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409 Londen Theutres - Haymarket.-Bastardy Laws. (May, Colman, who spoke from the boxes, price* during winter months. Boxesfis. prevented further inischief. That gen- second price 3s. Pit 3s. 6d. second tleman claimed the liberal considera- price 2s. First Gall. 2$. second pr. 1s. tion of the audience, as the damage Upper Gall. Is. second price 6d. doing was to his property, having let 1820. The Theatre closed with the the house, and he had therefore no re- season on Saturday, the 14th of Octosponsibility for, nor joined in the pre- ber, with the tragedy of King Lear, paring the condemned entertainments. and the farce of Fortune's Frolick.

1790. The Opera House being de- It has been computed the house stroyed by fire, June 17, 1789, Italian could accommodate near 1800 spectaOperas performed here.

tors, viz. boxes 700; pit 350; and re1793. The house opened under mainder in the galleries. Drury Lane patent, while that Theatre In the modern history of this Theawas rebuilding.

tre we have been intentionally brief, 1794. Feb. 3. Upon our late re- and carefully avoided captious records vered King and Queen going to this where it was found, like its powerful Theatre, the loyal eagerness and vio- and gigantic rivals, swelling the inde lent rushing of the crowd to the pit lible archives of the halls of Lincoln's door occasioned the melancholy acci. Inn and Westminster. dent of fifteen persons being trampled The present Theatre was erected on to death or suffocated, and others were a new site, at a distance of about six severely hurt. (See vol. LXIV.p. 175.) or seven feet from the old foundation.

1795. July 1o. A lease granted by A view is given of the front towards the tenant in possession, and the exe- Charles Street. (See p. 201.) It opericutor of the late Mr. Colman, to Geo. ed July 4, 1821. Eo. HOOD. Colman “the younger" for seventeen years, at 400l. per annum.

Mr. URBAN,

April 23. 1805. Jan. 8.

Porto Colmare mehe younger" entered into an agreement opponents, your. Correspondent with David Edward Morris and Thos. the “ Magistrate" writes as if there John Dibdin, esqs. to assign one was no medium between repressing moiety of the Theatre. Instead of and encouraging marriage. What Mr. the name of Mr. Dibdin we find af- Malthus asks for is merely to have the terwards those of Mr. Winston and matter let alone, and to abstain from Mr. Tahourdin, and the latter seceded giving any longer a public guarantee after a short period.

to every improvident person that 1808-9. À winter season formed chooses to marry, without the means here conjointly with the Opera House of supporting a family. After calling by the company from Covent Garden Mr. Malthus's arguments sophistry (ou Theatre, which was destroyed by fire, the propriety of which appellation 20 Sept. 1808.

many I conceive will be at issue with 1810. An extension of the license him), the Magistrate throws at his folfirst to five, then seven months, led to lowers, the old text “increase and an increase of prices, and a new regu- multiply," stripped as usual of the conlation (1811-12) for admission at half text. 'To which it may be replied,

quarter, that the Puppet Show in the Haymarket is deferred on account of my baving been for some time under the operation of liquor, and not attending rehearsals ; this is to assure the publick that such report is without the smallest foundation, it being well known that I never touch a drop in the morning, and that the sprain in my ancle was occasinsad by treading on a cabbage-leaf before a taylor's door in Suffolk-street, on Friday the se instant, at noon.

JANE + JUNIPER, Hedge Lane.

her mark. “ William Wadding, taylor. Walter Whisper, prompter to the puppets.”

Haymarket, by particular desire. A rehearsal of the Puppet Show will be given us the Theatre in the Haymarket, on Saturday, March the 6th. The doors will be opened twelve, and the rehearsal commence at one. Places to be taken of Mr. Jewell. No person can be admitted into the upper gallery."

* An individual, by hand-bills, having called a public meeting at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street, on Sept. 11, 1786, made an abortive attempt to force the late Mr. Colman to accept half-price.

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1892.]
On early Marriages.--- Political Arioms.

409 " by all means.". Let any man marry gradually extracted from the Poor Laws, as often or as early as he pleases ; only if an Act was passed, saying to the offlet him not interfere with his neigh- spring of all marriages contracted, and bour's power to do the same. And to all illegitimate children born after a this he must do, if he takes from ano- time to be named, “You shall only ther the means whereby he supports have a claim to rates in case of incapahis fainily, or enables the tradesman or city to get a livelihood from old age or labourer to support one.

The same

mental or bodily malady, duly certiAlmighty Being who hath said, “In- fied by a regular medical practitioner," crease and multiply," hath also said, leaving to the Select Vestries a discre

Every moving creature shall be meat tionary power to afford relief in other for you, even as the green herly have I

AMICOS. given you all things.” Hence there can be no prima facie objection to the

Mr. URBAN,

May 1. other record thing wensen turtle, and H A VEING been saxoured with the be thought of a proposal for taxing the collections of the Rev. T. D. Fosone part of the society, in order to fur- broke, entitled “Political Axioms,” nish these gratifications for the other some of them appeared so strikingly part? Your Correspondent lays it to elucidate the history of Buonaparte, down as an “absolute certainty," that that I flatter myself the extracts will bastardy will increase as matrimony prove an instructive and interesting decreases.” To this the character of cento. Perhaps I ought to premise, the Northern nations, among whoin that the matter is strictly of philosomarriage takes place very late, and of phical bearing, as the whole Manu. the middle class of society in our own script is written with the simple intencountry (generally admitted to be the tion of discovering, to the permitted most virtuous), supplies a sufficient extent, the laws of Providence, so far answer. The poet's complaint- as concerns the consequences of certain video meliora proboque

actions, and securing successful issues, Deteriora sequor,"

as well as ascertaining what is likely

to ensue from particular characters in is in the case before us completely re- peculiar situations. It was the custom versed, and Mr. Malthus's opponents of Alexander Severus, to consult all in general deny by their practice the persons, especially those who were well conduct which they are constantly re- versed in history, in order to know, in commending by words and writing. doubtful matters, what old Generals If a young man indulges the natural, and Statesmen had done (Lampridius and surely most pardonable wish, to in vita); and the present essay may marry at eighteen, he is met with,— show, how very unqualified are men "Marry!-- what! are you mad?-- of no historical reading for giving what the deuce are you to live upon ? opinions upon political subjects. -do you think that I ani to give up That Buonaparte was pre-eminent my mode of living to suit your whims? in military talent cannot be disputed, -why, you will be in gaol in a twelve- and yet he owed his ruin to error in month!-Pooh, pooh, it is not to be that very science. His success, so far thought of!”. Such probably would be as it turns upon certain professional the language in a great majority of in- merits, has been recently exhibited in stances, where the question was merely the Edinburgh Review.' I shall therewhether the youthi should or should fore only commence my extracts, with not descend a single step or the ladder the period when he acquired the suof society, where he might have firmer preme power in France. hold, feel more at his ease, and be a Yours, &c.

A FRIEND. more useful, and a happier man. But

1. His Audacity. Secundarum amto the crowd which occupy the lowest biguarumque sciens eòque interritus. ground, whence they must inevitably [Being well acquainted with prosdescend into the gulf of pauperism or perous and dubious events, he was starvation, the cry is, "Increase and therefore opintimidated.] Tacit. Ann. multiply," and think not of conse. i. 64. quences, for the parish shall provide 2. His dissolution of the Republick for you. The poison, I think, might be by violent meuns. The Cupido domi. Gent. Mag. May, 1822.

nandi

410 Political Arioms elucidating the History of Buonaparte. (May, nandi is stronger

than
any
other

pas- is taken to suppress the harsh speeches sion. Tacit. Ann. xv. 53.

made against him. Tacit. Hist. i. 47. When men desire the supreme go

6. His Ambition. The desire of vernment, there is no moderation or power, incident to man, always inmedium in their measures, between creases with the augmentation of means. the attainment of their object, or ruin. Moderation is only contentedly borne Id. ii. 74.

in low circumstances. Tacit. Hist. ä. 37. Speed in taking possession of a The virtue of Chosroes was that of throne may allure the dubious and à conqueror, who, in the measures of confirm the prompt. Id. vi. 44. Peace and War, is excited by ambition

3. Causes of his success. When and restrained by prudence; who conparties are divided, and authority is founds the greatness with the happidestroyed by contention and distrust, a ness of a nation, and calmly devotes popular character may step in and the lives of thousands to the fame, or draw all to himself. Tacit. Hist. iv. 11. eren the amusement of a single man.

Men formed for success in trouble- Gibbon, c. 42. vii. 300. some times must be extremely artful 7. His desire of universal conquest. and extremely brave. Goldsmith's Lett. The passions of soldiers victorious in on Engl. Hist. Lett. 23.

foreign wars are always insatiable. Civil discords loosen the fidelity of Tacit. Hist. iv. 38. the Soldiery, and create danger from 8. Hatred of him. Even the greatest individual commanders. Tacit. Hist. honours and soundest titles become ii. 75.

matters of additional odium, when the The affections of the Soldiers are possessor is evidently influenced by seldom gained by honourable means furious ambition. Liv. L. vii. c. 80. or virtues. Id. iii. 86.

9. His Bulletins. Dioclesian disSoldiers, if inured to plunder, become played with ostentation the consefaithful followers of their leader. Id. quences of victories. Gibbon, c. 13. ä. ii. 15.

131. The boldness of individuals prevails His espionage. Spies, agents, and much in civil discords, for it may draw informers are persons enlisted to secure off a whole army, because in this state the repose of one man, and disturb of things, the commanders are not that of millions. Id. c. 22. commonly firm in their allegiance, nor 10. His breaking the centre. Anniresolved to be traitorous. Id. Ann.iii. 57. bal, by knowing this favourite ma

The minds of soldiers once imbued neuvre of the Romans, tricked them with hatred (as of the Bourbons) can- into the defeat of Canna. Buonanot be restrained. Capitolinus in parte seems to have borrowed the meaMarim. et Ballino.

sure from Marlborough, especially Though the first hopes of success from his tacticks at the battle of Rs. may be but faint; when the Usurper millies. has made his first footing, affection 11. His march to the enemy's metroand followers soon attend him. Tacit. polis. Cæsar used to reckon, that the Annal. iv. 7.

capture of the principal town would When extremities are feared, the cause the whole province to yield. first dislikes are disregarded. Id. xii. 67. Bell. Gall. L. vii.

Whoever is feared, has sufficient 13. His security on the Throne. The qualifications in the mind of him who power of the sword is more sensibly fears him. Even latred of the prede- felt in an extensive monarchy, than in cessor may give the successor sufficient a small community. It has been calcharacter. Id. Hist. ii. 76.

culated by the ablest politicians, that Generals, if successful and popular no state, without being soon exhaustwith their soldiers, are respected even ed, can maintain above the hundredth by the people, provided their punish- part of its members in arms and idloments and severities are confined to ness. But although this relative prothe military. Id. Hist. iv. 39.

portion may be uniform, the influence 4. His Despotism. A King of great of the army over the rest of the society glory, is on that account more domi- will vary according to the degree of its neering and intolerant towards his sub- positive strength. The advantages of jects. Ta it. Ann. xi. 10.

military science and discipline cannot 5. His Controul of the Press. When be exerted, unless a proper number of aUsurper is successful, the utmost care soldiers are united into one body, and

actuate

1899.) Political Axioms elucidating the History of Buonaparte. 411 actuated by one soul. With a handful 15. Aggrandizement of his family. of men, such a union would be ineffec. T'he ascent to greatness, however steep gual; with an unwieldy host it would and dangerous, may entertain an active be impracticable; and the powers of spirit with the consciousness and exthe machine would be alike destroyed ercise of its own powers ; but the posby the extreme minuteness or the ex- session of a throne could never yet cessive weight of its spring. To illus- afford a lasting satisfaction to an ambitrate this observation, we need only tious mind. All the prospects of Sereflect, that there is no inferiority of verus’s life were closed; and the desire natural strength, artificial weapons, or of perpetuating the greatness of his acquired skill, which coald enable one family was the only remaining wish man to keep in constant subjection of his ambition. Gillon, c. v. p. 155. one hundred of his fellow-creatures. So far Napoleon might have triThe tyrant of a small town or single umphantly exclaimed, “Quisque size district would soon discover, that a fortunæ arbiter;” for “Nullum numen hundred armed followers were a weak abest si sit prudeutia.” defence against ten thousand peasants His misfortunes commenced with or citizens ; but a hundred thousand his dereliction of the first principle of well-disciplined soldiers will command a General ; viz. Caution. An inwith despotic sway ten millions of cautious General is as great an absursubjects ; and a body of ten or fifteen dity as an insolvent banker. thousand guards will strike terror into 15. Russian Expedition. Caution the most numerous populace, that ever and vigilance are the two most imcrouded the streets of an immense portant lessons of the art of war. capital. Gibbon, c. v. p. 128. Ed. 8vo. Gibbon, c. 19, p. 219.

13. Confederation of the Rhine. The army took the field under the The powerful men of every place command of Prosper Colouna, the should, after conquest, be wooed into most eminent of the Italian Generals, friendship. Plutarch, § Precept.Politic. whose extreme caution, the effect of

The signal victory of Vouti over the long experience in the art of war, was Huns, preceded and followed by many opposed with great propriety to the bloody engagements, contributed much impetuosity of the French.' Robertless to the destruction of the power of son's Ch. V. anno 1521. the Huns, than the effectual policy Various motives might have operatwhich was employed to detach the tri- ed in instigating Buonaparte to this butary nations from their obedience. fatal deviation from the first principle Intimidated by the arms, or allured by of his office, as a commander; viz. the promises of Vouti and his suc- Caution. cessors, the most considerable tribes Guiccardini furnishes the most proboth of the East and West, disclaimed bable. The first is, in the words of the authority of the Tanjour. Gibbon, the old English translation, c. 26, p. 365. Each independent chieftain hastened nand (King of Naples], bringing forthe in

“ This was the glorious humor of Ferdito obtain a separate treaty, from the publicke many brags, touching his owno apprehension that an obstinate delay power, and to the contempt and lessening of might expose him, alone and unpro- the forces and meanes of his adversaries. tected, to the revenge or justice of the These be properties, oftentimes familiar Conqueror. Gillon, c. 26, p. 434. with Princes, to whom there cannot be a

The Romans generally permitted more seusible and apparent token of their tributary princes to possess barrier coun

adversitie or ruine, than when they esteeme tries between them and dangerous themselves more then they are, and make enemies, in order to remove the burden their enemies lesse than they finde them." of defence from themselves as much

L.i. as possible. Gibbon, c. 13, ii. 155. Ignorance of the climate, and former

The Romans refused to assist nations failures, canuot be ascribed to Napoagainst their enemies, if such nations leon, nor could he anticipate the conhad not before rendered aid to them. Aagration of Moscow. He might have Tacit. Ann. ii. 46.

supported his rashness upon the follow14. His marriage with Maria Louisa. ing grounds: All usurpers strengthen their ill-gotten Soldiers will better endure danger power by foreign alliances. Goldsmith's than delay, because there is hope from Lett. on Engl. Hist. I. 26.

temerity. Tacit. Hist. iii. 26.

“ All

418 Political Arioms elucidating the History of Buonaparte. (May,

All worldly actions are exposed to Campaign of 1814. “It was the casmany perils, but wise men know, that tom of the wars of Italy, to fight one all the evils which may happen, do squadron against another, and in place not always come to pass ; for by the of him that was weary and began to benefit of fortune many dangers are retire, to supply the fight with a fresh, dissolved, and many avoided with in- making in the end but one great dustry and prudence; and therefore squadron of many squadrons, insomen'ought not to confound fear with much as for the most part the skirmish discretion, nor repute those wise, who, or trial of armes, wherein commonly making certain all perils that are doubtdied but a very few people, endured ful, and therefore fearivg all, do rule almost a whole day, and oftentimes their deliberation as if they should all the sudden coining of the night was happen; seeing that in no maner can the cause that they brake off without merite the name of wise or discreete victory certaine on either part.” Guicsuch men as feare things more then cardini, L. ii. they ought. That this title and this Upon this principle of tacticks, the praise was far more convenient for allies conducted their operations; and men valiant and courageous; for that Napoleon by fighting, 'neglected the looking into the state and nature of only measures prudeni under invasion, dangers; and, in that regard, different though successfully practised by Fabius from the raslı sort (in whom is no im- and other Cunctatores, as Suetonius pression of sense or judgment of perils) Paulinus, &c. his predecessors on the they do notwithstanding discover, how French throne, and Dumourier and often inen, sometime by adventure and Wellington in his own age. sometime by vertue [valour] are deli- An enemy with immense force, and livered from many difficulties. Those short of provisions [a speedy consemen then, that in deliberating call into quence of immense force] should not councell, as well hope as feare, and do be brought to action. Plutarch in not judge for certaine the events that Lucullus. are uncertaine, do not so easily as others Francis fixed upon the only effectual reject occasions profitable or honour- plan for defeating the invasion of a able.”. Guiccardini, l. i.

powersul enemy. He determined to Experience has shewn, that the suc- remain altogether upon the defensive; cess of an invader most commonly de- never to hazard a battle, or even a pends on the vigour and celerity of his great skirmish, without certainty of operations. Gillion, vi. 202, c. 36. success; 10 fortify his camps in a regu

Hope, which tells a flattering tale, lar manner, to throw garrisons only might suggest these prospects, but he into towns of great strength, to deought to have known, that

prive the enemy of subsistence, by layIt is a gross error to breed a storm, ing waste the country before them; and leave the defence to doubtful pos- and to save the whole kingdom by sibilities. It is too dangerous to broach sacrificing one of its provinces. Raa vessel of poison, and have the virtue l'ertson's Ch. V. anno 1536. . of the antidote uncertain. Guiccar- The Duke of Alva, sensible of all dini, L. i.

the advantages of standing on the de16. Failure of the Expedition. fensive, before an invading enemy. de

“ He esteemned it also of great im-, clined an engagement, and kept within portance for the substance of the warre, his entrenchments; and adhering to that the Frenchmen should be surprized his plan with the steadiness of a Castiwith the winter in Lombardie, wherein, lian, eluded with great address all the having great experience in the warres Duke of Guise's stratagems to draw of Italy (whose armies attending the him into action. By this time sickness riping of grasse and forage for the feed- began to waste the French army, &c. ing of horses, were not wont to take Id. anno 1557. the field afore the end of Aprill), he During the long wars between the judged, that to eschue the sharpnesse two nations, the French had discoverof winter, they would be constrained ed the proper method of defending to stay in a country of their friends till their country against the English. spring-time; in which intermission They had been tanght by their misand respite of time, he hoped that fortunes to avoid a pitched battle with some occasion for his benefice mighe the utmost care, and to endeavour by happen." Guiccardini, L. i.

throwing garrisons into every place,

capable

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