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242

Review.-Dr. Jenner on Artificial Eruplions. [March, Here Dr. J. observes,

toe. Chronic Bronchitis with Hæ“This girl exhibited a curious illustra- moptoe, “ renewal of the eruptions tion of my opinions respecting involuntary, gave immediate ease,” p. 23. 'Case and indeed voluntary muscular exertions. xvii. The right arm was frequently thrown into Pyrosis, with jaundice. Within six action during the day. If it was held so for- weeks the patient resumed his laboricibly as to restrain involuntary motion, the

ous occupation as a sawyer. p. 23. jugular veins were observed to swell, and Case xviii. she fell to the ground if the arm was not

Here the Cases terminate ; and the set at liberty. Muscular exertion, which learned Doctor next enters upon the tends to equalize the circulation, may be involuntarily called into violent action, subject of former opinions concerning for distributing a preternatural quantity of

properties of tartarized antimony. blood thrown upon the brain during the Dr. Bradley admits, that in every inparoxysms, and which, if impeded, would stance it appeared to be a remedy of be followed by consequences injurious to its great efficacy, but the aversion of the structure. This remark admits of exten- patients to the irritation of the puissive illustrations, which would lead me too tules prevented a fair trial (p. 26). far from my present path of inquiry. I Dr. Robinson, in a paper on Chinwould just notice not only those involuntary cough, allows it to have been most and sudden motions which we designate by remarkably and undeviatingly useful, the term “fits," whether epileptic, hyste- and observes, “I have used it with ric, or whatever they may be, but also the voluntary motions, when the brain has be- advantage, even in cases where the fes

ver was attended with delirium at come turgid from any adequate exciting cause, produced under various modifications night.”. pp. 28, 29. of vehemence, from the thump on the

A blister may simply derange the cushion to the contortions of the orator,

surface of the cutis, but extend no as so frequently exemplified within the walls further. Upon this principle Dr. J. of both Houses of Parliament. How well reasons thus : do I remember the strong and characteris- “ By the Tartrite of Antimony we can tic action of the late Messrs. Fox, Pitt, not only create Vesicles, but we can do Grattan, and a host of public characters.

more — we have at our command an apYou may say, my dear Charles, that this plication, which will at the same time, case is equivocal; and I am not averse to

both vesicate and produce diseased action admit, that inflammatory action, excited on the skin itself, by deeply deranging its in any mauner in the line of the spine, might structure beneath the surface. This is prohave produced the same salutary effect.” bably one cause why the sympathetic af

fection excited by the use of cantharides, Mania. Case ix.

p.
13.

and those changes produced by tartar emeHysteria, running into Mania. Case tic, are very different." X. p. 14.

Dr. Jenner explains this in the folMania. Case xi. p. 15.

At the lowilig manner : end of four days, the usual eruption appeared, and she immediately became

“ If we enter into minute inquiry, do much better, (p. 16); a relapse ensued,

we not perceive, that different natural dis

eases of the skin have their peculiar symbut upon renewal of the practice she pathies with the constitution, from causes, got well. A third relapse followed, which from analogy admit of imitation by but through the neglect of the parents, the use of artificial irritauts? First, have in not applying the ointment, the hope we not those diseases, which take away the of complete recovery was lost. Ibid. cuticle, expose the raw surface of the cutis,

Hypochondriasis. Case xii. p. 17. and excite a new diseased action on the

Pyrosis [of Cullen-water, wash the abraded surface, which then discharges a mouth running over with saliva, and fluid apparently 'consisting of little more diseased mucous membranes of the than serum, next a semi purulent, and, lungs.] The mucous membranes sym. lastly, a discharge nearly purulent? Sepathized very conspicuously with the condly, diseases or derangements in the artificial pustules. Case xiii. p. 20.

cutis itself, which call a train of sympathies

into action of a still more extensive and imHysteria. Hypochondriasis. Deci.

portant nature : and, thirdly, the subcutaded convalescence. Cases xiv. xv. p.

neous affections of the cellular membrane, 20.

which indeed do not admit, strictly speakHæmoptoe. (Spitting blood.] Cascing, of being directly classed with the pure xvi. p. 21.

diseases of the skin, though the skin bePulmonary affections with Hæmopo comes indirectly affected, as in biles or car

buncles ?

P. 13.

P. 29.

p. 31.

P. 32.

1822.]
Review.-Dr. Jenner on Artificial Eruptions.

243 buncles? Hence then, in all probability, Dr. Parry (Elem.of

Pathology, chap. arise their complexity and extensive effects. Relation of Diseases of Conversion) adon the constitution." p. 30.

mits, that such eruptions give very imDr. Jenner then observes, that Na- portant information as to the nature ture herself suggests this remedy; by and cause of diseases (p. 38). Here throwing out on the skin, in the form Dr. Jenner observes, that the particuof eruptions, diseases, which might lar interest of these quotations does otherwise prove fatal.

not consist so much in their simple Upon this head he

pathological consideration, as in the says, “Whoever has observed the deranged mutual resemblance of the effects of

the natural and artificial process." p.38. state of health, where vesiculated eruptions have been called into action, by an effort

Dr. J. observes (pp. 40, 41) that in of nature, must have seen how often they cases of confluent small pox, which arrest the progress of the original disorder, universally envelopes the skin and and may we not from thence infer what ap- must unavoidably prove fatal ; the pears to me to be a pretty general law of progress of the pustules may be susnature, that she often gets rid of diseased pended in limine by the skin being action affecting vital organs, by exciting sponged (leaving a portion untouched) in other parts not vital? I am with

that powerful coagulant Liq. Lyaware that this doctrine is not entirely new thargyri somewhat diluted. This he or unobserved; but though the phenomena illustrates by a strong case. have been so often described, have we taken

Dr. Cullen has made secondary fethe hint in our treatment of diseases either chronic or acute ? The humoral patholo- ver, in confluent small pox, a inere gists maintained the metastasis of diseases; continuation of primary fever, a rebut, instead of arguing that eruptive affec- mark founded upon simple similarity tions were erchanges of diseased action, they of action ; but Dr. J. contends, that considered them to be the drains by which the first and second fevers are not certain humours existing in a depraved con

such successions of each other, but dition of the circulating fluids were carried matters of distinct origin and action, off."

and that the second is a process, inDr. J. then offers the following il- stituted by nature for the purpose of lustrations : (i) the loss of catarrh subduing the first. This he illustrates apon the appearance of eruptions on by analogy with ordinary occurrences the lips; (ii) Dr. Ferriar's remark,

of exanthemata and fevers. who (Medical Histories, vol. II. p. 69)

Dr. J. next observes (p. 43) that observes, “ Cutaneous eruptions often

wherever fever is of such a nature as extinguish dangerous diseases,

such as

to have at first a bad tendency, the maduess, melancholy, epilepsy, deli- eruption appears quickly, and he inriun protracted after fever, dyspepsia, fers, that the fatality of the plague various pulmonary affections, which, may often be owing to the tardy aphe says,'“ are all observed to be mi- pearance of the eruptions, or their tigated or removed on the appearance mere assumption of the form of small of cutaneous disorders.” (p. 34.) But carbuncles, which do not give out a he adds, that mere efflorescences are

fluid.-Dr. J. then adduces the most void of effect. Why it so happens pithy instances of the distresses of the Dr. J. thus explains (p. 34, note),

constitution, when the eruptions dis"Here there was no vesicular eruption, appear in measles, or natural or inwhich in general seems the favourite oculated small pox; but he observes, scheme of Nature for limiting the du- that when the eruptions have not the ration of peculiar morbidactious.” p. 34. proper vesicular character, the indica

Dr. F. admits in favour of the prac. tions are the reverse of being favourtice in general, that there is no safer able (p. 44). His illustration from conversion than that to the skin (p. the plague is important, as being 35): and Dr. J's opinion is, that a strongly in aid of his theory, in which tew disease may be created, which he is supported by the first authorities suppresses another (p. 39.) Huxham, on Fevers, allows, that buboes, it runs the more rapidly, and is

* “When the plague is unattended by there is a great consent between the

more generally fatal than when accompaskin and the lungs, as is evident in nied by such inflammations. The earlier å repelled itch, small pox, measles, they appear, the milder usually is the dis&c. which immediately fall on the When they proceed kindly to supbreast." pp. 220, 221.

puration, they always prove critical, and

ease.

ensurg

P. 46.

244

Review.-Dr. Jenner on Artificial Eruptions. [March, It is this, that the smallest appearance

Here we must take leave of this imof a fluid upon the apices of the tu- portant and ingenious work; and most mors are sufficient to give them a fa- warmly recommend it to public atvourable operative character; and he tention; for assuredly in diseases of the then queries

dreadful description to which it bears “Whether the tendency of many dis- relation, even partial, and far inferior

success to that which it claims, would eases, arising from the action of animal poisons brought in contact with the human be a vast point gained, but that we have body, does not in general, from want of such reason to hope the best is further eviaid from Nature, take a more fatal course?" dent from the following outlines of

cases, with which we shall conclude.

“ One is a case of hysteria, in a young Dr. J. further thinks, (p. 47) that the sympathy between the constitution lady of a peculiarly delicate constitution,

and attended with symptoms of rare ocand the skin is created through the

currence in this disease. The morbid senmedium of the brain and nervous sys- sibility of the spinal cord, from its extretem.

Here we tread tender ground, mity to the brain, was so evident, that merely though we see nothing advanced which walking across the room, if her steps were is not plausible. Dr. J. is of opinion, not cautiously attended to, gave an intolethat too much stress has been laid ex- rable jarring sensation, from the lower porclusively on the stomach, and that tion of the spine to the brain itself. It without recollection of the connexion was of three months standing, and she had between that organ and the brain ; been attended by gentlemen of highly diseven the power of thinking, and the tinguished eminence in their profession :formation of ideas, have been unwa

but the ordinary remedies availed little. The rily ascribed to it. We beg not to be other was a state of scrophulous ulceration misunderstood. Dr. J. simply limits left fore-arm, which, in spite of those re

and thickening of the pereosteum of the his opinions to the exclusion of any medies deemed most efficacious, had been intellectual action in this grand viscus, gradually advancing nearly for the space of without derogating from its manifest three years, and very little hopes were enhigh rank in the animal economy. tertained of the limb being saved. Seeing

Dr. J. then proceeds to the possi- the efficacy of the artificial pustule, in in. ble good operation of the process in ternal derangements of the vital organs,

I Hydrophobia ; but we regrei to find, recommended the patient to apply the ointthat as he has never seen a case of hy- ment on the sound arm.

After it had prodrophobia in the human subject, he duced its usual effect a few days, the wounds can have nothing to offer which is not assumed a new aspect, and the healing promerely speculative. But his reason

cess went ou with such wonderful rapidity, ing from analogy is ingenious. He that at the expiration of little more than a considers Tetanus arising during the month, one out of three wounds was healed,

and the other two fast approaching towards presence of an external wound, as one

it, with a sensible reduction of the thickof the diseases which owes its origin, ening of the periosteum." p. 66. like Hydrophobia, to a morbid poison generated by secretion, and brought 34. Memoirs of James the Second, King of into contact with the skin (p. 51). England, &c. &c. Collected from Various He adduces in support of this remark Authentic Sources. 2 vols. 8vo. vol. i. pp. an ingenious position of Dr. Colles, 307. vol. ii. pp. 300. Baldwin and Co. who maintains that the Trismus nas- DR. KING, the Jacobite principal centium and traumatic Tetunus are

of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, has observ. the same; the former arising from ed, that the misfortunes of the Stuarts the suppuration of the umbilical cord; and adds the case of a friend, lution to make circumstances conform

were owing to their determined resowho lost his life by the puncture of to their inclinations, from an opinion, a thorn, “when the disease assumed that Providence was so tenacious of a marked similitude to hydrophobia; the prosperity of Kings, that it would and the sufferer expired after the same always adapi events to their wishes, lapse of time in one instance as in the We all know the fable of the oak and other.” p. 52.

the willow; and it would be an inensure the patient's recovery. - Thomas's sult to our readers to reason one moPractice of Physich, p. 204. Ed. 3. We ment upon an illusion so absurd as could quote other authorities, but have that acted upon by the unfortunate taken that which of course condenses scat- Princes in question. A fool often suftered information." fier.

fers as severely as a rogue; and the

temporal

1922.]
Review.-Memoirs of James II.

245 temporal success and well-being at- out vice or misery, which object, as tached to prudence, seem to infer, that far as it is attainable, is only to be acit is a part of the moral government of quired by the wise practice of ScotGod, that he shall be glorified by the land, a common-sense education in exhibition of reason; and our Saviour religious and moral principles. Charles, has confirmed the position by strongly James, and Louis, however, in defiimpressing upon his disciples “ adop- ance of even a spelling lesson in the tion of the wisdom of the serpent.” school of a Statesman, set up, to use As to the deduction of Dr. King, an Anglo-Doric jest, the pot-house Hume confirms it by observing, that sign of We Three,” in manner folwe are not to look for the springs of lowing. [James's] administration so much in

“Charles and the Duke (James) so much his council and chief officers of state, desired it, that they deemed the change of as in his own temper, for he was so ar- religion an easy undertaking, if prudently bitrary, that he would retuin no one in entered upon ; yet how strange the inconkis service who did not ol'serve the most sistency; if they thought it necessary to strict obedience to his commands." vol. conceal their project from three of the MiII. p. 8:

nisters, how could they imagine they would Fielding remarks, conce

ncerning wo

be able to overcome the national dislike, but men, that what they devise they al- by again plunging the kingdom into a civil ways deem to be practicable, and ne

war, and by dragooning men to embrace their ver admit obstacles to be of weight; sentiments. They seemed entirely to for

get, that the human mind spurns controul, and Miss Edgeworth mentions a wo

that it can never act vigorously or permaman who married a fool, under a per- nently, unless it acts upon conviction, but suasion, that as such, he would be what is the result of its own energies, freely easily governed, but to her great dis- and without dictation exercised. Louis enappointment, found him incorrigibly tered most readily into the extravagant proobstinate. Now we are thoroughly ject, because he meant to render it subserpersuaded that the feminity, folly, and vient to his own ambitious and encroaching obstinacy, to which we have alluded, views; for the detaching England from its obtain with innumerable hotheaded alliance with Holland, was essential to the enthusiasts. Left to themselves, they success of his plans of extending empire.” often ruin the cause which they wish vol. I. p. 176. to serve, and what Lord Bacon says, Charles never acted

upon

the

prothat the cool man should contrive, and ject, and Louis was to hang back till the bold man only execute, applies to matters were mature. James, howthem also. Although acting with the ever, like a foxhunter on a steeple best intentions, even if their principles chase, resolved to go as the crow flies, be popular, they cause “ their good to regardless of mountains or seas, set off be evil spoken of,” and make as many, to Rome with the intention of bringif not more, enemies, than friends : be- ing back the Pope behind him to cause they do not adapt means to ends. Whitehall. What sorry steeds he used

It is only while Enthusiasts are con- for the perilous expedition will appear temptible, that they are safe; but the from the following accounts of some worldly situation of James deprived of them. him of this often fortunate security. He attended mass on the Sunday Had he been in humble life, and only after his accession, and thus disgusted started the ideas soon to be quoted, many who had been indifferent to his neither virtue nor ability would have religion, when privately acted upon, saved him from an imputation, slan- and alarmed others withi apprehension derously, we apprehend, attached to of his arbitrary disposition and bigotry bares in March, or the innocent in- ii. p. 9). He forwarded a defence of habitants of Gotham.

Popery to Archbishop Sancroft (p. 10); Men of the world say, that religi- levied taxes by proclamation only (p. ous fanaticism makes either a fool, a 11); demanded a supply for a standing madman, or a rogue: and we all know army (p. 40); disregarded the Test Act that Peter the Hermit, John Knox, (p.41); and through an agent, “cashierand Loyola have severally received one ed above four thousand Protestant solat least, if not more, of these honour- diers, and above three hundred Proable appellations. Gibbon observes, testant officers, many of whom had that fanaticisin never did produce a purchased their commissions, and shed golden age, i.e. a race of men with their blood in the cause of the crown;

and

p. 49.

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246
Review.-Mr. G. Penn on the Iliad.

[March, and their clothes being taken from that there was no such person, that the them, they were naked, ruined, and Iliad is a consarcination of parts by compelled to become wanderers in the various authors, and other hypotheses, land of their birth, and urged on by discussed and exploded by Mr. Pent, distress to fearful acts of desperation." in his eleventh chapter.

Blair pretends that the Iliad has no We, of course, omit the Magdalen higher subject than the quarrel of two College affair, the Ecclesiastical Com- Chiefs about a female slave. (See p. mission, the trial of the Bishops, and 33.) other foolish things, as quite backnied. Mr. Penn says (p. 27), “We may We have said enough to show that the venture to pronounce that Achilles's measures of James, as a Constitutional anger alone, unsubjected to a more King, were intolerable; and to con- exalted argument, would never have firm the remark of our author (ii. 78) given rise to the Iliad.” Upon this that men are more eager to propagate principle, some continental' writers their religious opinions, than to attend suggest that the Iliad was written to to their practical uses.

impress upon the Greeks who were These volumes are judiciously and divided into numerous small states, tastefully compiled, and rendered as the necessity of union and harmony lively and pleasant reading as a good among themselves. For this purpose novel. In short, the work is highly Homer lays before them the evils instructive and interesting. It ought which ensued to their ancestors, from to be read by all Englishmen, as a sort the quarrel between Achilles and Agaof accompaniment to our Constitu- memnon, and the advantages which tional and Philosophical Bibles, for followed their reconciliation. This though the History of Fatuity can opinion Mr. Twining (if he alludes to convey only melancholy reflections, it in the following sentence, -"Homer yet that of Etourderie and Wrong- wrote his Iliad on purpose to teach headedness, seems often to be a de- mankind the mischief of discord among viation which leads to most advan- the Greeks”) says is manifestly absurda. tageous consequences; like the excur- (Aristot. p. 56), cited in Penn, p.211.) sion of an obstinate silly fellow in an Mr. Granville Penn, with a most unknown country, who makes a va- elegant exhibition of ingenuity and luable discovery by blundering out of learning, contends that the road, or incurs a danger, against which otherwise no provision would in the narrative, or in the proem, we find it

“Whether we seek the primary argument have been made. Both these conse

to be the same in each, viz. the sure and quences, with regard to the Constitu- irresistible power of the divine will over the tion, resulted from the bigotry of most resolute and determined will of man, James.

demonstrated in the case of Achilles." (Page

200.) 35. An Examination of the Primary Argument of the Iliad. By Granville Penn, ourselves. The shoe was made before

Upon this point we shall not commit Esq. 8vo. pp. 366. Ogle and Co.

the last. The Homeric poenis furnishCERTAIN learned critics taking ed Aristotle with the rules for the the primary argument of the Iliad 10 Epic, and Homer is not to be tried by be the "

Auger of Achilles," or the ex post facto laws. The Bards in all * Prayer of Thetis," find that the ages have celebrated Heroes and heroic poem does not thus harmonize with

acts upon laureat principles alone, withthe Aristotelian rules concerning the out any moral or other view or feeling Epopæa (notwithstanding the assertion than gratitude and patriotism ; and, of Aristotle himself to the contrary); according to antient habits in relation for, if the subject were the “ Anger of to this subject, Homer might have no Achilles," there is an excess in the other meaning than what he has given poem of nearly seven books, if “the in his proem, for otherwise he would Prayer of Thetis," “ of two." (Penn, perhaps have distinctly specified it. In pp. 1, 2, 22.) from hence, with the the heroic ages, when battles chiefly speed of the fast-going clock, which consisted of duels between individuals

, an honest Hibernian said, gained a the invincible prowess of one man quarter of an hour in five minutes, they have proceeded to infer that the last

* Why so? it is a very natural inference : books were not written by Homer, perhaps á correct one.

night

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