately mentioned on the present occadeserving poor be amply provided with ledge, either useful or ornamental, with einployment and bread!

It is absurd to suppose that this will what art, what science, was not our acof itself alone, materially, or at all,

complished Secretary not merely slightly raise the price of corn, or’tend to di acquainted, but familiarly conversant?

Of all, an enlightened judge; in many, minish the burthens of general tax- no inconsiderable proficient. ation, but it may be a question for

Shall I consider him in relation to further consideration, what should be this Society? It is scarcely necessary: the maximum of the one, and the minimum of the other. These, how. you have all experienced, and graie

fully acknowledged by an honoever are speculations in which men indulge and please themselves more

rary gift, the advantage derived, year than in reason they ought, because But can I consider him merely as the

after year, from his zeal and ability. they induce opinions grounded on very Secretary of this Society? No, Sir: erroneous principles, and terminating the functions exercised by him were in very mischievous conclusions. If you consider these desultory re

virtually those of a perpetual President; marks to be deserving your notice, it plans, and regulate the proceedings of

not restricted solely to methodise the is probable I may resume and continue others, but eminently calculated to enthem on some future occasion.

lighten, and lead, and (as we have Yours, &c.


frequently experienced,) to originate Sir H. C. ENGLEFIELD, Bart.

measures, which have made the ele. is with peculiar pleasure we again gant pursuits of a private Society imaccomplished Sir Henry Englefield, See a Sonnet to the Memory of Sir Bart. and are gratified in being pero H. Englefield in our Poetry for this Month.



1899.) Mr. Sotheby's Character of Sir H. C. Englefield.

419 cultivation of Arts, eventually con- of his affections, which, through life, nected with the improvement of Ma- endeared him, and now hallows him in nufactures, and tending to the refines the recollection of his surviving friends! ment and elevation of morals, by mul- On this subject it is too painful to tiplying the sources of intellectual plea- dwell. Let ine not, however, omit sures, by supplying adequate objects some mention of those fascinating for the excitement of talent, and ra- powers, by which he contributed, more tional gratifications for the superfuity abundantly perhaps than any other inof wealth.

dividual, to the diffusion of social enBut let me look beyond the limits joyment. And here, indeed, one comof our Society, and notice some of the mendation might well suffice; the comattainments of our accomplished Asso- mendation of the highly-gifted Charles ciate; not casually acquired to indulge Fox; who was wont to say, that he curiosity, or gratify an insatiable spi- never departed from his company unrit, far less for ostentatious display, but instructed *. Who, indeed, that ever the result of studies cautiously under- enjoyed his society, could fail of feeltaken, and closely pursued in subser- ing a glow from the sunshine of his viency to public benefit.

temper? Who, of that extensive cirLet us question the Astronomer, en- cle of talent and of cultivated intellect, lightened by his observation; the Che- of which he was the attractive centre, mist, enriched by his experiments; the but must have admired the variety, the Geologist, whose labours have been fa- extent, and accuracy of his remarks, cilitated by the perfection of his instru. the spirit and vivacity of his converse, ments; the Painter, whose faint and his easy and unassuming, yet persuafading colours have received lustre and sive and impressive eloquence; that permanency from his investigation: let Aow of fancy, which, enlivened by us inquire of many an Artist, now flou. beautiful allusions, and that correctrishing in the sunshine of prosperity; ness of judgment which, illustrated but who, in his first struggle seemed by striking analogies from all of Art "born to bloom unseen,” whose Pa- and Nature, almost every subject of tronage encouraged, whose Judgment intellect; and lastly, that singular gift directed, whose Liberality, sustained of memory, which, I will not say ga, him? From all these will be heard thered up and collected, but admitted one answer, one consentient voice of and received, as into a well-arranged eulogy mingled with sorrow. Let us, treasury, the riches of the minds of I will not say search, but open at ran- others, not there to rust unused, but dom the printed Transactions of Soci- to be recoined, brilliant with new eties, the Repositories of the Enquiries, imagery, bearing the stamp and imthe Disquisitions, and the Discoveries pression of his own creative genius. of the Man of Letters, the Philosopher, To the zeal of friendship, doubly enand the Antiquary, and in all these will deared by death, will, I trust, be asbe found abundant proofs of the spirit cribed and pardoned, this attempt, howof research, and of the cultivation and ever inadequate, to record departed exmeritorious employment of the natural cellence. Praise of the dead may, pergifts of Sır HENRY Englerield. haps, be expressed not less forcibly than

Of one subject I had almost forgot feelingly by the silent tear of love, esten the mention-those delicate, nay, teem, and veneration ; but praise of hazardous experiinents, in which he the dead is a debt due to the living. voluntarily engaged, in conjunction And there may be amongst the Menwith the first Comparative Anatomist bers of this distinguished Society, some of our country, Sir Everard Home, as- younger bosoms, in which even the sisted by the able Mathematical Optician, Jessé Ramsden, more strictly to ascertain some of the

* In a letter from Charles Butler, esq. and powers

properties of vision; the powers of that of Lincoln's Inn, to Mr. Sotheby, he bears sense of which he himself lived to feel

the following testimony to the memory of the loss, and which was only restored tion the person from whom I have heard

their common friend; “If I had to mento him to witness those whom he most the most curious and interesting facts and loved tending his couch of death.

observations, I should mention Sir H. EnBut how can I, in utter disregard to glefield. Io pecuniary transactions, and in my own feelings, fail to touch on the all his dealings, he was singularly accurate, kindness of his heart, and on the warmth and highly honourable.”

feeble 420 Writings of Sir H. C. Englefield.-Jackson's Shakspeare. {May, feeble words I have uttered may haply Communications to Dr. Tilloch's Phiinfuse a spirit to emulate the qualities

losophical Magazine. which rendered your late Associate the Description of a new Transit Indelight and ornament of society, the strument. vol. XLIII.”“On the object of the warmest affection to his Rules of Algebraic Multiplication. friends, and the Judge, and Guide, and vol. XLV."— Some Particulars rePatron of Art and Science.-Such was specting the Thunder-storm at LonSir Henry EngleFIELD - whose don and its vicinity, 31st August, 1810. loss the Members of this Society can- vol. XXXVI.” not but feel and lainent in common; but to me, from the deprivation of the Mr. URBAN,

April endeared and strengthened by manhin: FOR several years past. I have

amused myself in making a coltercourse of nearly half a century-10 lection of pamphlets and treatises reme, a loss irreparable.

W.S. lative to Shakspeare, and the perusal

of the last which has made its apAdditions to the

List of the Works of pearance has so far interested me, as Sir H. Englefield, given in p. 294.

to request you (being one of your old“The Andrian, a Comedy, by Pub

est Correspondents) to offer to the lius Terentius Afer; attempted in Eng- general subject

, and of the merit of

reader a concise historical view of the lish Metre.

Mr. Jackson's attempt candidly conCommunications to the Royal Society. sidered.

“On the Appearance of the Soil on There is a quaintness in the titleopening a Well,”. 1781. - Observa- page, “Shakspeare's Genius justified,” tions on the variation of Light in the which may lead to a different view Star Algol,” 1784.

from that which the author has taken. He communicated to the Society of Arts, His leading object appears to be to

“Discovery of a Lake from Madder, clear the fame of our inimitable Bard for which the Society voted him their from censure on account of ignorance, gold medal.

obscurity, or haste, and to refer it to Communications to the Royal Institu- one sole, but scarcely avoidable tion.

cause, the imperfection of the copy “Observation on the Planet Ceres." from which the first edition was print“On the effect of Sound upon the ed, and the consequent errors which Barometer." Experiments on the

the printers were more particularly liseparation of Light and Heat by Re able to make, from the rude state of fraction." '-" Account of two Halos,

the art of printing, compared with with Parhelia."-"Account of an Octhat of the present day. cultation of 8 Nebulæ Sagittarii by the

Previously to any other discussion, Planet Mars, April 17, 1796."

let me submit concisely to your readers Communications to the Linnean Society. commentaries, and annotations upon

a general view of the editions, the “ Observations on some remarkable the works of the immortal Bard. strata of Flint in a chalk Pit in the

There is not perhaps any occasion Isle of Wight. Vol. VI.”_" Additional Observations on the foregoing pa- to all who have studied Shakspeare,

to recapitulate what is so well known per."

that he appears to have had little vaCommunications to Nicholson's Journal. lue for his own dramatic works, for

“On the Purification of Water by he had preserved no copy of them in Filtration, with the Description of a MS.; but that seven years after his simple and cheap Apparatus. vol. IX.” death (1623) the first folio edition of bis G"Concerning the original Inventors plays was given to the publick by Conof certain Philosophical Discoveries. dell and Hemings, his executors, printvol. X.”_" Account of a simple and ed professedly from the stage copy, or cheap, portable Barometer, with in- from the few single plays in quarto. structions to enable a single Observer In the lapse of 60 years, to 1685, three to determine Heights by that Instru- more editions only were demanded. ment with considerable facility and pre- These, being all in folio, became, cision.”—“Method of adjusting a Tran. what the Spectator notices, as “par. sit Instrument in a plane of the Me. lour window books,” in the houses of ridian. vol. XVI.”

gentry in the country; which circum


1822.] View of the Editions and Commentators of Shakspeare. 421 stance accounts for their having been he has, with a felicitous humour, transso frequently, mutilated in the leaves ferred the epithets, which, in a single at the beginning and end.

word, describes the properties peculiar Shakspeare first acquired a more to each, from the leaders of the pack, diffused popularity by Rowe's octavo to the learned Commentators. I will edition in 1709.' Pope followed in now mention then briefly, referring 1723-1798; Theobald in 1733 ; Han- the classical reader to the original, in mer in 1744–6; Warburton 1747; the third book of the Metamorphoses. Johnson 1765; Steevens 1766; Ca- Melampus, Farmer; Pamphagus, pell 1768; Reed 1785; Malone in Warburton; Ichnobates, Tyrwhitt; 1790; and last, and certainly not least Hylactor, Malone; Theron, Ritson (for the text and commentary extends Agrados, T. Warton; Labros, Percy; to 21 octavo volumes,) by Boswell, in Asbolus, Hawkins ; Nebrophonos, 1821! This catalogue and enumera- Porson ; Dorcus, Whiter; with the tion are necessary to introduce vs to last, not least, whipper-in, George the critical Essayists in due progress. Steevens. What name would have Each of these Commentators appears been selected for Jackson, I know not, to assume, that either what has been there is no male name indeed left for done before him in clearing up ob- him, but he assuredly merits that of scurities in Shakspeare's text has been the female hound Agle “ naribus utiill done, or that the true meaning has lis,” for none have been keener upon been totally overlooked, or misunder- one scent. It is curious to observe stood.

how these dogs, having destroyed their Thus each Adventurer launched into master, turn upon each other. the ocean of conjecture, pursuing the I will now endeavour to make these track he had marked out for himself, critical gentlemen pass, in review, beand heedless of the experience or dis- fore us, in chronological series, not decoveries of others, who had previously taining any of them so long as to tire undertaken the same voyage. Their your readers. It will appear that each observations have consequently be- of these Critics proposed to himself come so voluminous, that indolent, some abstract prínciple; either that or perhaps fastidious readers, depre- Shakspeare should be examined by cated such tedious elucidations, and the rules of the Greek theatre; that required the pure spring of Shaks- the text is so corrupt, that it requires peare if they were enabled to approach an entire substitution, in various init when cleared only from manifest stances; or that an acquaintance with contaminations.

provincial phrases will reform all erThese Commentators, sagacious and rors which have been previously alacute as most of them were, have by tered to positive confusion, or left tono means enjoyed the meed, which tally unexplained by the ignorance of they had doubtless, and with fair pre- others. A more steady light perhaps tension, expected from readers, grate- was communicated by an examination ful for the light thus diffused ove: ob- and comparison of the learning of the scurities, excluding every ray of eluci- age in which Shakspeare Rourished, dation from their own immediate view and of the works of contemporary auof Shakspeare. Some were dissatisfied thors with his own. As the early ediand unconvinced, having no remedy tors made no distinction between prosc proposed by any suggestion of their and verse, the punctuation was likeown ; others demanded only an un- wise loose and indiscriminate. corrupted text. These murmurs, which Little should we expect, in the laoccasionally burst forth in shortlived borious Editor of 17 folio volumes of pamphlets, appear to have been con- the “ Federa,” to recognise the first densed by the acrimonious, but very (1694) and most severe critic upon sensible Author of the “Pursuits of Shakspeare as a Tragedian, and that Literature.”

poor Othello would be bound to the “ Must I (he cxclaims with indignation) bed of Procrustes by a sentence from

For Shakspeare no compassion feel? the tribunal of Aristotle and ÆschyAlmost eat up by commentating zeal, lus. So greatly has the Bard increased By fell black-letter dogs in pieces torn.” in the general esteem since Rymer's

This sentiment naturally enough crude and illiberal attempt to 'dispasuggests a parody upon Ovid's cata- rage him, that a critique so paradoxilogue of the hounds' of Actæon, and cal and strange was, at that period,


499 View of the Editions and Commentators of Shakspeare. (May, offered to the publick in an apparent not treated with candour by his conconfidence of universal acceptation temporaries. Let him speak for him. But by Theobald, both Rymer and self: “Wherever the author's sense is Gildon are treated as hyper-critics, clear and discoverable (though perhaps who were desirous rather to vaunt low and trivial) I have not by any intheir own sagacity in discovering the novation tampered with his text, out supposed errors, than in discriminating of an ostentation of endeavouring to the beauties of the author. Dennis make him speak better than the old was not actually associated with them, copies have done ; and whenever I but followed the same erroneous prin- have taken a greater latitude and liciples of criticising the plays of Shaks- berty in amending, I have constantly peare, and with still greater intempe- endeavoured to support my corrections rance. These censures had nearly suink and conjectures by parallel passages into oblivion, when they were revived and authorities from himself - the by Voltaire, upon the same principle, surest means of expounding any aubut most ably refuted by Mrs. Mon- thor whatever.” He adds further, as tagni, We have Dr. Johnson's autho- a position not to be controverted, rity in declaring, that “when Shaks- “ that the science of Criticism, as far peare's plan is understood, most of the as it affects an editor, seems to be recriticisms of Rymer and Voltaire fade duced to these three classes - the away."

emendation of corrupt passages, the In 1709 Rowe, himself a Poet and explanation of obscure and difficult Tragedian, published his edition, in ones, and an inquiry into the beauties seven volumes 8vo. as above mention- and defects of composition.” Has the ed. “The Booksellers (says Warbur- fastidious Warburton added a single ton) engaged him because they thought idea, or improved this sentence in that a Poet could only be published by point of perspicuity? when he says, a Poet; but so utterly unacquainted the whole a Critic can do for an Auwas he with the whole business of a thor, who deserves his service, is to Critic, that he did not even examine correct the faulty text, to remark the and collate the first editions of the peculiarities of language, to illustrate work he had undertaken to publish.” the obscure allusions, and to explain He was succeeded by Pope (a much the beauties and defects of sentiment more celebrated Poet) who, according or composition.” The “Oxford Quarto to the same testimony, by the mere Edition," as it was generally called, force of an uncommon genius, with- by Sir Thomas Hanmer, appeared out any study or profession of this art, (1744) under such favourable auspices, discharged the great parts of it so well, that its very high claims of superior as to make his edition the best foun. accuracy were generally allowed by the dation for all further improvements.” publick. Warburton was so little saWarburton having thus eulogized his tisfied with this performance, that, in friend, found himself at liberty to un. three years after, he gave to the world dertake an edition of his own.

his own edition, with an elaborate preTheobald's edition (1733) immedi- face, in which he treats his competiately succeeded Pope's (1723—1728), tors (Theobald and Hanmer) with bis and with this boast, " that whatever peculiar asperity. “How (he exclaims) care might have been taken by Mr, the Oxford Editor came to think himPope and his assistants, he would pro- self qualified for this office, from which duce 500 emendations of Shakspeare, his whole course of life had been so that would escape them all.” The remote, is still more difficult to con. Bard of Twickenham was enraged, ceive!" But Warburton, in the opi: and, like Jove of old, sent forth his nion of the Author of the Pursuits of thunderbolts, and buried poor Theo- Literature, was “sublime even in his bald, as the Giants, under mountains exorbitances, and dignified in sagacity of obloquy. Justice is now done to and erudition.” It has however been the Commentator, and it is acknow, observed with greater truth, that he ledged, that the patient labour and has looked more to the praise of inthe plodding diligence so disparaged genious than of just conjecture. The by the Satirist, were the more useful character of his emendations was not qualities for investigating the text of so much that of right and wrong, as Shakspeare, and for correcting, if not that of being in the extreme; they are restoring it, to purity. Thcobald was always Warlurtonian. Nor was Han


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