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353 Judging from the proportions of the re- The bears and hyænas of all these caverns, mains now found in the den, the ordinary as well as the elephant, rhinoceros, and hipfood of the hyænas seems to have been oxen, popotamus, belong to the same extinct spedeer, and water-rats ; the bones of the larger cies that occur also fossil in the diluvian graanimals are more rare ; and the fact of the vel, whence it follows that the period in bones of the hyænas been broken up equally which they inhabited these regions was that with the rest, added to the known preference immediately preceding the formation of this they have for putrid flesh and bones, renders gravel by that transient and universal inunit probable that they devoured the dead car- dation which has left traces of its ravages casses of their own species. Some of the committed at no very distant period over the bones and teeth appear to have undergone surface of the whole globe, and since which, various stages of decay by lying at the bot- no important or general physical changes aptom of the den while it was inhabited, but pear to have affected it. little or none since the introduction of the
ANCIENT BARROW, &c. diluvian sediment in which they have been
Some men employed in widening the turnimbedded. The circumstances of the cave and its contents are altogether inconsistent in Hesket-lane, came in contact with a bar
pike road leading from Carlisle to Penrith, with the hypothesis, of all the various animals of such dissimilar habits having entered in cutting their way through which they
row and a quantity of large cobble stones ; it spontaneously, or having fallen in, or been found a broad two-edged sword, bent togedrifted in by water, or with any other than ther, two spears, one larger than the other, that of their having been dragged in, either
an axe, bridle-bits, part of a pair of spurs, entire or piecemeal, by the beasts of prey whose den it was.
a sharpening stone, the bone handle of a Five examples are adduced of bones of the carved, the remains of a bone comb, a piece
razor, and the back of a comb, both neatly saide animals discovered in similar caverns
of iron, resembling a sickle, probably the in other parts of this country, viz. at Craw- back of a saddle, an iron basin or top of a ley Rocks near Swansea, in the Mendip Hills, helmet, with holes in its rim, burnt bones, si Clifton, at Wirksworth in Derbyshire, and &c. It is evident that the hole has been at Oreston near Plymouth.
exposed to heat, and from appearances, the In the Gerinan caves, the bones are in fire place must have been ten or twelve feet nearly the same state of preservation as in
in diameter, and sunk in the ground at least the English, and are not in entire skeletons, three. The stones immediately covering the but dispersed as in a charnel house. They ashes were large, and closely set together ; are scattered all over the caves, sometimes those above, smaller, compact, and regular. loose, sometimes adhering together by sta- There are various speculations as to their lagmite, and forming beds of many feet in claim to antiquity : some consider them thickness. They are of all parts of the body, Saxton, others Danishi, while many assign and of animals of all ages; but are never them a inuch more modern date. rolled. With them is found a quantity of black earth derived from the decay of ani
Ancient SEAL. mal flesh; and also in the newly-discovered
A beautiful silver seal has been found in caverns, we find descriptions of a bed of the neighbourhood of Exeter. The formed mud. The latter is probably the same dilu- is oval, and represents in the centre St. vian sediment which we find at Kirkdale. James the Great, habited as a pilgrim, and The unbroken condition of the bones, and
standing under a canopy of elaborate workpresence of black animal earth, are consis- manship. St. James was the patron of the tent with the habits of bears, as being rather Cluniac Priory on the Exe, about a mile addicted to vegetable than animal food, and below Exeter. The inscription round the in this case, not devouring the dead indivi- seal is–S. Fris. Thome.
Dene. Prior'. Exduals of their own species. In the hyæna's
onie. “ The Seal of Thomas Dene, the cave, on the other hand, where both flesh Prior (of St. James's) at Exeter.” This and bones were devoured, we have no black Thomas Dene was Superior of the above earth; but instead of it we find in the album Priory (vulgarly called old Abbey) in the græcum, evidence of the fate that has at
See Oliver's Historical Coltended the carcasses and lost portions of the lections, p. 22. bones whose fragments still remain.
Three-fourths of the total number of bones A few days since was found near Boscarne, in the German caves belong to two extinct in the parish of Bodmin, a gold-fish hook, species of bear, and two-thirds of the re- size No. 3, in the bed of a river, where mainder to the extinct hyæna of Kirkdale. some men were working for tin; and not far There are also bones of an animal of the cat from the same spot were taken up several kind (resembling the jugular or spotted pan- Roman coins of the reigns of Vespasian and ther of South America), and of the wolf, fox, some of the later Emperors, &c. The whole and polecat, and rarely of elephant and rhi- are in the possession of Rob. Flamank, esq.
of Bodmin. GÆNT. MAG. April, 1822.
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ARTS AND SCIENCES.
Lieut. Rodger's Raft For Preserving Persons FROM SHIPWRECK. In 1819, Lieut. Rodger was honour- by a description, which (to make it ed by the presentation of the gold more generally known) we copy from medal of the Society of Arts, for this their forty-eighth Report (reviewed in ingenious and useful invention. He p. 346). The Royal Humane Society has since presented a model to the have kindly favoured us with the anRoyal Humane Society, accompanied nexed representation of the Raft.
" It must be obvious to every person tions how to apply them to the greatest adacquainted with the subject, that Rafts vantage. The plan which I have the homight be constructed in such a manner as nour to propose is so very simple, that! almost to defy the destructive force of the presume the model alone will make it clearly 'elements with which they would have to understood withou: any explanation ; I shall contend, but it is equally plain that such therefore only observe that it is intended to Rafts would be attended with considerable be constructed on the ship's deck when reexpence, and would occupy so much room quired, and hoisted or launched over board on board a ship, as to preclude every hope according to circumstances. The buoyancy of their being brought into general use. of four empty butts, each capable of containUnder this impression I have in the con- ing 108 gallons (ale and beer measure) is struction of my Raft, confined myself to ma- equal to the weight of thirty men nearly, terials which every ship is obliged to carry supposing each man to weigh 150lbs.; but to sea for other purposes, viz. four butts, as the casks, if not totally immersed, will six pair of slings, eight capstan bars, three tend to break off the sea, I would not regratings or hatches, and four handspikes, commend it for more than twenty; the with small rope or gaskets for life-lines and casks will then be about a foot above water. lashings ; which, though not so strong as Should the Society think proper to have might be made of materials taken to sea for one constructed for trial, I shall feel much the purpose (which is not likely to take pleasure in going on it with twenty men, place) will, I hope, be found to be a good for the purpose of making any experiment substitute. Casks of any size may be used, they may deem necessary to prove its effiand small spars, such as boats' masts, top-cacy. About four years ago I had it tried at gallant studding sail booms, top-mast stud- Sheerness alongside of His Majesty's ship ding-sail yards, and many others which it is Northumberland, with twenty men; and in unnecessary to enumerate, may be substi- 1819, in Portsmouth Harbour, alongside of tuted for capstan bars ; so that every vessel His Majesty's ship Queen Charlotte, with has already on board the means of construct- . twenty-four men ; on both which occasions ing a sufficient number of Rafts to carry the it met with general approbation." whole of her crew, who only require instruc
“ WM. RODGER, Licut. R. N."
355 or four inches in height, including the THE WELLINGTON SHelb.
figures of Fame and Victory, by which they This magnificent trophy, executed in are respectively surinounted. The body of silver richly gilt, together with two orna- each column is formed by the trunk of a mental columns of the same costly material, Palm-tree, with a capital of leaves: it stands has been completed, from designs of Thos. on a triangular base, and is surrounded in Stothard, esq. R.A. under the superintendo
each instance by three characteristic figures. ence of Messrs. Green, Ward, and Co.
Around the column, sustaining the figure of Ludgate-street. It was ordered in 1814, of Victory, are resting, in attitudes of Repose, by the Committee of Merchants and Bankers three Soldiers of the United Kingdom, of London, as a splendid record of the namely, a British Grenadier, a Highlander, Duke of Wellington's high achievements;
and an Irish Light Infantryman; each supbut the time which has since elapsed has porting the flag of his country, distinguished not been thrown away: the subject has un- by the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock. The dergone the fullest study and reflection, the subjects described in basso-relievo on the first artists have been employed, the designs
- Britannia awarding the laureland models have been made with the greatest wreath alike to the Army and Navy; -A taste, the workmanship has been directed Return to the full occupation of the useful with the utmost care and ability, and the and ingenious Arts ; -- and the old and result is undoubtedly one of the finest pro- young joining in the festive dance.-Groups ductions of Art ever executed in the precious of military trophies and weapons are heaped metals. The Shield is circular ; its diameter up at the angles as if no longer required. is about three feet eight inches. At the Around the column surmounted by the first glance of the eye three concentric divi- figure of Fame, are placed in quiescent attisions strike the spectator, namely, a convex
tudes, three soldiers, emblematical of three broad border of deadened gold richly orna
of the nations whose troops the Duke commented in basso relievo, an inner circle of manded; namely, a Portuguese, a Sepoy, burnished gold radiating from the centre
and a Guerilla, who are supposed to have and slightly convex, and a bold group of bound a medallion of the Duke among the figures in alto relievo, executed in deadened folds of their respective flags. Under each gold, occupying the centre of the Shield. figure is a bas-relief, describing the peaceThe central group, nobly prominent, and ful occupations of the several countries rebeautifully relieved by the radiant ground leased from their enemies; thus, under the on which' it is placed, consists of fourteen Guerilla are Spanish peasants dancing, equestrian figures, besides an allegorical re
while the vine and the oxen denote the representation of Fame, crowning the illus- turn of agriculture and the vintage. Under trious Commander ; and there are three the Portuguese, the long-neglected vineprostrate figures under his fect, descriptive yard appears restored to its productive harof the violence, the devastation, and the vest : and beneath the Sepoy, a Hindostanee despotism to which his victories so happily family reposes in peace under the protecput an end. The Duke of Wellington him
tion of the British Government, while, a self appears on horseback in the middle, Warrior is relating an account of the Battle and he is surrounded by Officers who held of Assaye, by which the country was freed important commands under him in the Pe- from the ravages of the Mahrattas. The ninsula. The grouping is most admirable. guardians of the scene are- -A Soldier of the The Duke, without appearing detached from 19th Dragoons and a Sepoy, with a Mahhis associates, is sufficiently distinct and
ratta captive. Groups of military trophies striking; whilst the other Officers fill the and weapons ornament the corners of the surrounding space, without producing any base, as in the first column. effect of crowd or confusion.
The Achilles Of Phidias, The outer border is divided into ten com- Purposed to be erected by the Ladlies of Engpartments, representing the principal fea- land, in compliment to the Duke of tures of the Duke's military life, up to the Wellington. general peace of 1814, when the plan of This colossal bronze statue, to receive this costly work was first adopted. The which preparations are now making in Hyde Victory of Assaye (Sept. 23, 1803). The Park, is cast from a mould made upon the Baltle of Vrmiera (August 21, 1808). The sublime marble, generally attributed to the Passage of the Douro (May 12, 1809). hand of Phidias, and which, since the paTorres Vedras (March 6, 1811). Badajos pacy of Sixtus . has adorned the Quirinal taken by Assault (April 6, 1812). The Hill at Rome. The horse which accompaBallle of Salamanca (July 22, 1812). The nies the original has been omitted, strong Battle of Villoria (June 21, 1813). The doubts being entertained whether it has not Battle of the Pyrenees (1813). The Entrance been an adjection of a later age; for, of Wellington into Toulouse (April 12, 1813). although of considerable merit, its forms The Dukedom of Wellington conferred (1814). are not in unison with the grandeur of con
The Columns are intended to represent struction, and heroic character of the man. the fruits of the victories depicted on the The purpose for which this astonishing sbield. They are each about four feet three work was originally designed has never been
(April, satisfaetorily ascertained; the most enlight- and the expence of keeping the horses themened antiquaries of the present age imagine selves, seem to make this a great desiderait to have been erected in honour of Achilles, tum to all canal
property, and Mr. Westmacott, adopting that opinion, The Editor of the Philosophical Magahas armed him with a parazonium (a short zine observes, in reply to the preceding sword) and shield. Great care and labour statement, “We suspect that the patentee has been bestowed in restoring the surface will meet with objections not easy to be of the work, which in the original has suf- overcome respecting the application of soch fered greatly from its exposed situation, and machinery to canal navigation. Even in the success which has attended the execu- the present method of moving the barges, tion of this extraordinary enterprize, has when the horses go beyond a certain rate, happily achieved the preservation of the the motion given to the water tends to wash sublimest effort of human genias in art. down the banks; but what is this compared The material employed in this stupendous to the moving tide that would be produced work has chiefly been supplied from the can- by the working of paddles?" non taken in the victories of the illustrious
IMPORTANT CHEMICAL INVENTION. Duke, in compliment to whom the statue is
Mr. Pepe, Professor of Chemistry at Nadedicated. It is the largest cast ever undertaken in this country, or, indeed, we believe, ples, has discovered a means of securing all since the restoration of the art of casting in bronze, &c. against the effects of the air or
base metals, such as iron, copper, brass, brass, by Zenodius, now eighteen centuries since ; the statue itself being 20 feet in
water, by giving them a metallic coat, which height, and its weight nearly 36 tons. It
is imperishable, cannot be removed except will require no inconsiderable share of inge
by a file, and when polished is as white and
brilliant as silver. His treatise on this subnuity to convey the ponderous statue from the artist's foundery in Pimlico to its pe
ject is now in the press.
New Steam ENGINE. dastal of granite in Hyde Park, where its erection is expected to take place in the Vienna, announces that he has invented a
Anthony Bernard, a machine-maker at course of five weeks.
much more simple, and, in many respects, CANAL Boats.
more useful steam-engine, which he calls Mr. T. M. Van Heythuysen's patent for pro- the Condensing Machine, because, contrary pelling Barges or Boats through Canals. to the English steam-engine, it does not act
The object of the invention is to substi- by the expansion, but by the condensation tute manual labour instead of equestrian in
of the air. transporting barges through canals, and is PRESERVING OBJECT OF NATURAL simply thus : a tread-wheel is fixed either to
HISTORY. the fore, or both to the fore and after-part M. Drapier, Professor of Chemistry and of a barge, which is trod round. The axle Natural History, and one of the Editors of passes through the tread-wheel and projects the Annales Generales des Sciences Phyfrom the sides of the barge about 20 inches: siques, has substituted with success, in to this is fixed a paddle-wheel similar to lieu of the poisonous matters employed in those used by vessels propelled by steam; preserving objects of natural history, a soap each of these wheels contain six paddles. composed of potash and fish oil. He disSupposing the man who treads to weigh solves one part of caustic potash in water, 135 lbs. and deduct 35 lbs. for friction, he and adds to the solution one part of fish oil: will then tread the axle round at a force of he rubs the mixture till it acquires a pretty 100 lbs. The superiority over the common
firm consistence. When it is completely method is this: a man when he pulls sculls dry, he reduces it to powder with a rasp. or oars, pulls them through the water 24 One part of this powder is employed in times in a minute, and the strength of his forming a soft paste or liquid soap, by means pulling is computed at about 30 lbs. each of an equal quantity of a solution of camtime. By Mr. Van Heythuysen's method, phor in musked alcohol. This liquid soap the paddle passes through the water 136 is well rubbed upon the skin of the bird, times in a minute ; and as only two paddles previously cleared of its fat, and the other are in the water at the same time, each pad- part of the soap and powder is plentifully dle is passed through the water by a force
scattered between the feathers. Thus preof 50 lbs. There is not sufficient space on
pared, the bird is placed in a moist situaa canal to allow of the use of oars. This
tion, in order that the particles of soap may newly-invented machinery is very simple, soften and attach themselves perfectly to the and can be taken off the vessel in a moment,
feathers, the down, and the skin. It afterand so light that a man can walk away with wards is put in a dry place. By this means it, with as much case as he can with a pair it completely resists the attacks of larvæ, of oars. Two men can propel a canal barge and has neither the danger nor the incouvewith this contrivance, 'at the rate of five nience of arsenical preparations, which, as miles an hour. The expence of keeping is well known, stain and spoil the extremitrack roads for horses to draw the barges, ties of the feathers and down.
[ 357 ]
Extract from Lines written in honour of the “ No sooner fix'd was his imperial pow'r,
Reign of his most gracious Majesty King Than all the threat'ning tempests ceas'd to
And thankless men forget their former fears : • Pale-ey'd Affright now smiles at her alarms,
Safe in the glory of his conqu’ring arms, sway,
know When Britain to its centre felt dismay;
The gen'rous conduct of a Royal foe; When England's wisest or her warmest
Who twice restor'd their antient Monarch's friend
(magne, Could never hope destructive war to end :
And twice subdued their boasted Charle-
From his bad eminence the Monster hurl'd,
And Britain made the Envy of the world.
THE LOVE-BEWILDERED MAID.
Beneath a weeping willow,
While round the meads the phantoms glide,
I thus desert my pillow.
The Moon her brightness thro' the trees,
At intervals is peeping; When Heav'n in mercy to this favour'd land, Anon her lustre no one sees, Transferr'd the Sceptre to the Regent's hand; She in her cloud is sleeping. And never, in the most auspicious reign,
Far, far beyond the Western main, Was Heaven's approval seen or felt more
Where yonder star is sinking;
Perchance my Love lies with the slain,
But if kind Heaven him protects,
To think of me he ne'er neglects,
His fate howe'er distressing!
Go, to my lover bear it;
And tell him that my heart is true, sky,
And none but him shall share it!
See, see yon cloud the Moon obscure, And plenteous crops adorn the cultur'd And all the prospect shading; plains ;
But ever will my truth endure, Again the splendour of the Sun appears, Nor will my love be fading. Ai Nature smiles—and man forgets his fears.
The lonesome owl from yonder tow's So when our gracious Prince commenc'd
Along the grove is flying, his reign,
[vaia Her screams disturb the silent hour, When Europe's feebler Pow'rs attempt in
While she for food is prying. The furious storms and tempests to withstand,
(Land, The village-clock with son'rous toll, Which Gallic vengeance pour'd around their
The midnight hour proclaiming, When menac'd Britain saw th' approaching And tells how Time does onward roll
And that there's no reclaiming! storm, Hail'd by the dreadful demon of Reform,
Adieu ! dear solitude, adieu ! We have reason to believe that our old
The hour grows dark and dreary, friend, the Medical Spectator, is the author The air is wet with nightly dew,
I'll go, for I am wearyl of the above lines.