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1922.] The Ant.-Difficult Passage in Ecclesiasticus. 313 in small hillocks of earth, raised by forty-third chapter of this excellent them for the purpose, or in the act of Book of Wisdoni-a chapter containloosening the soil to receive the infanting the sublimest description of the tribe; the whole of this is removed by works of the Almighty, that perhaps a spade, and placed in a pail or box on was ever penned. Going through the which there is a lid or cover to pre- whole compass of created matter, from vent the anxious parent from convey- the first to the twenty-second verse, ing away their young, which, when the author says in the twenty-third disturbed, they will do with surprising verse, by his Counsel he appeaseth activity.

the deep, and planteth islands therein." It is a curious circumstance, not to Accidentally looking, over the same be easily accounted for, that upon re- chapter in Cranmer's or the Great moving this lid once or twice in the Bible, I found the verse rendered " in day, or oftener, the inside surface will his Councell he setteth the depe, and be found entirely covered with eggs, (the Lord) Jesus planted it."* Wonattached to it by some fine filament ordering much to find the sacred name mucus, while the Ants themselves re- of Jesus so introduced, I was curious main in the earth beneath; and thus to search all the Bibles I possessed, it will be so long as an egg remains to and having given the result of that be removed ; and this is the more ex- search, I shall take leave to ask a few traordinary, because these ova are as questions, to which I trust some of large, or indeed, in common larger your learned readers will condescend than the parent insect.

to reply. The Bibles by Tyndal, TaAlthough we cannot discover in this verner, and Matthews in 1537 and little fact, any circumstance to shew, 1549, and the reprint of Cranmer in according to our notions, any pecu- 1562, have the same words as the culiarly wise provision of nature for Great Bible of 1539. Parker's (or the the safely, protection, or nourishment Bishop's Bible) of 1572 and 1574, of the creature, which are the universal contains these words,_* In his Counobjects of instinct in the irrational sel he appeaseth the deep, and hath animal, yet do I consider it worthy this planted islandes in it,” which is quite short notice, as a matter of curious and similar to our present translation, and not useless entertainment.

(as you see) leaves out the name of Yours, &c.

FORMICA. Jesus. The only Greek copy of the

Bible which I could get access to Mr. URBAN,

March 1. (printed in 1725) has these words, THE apocryphal book of Ecclesias- Λογισμω αυτού εκόπασεν άβυσσον, και translations of the Bible to have been the old translators (before Archbishop composed by Jesus the son of Sirach, Parker) in the introduction of the name and which in the Prologe thereto (as of Jesus. The Latin translations of given by Tyndal and all the older 1478, 1519, 1529, 1578, and 1590 (all translators) he says his grandfather (the by different printers), render the twentyHigh Priest who returned from Baby- third verse by the words,“ in cogitalon with Zorobabel) did write in He- tione sua placavit abyssum, et plantavit brew, and he himself interpreted or illum D’n's Jesus." The translation of translated the same, in the time of Tremellius, &c. has “ Sermocinatione Prolomy Euergetes (more than two ejus quiescit abyssus, et in ea insulas hundred years before the birth of our plantavit;" and the more elegant transSaviour), being held by the Western lation by Castellio gives “ Îlle æquor Churches in great esteem, was intro- mente sua pacat, et in eo plantavit duced by our first Reformers, and also insulas.” by the Compilers of the Articles of the My first question arising out of these Established Church, into the public facts is, on what authority has the service.

name of Jesus been introduced into I find on the authority of divers an- five old English and five old Latin tient writers, that the Hebrew copies translations of the Bible? or omitted are all lost, and that the Greek transla. in Parker's and the modern Bibles? tion by the grandson is the present Secondly. What is the meaning of only original. The occasion of my the word, as used by the son of Sirach present address to you arises out of the (if he did use it)? Gust. MAG. April, 1822.

Thirdly.

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(April Thirdly. Has the word Jesus in image of Christ in his private chapel, any other part of the Bible been used with those of Abraham and Orpheus, to denominate the Father Almighty, and had conceived the design of buildin contradistinction to the Son of ing himn a temple, had not the priests, God ?

after consulting the Auspices, found Fourthly. Must we suppose the that if what he proposed were accom. word to be an interpolation, or to have plished, all men would become Chrisbeen used by the author prophetically tians, and the other temples would be of the Redeemer?

deserted. (Lamprid. apud Hist. Aug. Yours, &c. INVESTIGATOR. Scrip. p. 439, D. p. 351 E.) (See

Macknight's “Truth of the Gospel HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Hist.” 4to. 494, 510.) (Continued from p. 220.)

The persecution of Christians arose URING the fourth persecution of from the baseless foundation of the

, Adrian, which began in A. D. 126, the perpetrators of those measures had and continued under Antoninus Pius, sufficient penetration to foresee would who succeeded to the empire in A. D. soon yield to the faith of the Gospel: 138, while Adrian tarried at Athens, and placing therefore their whole rehappening to be initiated into the liance on their false Gods, referred all Eleusinian mysteries, he expressed such their efforts to the support of their zeal about the heathen superstition, national errors-“they observed that that many put the former edicts against no stop had been put to their conquests the Christians in execution. By this until Christianity began to prevailmeans the persecution became so hot, in proportion to the spreading of this that they were obliged to remonstrate, faith, the calamities of the empire had particularly Quadratus Bishop of multiplied; they therefore referred the Athens, and Aristides a Philosopher whole greatness of their state to the in that city, who presented apologies favour of the Gods ancientlyworshipped, to Adrian, wherein they defended the and all its misfortunes to the neglect Christian religion against the objec- of the primitive religion and the pretions of its adversaries; and in confir- valence of Christianity.” Ibid 515. mation of its divine original, strenu. The Christians had flourished so ously urged our Lord's miracles, parti- much in Nicomedia, in Bithynia, as cularly his curing diseases and raising to have erected and maintained several the dead. These apologies, which churches, and a cathedral church are now lost, together with letters opposite to the Imperial palace; but from Serenius Granianus, representing when Dioclesian, who had during the the injustice of the procedure against course of a prosperous reign favoured the Christians, greatly assuaged the the Christians, arrived at Nicomedia, Emperor's zeal, and made him write he listened to the persuasion of Galeto the Governors of the Provinces, and rius, who was their enemy, and gave particularly to Minucius Fundanus, orders in A. D. 303 for demolishing Proconsul of Asia Minor, command- that church- a Christian publicly tore ing that “no Christian should be dis- the edict, and was punished: a few turbed on account of Religion. And days afterwards, part of the Imperial that whosoever accused them, without palace was consumed by fire, and the alleging any other crime against then, Christians were supposed to be the inshould be punished.” (Euseb. Eccl. cendiaries ; upon this, Dioclesian pubHist. Lib. 4. c. 8, 9.) Adrian having lished an edict, cominanding the Christhus began to entertain a favourable tian churches to be demolished, their notion of the Christians, did not stop bibles to be burned, those who had here. He caused a great many temples obtained any office in the magistracy to be built without images. These to be degraded, and the meaner sort to Lampridius, a heathen writer, tells us be sold as slaves-this was the cause he dedicated to Christ. intending to and commencement of the tenth perreceive him among the Gods; which secution. Ibid. 516. temples remained in the time of Lam- Galerius afterwards published an pridius, and from Adrian were called edict, directing that the Christians Adriani.

should thenceforth be spared, and their Alexander Severus also, who obtain- churches and meetings be allowed ed the purple in A. D. 222, had the them; entreating, at the same time,

that guages;

1922.)
History of the Christian Church..

315. that they would put up public prayers deposition against such as delivered for the Emperor. They suffered both doctrines not acceptable to his own. favourând persecution alternately, In most of the Provinces, in the same under Licinius; and at length (A.D. century, there were certain fixed places 306) Constantine became emperor, and set apart for public worship among the was the first who openly declared him- Christians-nor is it therefore improself a Christian. (Zozimus, Lib. 2. 102.) bable that these churches were, in He allowed to all men liberty of con- several places, embellished with images science -- and as Christians were ac- and other ornaments -- the times and customed to observe the first day of forms of celebration seem to have conthe week as a festival, in memory of tinued-but the sermons and discourses the resurrection of Jesus (Euseb. in

were very

different from those of earlier vità Const. I. 4, c. 18,) he com- times, and had legenerated from anmanded that on that day throughout cient simplicity; but Origen was the the Roman dominions, no court of first who explained the Scriptures in justice should be opened, and no work his lengthened discourses. The cereor business of any kind be done, ex- mony of the Lord's supper was admicept that of agriculture; this law is nistered with enlarged pomp-vessels still extant. (C. lib. 3, de feriis, tit. of gold and silver were introduced, and 12.) (Macknight, 518.)

those who were in a state of penitence, It is evident from the nature of and had not been baptized, were deemthings, that the introduction of the ed not fit to be admitted to it-these Gospel upon the ruins of the establish- exclusions were in imitation of the ed religion, must in all countries have practice in the heathen mysteries. been effected in opposition to the sword Baptism was administered to proseof the Magistrates, the craft of the lytes after long trial and preparationPriests, the pride of Philosophers, and and the remission of sins was given to the humours, passions, and prejudices the imposition of hands, conferring of the People, all closely combined in the sanctifying gifts of the holy spirit support of the national worship, and as necessary to a life of righteousness to crush the Christian faith, which and virtue. (Eusebius. Eccl. 7, 8.) aimed at the subversion of heathenism. (Mosheim, 1.291.) Fasting and prayer Ibid. 521.

were generally practised, and the sign In the progress of the third century, of the cross was considered as the we find the Bishops assuming an au- surest defence against the snares and thority which they had not before pos- stratagems of malignant spirits-and sessed; they are said to have violated hence no Christian undertook any thing the rights of the people, and to have of moment without arming himself made gradual encroachments on the with the influence of this triumphant privileges of the presbyters. Cyprian, sign. P. 294. Bishop of Carthage, defended this offi- In the third century, while persecucial dignity with more zeal and vehe- tion followed inany of the Christian mence than had ever been hitherto sects, yet it was in general foreborneemployed in that cause, though not at court, and in all the orders of the with an unshaken constancy and per- nation, there was a considerable numseverance, for in difficult and perilous ber who lived entirely unmolested, and times, necessity sometimes obliged him their religious persuasion was become to yield, and to submit several things no obstacle to their preferment. They to the judgment and authority of the held their worship openly in houses Church. (i Mosheim, 266.) The evil for the purpose, with the knowledge effects of this conduct, and the nu- of the Magistracy, and many of the merous offices into which ecclesiastical Emperors were very favourably induties were divided, the indolence of clined towards them : and in the case some, and the overstrained activity of of both the Philips, it is still a subject others, gave the victory to ambition of critical controversy, whether they over Christian humility-and opened embraced the light of the Gospel, or the way to a growing Hierarchy instead doubted or rejected it. (Se: Origen, of the primitive simplicity of Gospel lib. 1. against Celsus. Eusebius, Ectruth. The Bishop of Rome had as- cles. lib. 6. c. 5. Homily on Luke 7. sumed the supremacy, and was deno- Mosheim, Cent. 3.) minated Pontiff, and issued decrees for The sacred writings were generally the persecution of heretics, and for read, and translated into several lan

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[April, guages ; — and the labours of Origen common practice to defer baptism until and other pious Christians greatly as- the last hour, that they might ascend sisted in enlarging the bounds of the pure and spotless 10 the mansions of Church: and their charity and vir- life and immortality. tuous example every where excited The Emperor Constantine thos beamongst the Pagans not only an admi- came the first monarch who espoused ration, but a desire to embrace it. Christianity, and he had sufficient in

Paris, Tours, Arles, Cologn, Treves, fluence with his army, his ministers, Mentz, and probably Scotland, were and his people, to induce them to se added to the number of states in which cond his views. Pagan altars and suchurches were founded by the zeal of perstitions were thrown down, but the Christian teachers and converts. they could not fall without the stain While history records the cruel severity of severity and blood,--they could not of the emperor Severus Maximus, De- yield their power over the minds of cius Gallus, Volusianus, Valerian, and the people without vindicating their their servants, it also enumerates the antient claiins, and calling aloud for names of suffering piety and zeal which vengeance against their destroyers. no subsequent times have surpassed. Philosophers and rhetoricians employIt must ever remain a glorious triumph ed all the arts and eloquence of perto the honour of these early sufferers suasion to bring back their superstithat the Church of Christ, though dis- tious authority; and some of milder couraged, was not subdued, through disposition invented means by which their perseverance:

both religions might, as they conceived, In the persecution under Diocletian, be acceptable together;-ihey taught at the opening of the fourth century, that the Pagan and the Christian were his own ignorance and cruelty yielded the same, and that the latter had alto the persuasion and misrepresenta- ways been exemplified by the rites of tion of the enemies to the Christians, the former,--that Jupiter was God,for the edicts which he issued, not that Juno in her obstinacy shewed the only of torture, slaughter, and blood, character of antient Israel, -the chaste but also of the pulling down their Diana was a type of the Christian churches, burning all their books and Church, -and the two serpents that writings, and taking from them all Hercules strangled in his cradle were their civil rights and privileges, and the Pharisees and Sadducees. Such rendering them incapable of any ho- ideas were ascribed to Amminius, Marnours or civil promotion. (1 M.315.) cellus, Chalcidius, and Themistius ;But the tranquillity of the Church was but these and many such were soon restored by the revolution, which called lost in their ephemeral conceits. The Constantine, the son of Constantius true knowledge of God and of his Chlorus, who died in Britain, to the blessed Redeeiner was gone forth, and Imperial throne, and deposed Gale- could not be recalled,--the Gospel now rius, A. D. 304.. He soon after gave had its triumph, and it must ever be them liberty to live according to their lamented that its zealous promoters did own laws and institutions, and during not always follow the mildvess of its his march to reduce Maxentius, he doctrines ;-human power too often embraced Christianity, in consequence, shows its weakness in the midst of phyit is said, of his vision of a sacred sical strength. cross. He began by tolerating all The additions of pomp and cereother religions, but he soon became mony, which increasing power and convinced that Christianity alone main. authority considerably tended to estatained the possession of heavenly truth, blish, had advanced so much in the and of a divine origin ;- and he used sixth century, that Mosheim says ani the utmost power of his authority in incredible number of temples were the abolition of the ancient superstition. then erected in honour of the saints, But he reserved for the close of his both in Eastern and Western prolife his edicts for destruction of the vinces. The places set apart for pubtemples, and for prohibiting the Paganlic worship were already very numesacrifices (p. 322); and it was not till rous, but it was now that Christians a few days before his death that he first began to consider these sacred edireceived the ceremony of baptism at fices as the means of purchasing the faNicomedia, from the hands of Euse- vour and protection of the saints, and bius, bishop of that place. It was the to be persuaded that these departed spi

1892.]
History of the Christian Church.

$17 rits defended and guarded against evils In the seventh century, after the esand calamities of every kind the pro tablishment of Boniface on the Papa! vinces, lands, cities, and villages, in throne of Rome, by the profligate Emwhich they were honoured with tem- peror Phocas in the year 612, Honoples; their number were almost equal. rius employed all his diligence and led by that of the festivals, which were zeal in embellishing churches and now observed in the Christian Church, other consecrated places with the and many of which seem to have been

most pompous and magnificent orna. instituted upon a pagan model.-(Ch. ments ; for as neither Christ nor his 4, p. 4.)

A postles had left any injunctions of It may

rather be said that the festi- this nature to their followers, their prevals of the Pagan mythology were tended Vicar thought it but just to wisely converted to Christian use; supply this defect by the most splendid many were abolished; for the system display of his ostentatious beneficence. of idolatry was far more prolific of The riches and variety of the sacerdotal these days of religious observance, than garments then used at the celebration the simplicity of the Christian system of the Eucharist, and in the performwould adopt; but many were retained ance of divine worship, formed an adand happily converted into solemn junct to this splendour of decoration. commemorations of the principal -(Mosheim, Il. 183.) events which had established the

During the whole of the 11th cen. Christian faith, both in the time of tury, all the European nations were its Divine Founder and of his succeed- most diligently employed in rebuilding, ing, apostles and martyrs, -a plan repairing, and adorning their churches; which contributed greatly at those actuated by a dismal apprehension in days, as it does in modern times, to the preceding century, that the world keep alive in the remembrance and was approaching to its final dissolupious gratitude of those who profess tion; but when these fears were reihe name of Christians, a sense of the moved, the tottering temples were great things that have been done for rebuilt, and the greatest zeal, attended them, and without which they would with the richest and more liberal dobe too apt to either disregard or to- nations, was employed in restoring the tally forget them. These have been sacred edifices to their former lustre, considerably diminished in number in or rather in giving them new degrees the Reformed Church; and whoever of magnificence and beauty.--Moscandidly reads the single prayer which heim, il. Cent. 11. Part 2, c. 5, s. 3.) is the only devotional part of the Li- It appears from ecclesiastical history turgy that designates the peculiar day, that previous to the Reformation in will find that the charge is not found- the 16th century, the face of Religion ed in fact, which some who dissent was remarkably changed, the divisions from the Established Church have as- that had formerly perplexed the Chụrch serted, that prayers on those days are increased considerably.; and the Chrisaddressed, like those of the Roman tian societies that relinquished the esMissal, to the saints themselves. tablished forms of divine worship, and

The establishment of a Hierarchy erected themselves into separate assemin Great Britain bears date A. D. 596. blies, upon principles different from King Ethelbert having married Bertha those of the Roman Hierarchy, multidaughter of Cherebert, King of Paris, plied from day to day.-(Mosheim, IV. who was a Christian, he became fa- Introd.) vourable to it; and Gregory the Great This grand revolution, which arose sent Augustine with 40 Benedictine in Saxony from small beginnings, not Monks, who, with the Queen's in- only spread itself with the utmost raAuence, converted the King, changed pidity through all the European prothe heathen temples into churches, vinces, but also extended its efficacy erected Christ Church at Canterbury more or less to the most distant parts into a cathedral, founded the Abbey of of the globe; and may be justly consiSt. Augustin, received episcopal ordi- dered as the main and principal spring nation from the primate of Arles, was which has moved the nations from invested by Gregory with power over that illustrious period, and occasioned all the British Bishops and Saxon pre- the greatest part both of those civil lates, and was the first Archbishop of and religious revolutions that fill the Canterbury.-(Mosheim, II. 97.) annals of history down to our times.

The

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