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121 for the author the degree of Doctor in which is a very pathetic one. The hisDivinity from the University of Ox- torical part of this very interesting book ford, one of the highest honours she fills 139 pages; the remaining 132 can bestow, and therefore very rarely pages contain extracts from his writconferred.
S. T. B. ings, which were published at large in
the two quarto volumes mentioned by Mr. URBAN,
Isaac Pennington's wife was a very WOULD recommend “Ebor" I (vol. XCI. i. p. 583), to purchase
religious extraordinary woman; and the “ Memoirs of the Life of Isaac much is said about her in these MePennington (son of the Alderman), book would be perused with much in
moirs, and I am persuaded that the to which is added a Review of his terest by those who are religiously inWritings, by Joseph Gurney Bevan,"
clined. 1807. It is a thin octavo, and contains much interesting matter. It be- from this valuable Memoir, but they
I could add many striking extracts gins thus :
would probably occupy more space “Isaac Pennington was born about the than the Gentleman's Magazine could year 1616, heir, to use the words of his
L. son-in-law William Penn, (* who married Gulielma Maria Springett, daughter of Isaac Pennington's wife by a former hus- THE CENSOR. No. XII. band) to a fair inheritance. It would be
( Continued from vol. XCI. ii. p. 419.) gratifying to trace the steps of the childhood of a man in whom the simplicity of [Forster's “ England's Happiness Ina child so long survived the weakness : but,
creased.”] until further search can be made, it must
EN suffice to learn from the same author, that
"NGLAND'S Happiness_Inhis education was suitable to his quality Reniedie against all succeeding dear
creased; or, A Sure and Easie among men, and that he had all the advantages which the schools and universities of Years; by a Plantation of the Roots his own country could bestow, as well as called Potatoes, whereof (with the adsuch as arose from the conversation of some dition of Wheat Flower) excellent, of the most knowing and considerable men good, and wholesome Bread may be of the time. He arrived at manhood at a made every year, eight or nine months period when England was agitated with the together, for half the charge as forimpest of civil commotion, by means of merly. Also, by the planting of these the discord between Charles I. and his Par
Roots, ten thousand men in England liament; and as the father of Pennington and Wales, who know not how to tecs himself a violent partisan, the son, had his temper inclined him to enter the lists,
live, or what to do to get a maintewight probably soon have arisen to emi
nance for their families, may, of one rence in the Republic. But he seems early
acre of Ground, make thirty pounds to have set his mind on another contest per annum.
Invented and published than the one for worldly power, and to have
for the good of the poorer sort. By chosen a life dedicated to an inquiry after John Forster, Gent. God, and a holy fellowship with his de
Natura beatis spised people. He chose, he sought, he Omnibus esse dedit, si quis cognoverit uti.' strove, and he obtained; but had his choice For the Lord hath chosen Sion to be an beca to follow the path which his father habitation for himself.' Psalm cxxxii. v. 14. hed entered, disappointment would most • I will bless her victuals with increase, likely have been the ultimate consequence. and will satisfy her poor with bread.' v. 16.
The elder Pennington had been chief Magistrate of the Metropolis; he had raised London: printed for A. Seile, over the forces of the City to join the Parlia- against St. Dunstan's Church in FleetDent's army; he had been intrusted with street. 1664. 4to. pp. 30.” the charge of the Tower, and had been one of the Council of State. But the Restora- From our long disquisition upon tog reversed the condition of public affairs; Anecdote, we turn with pleasure to a med be died a prisoner in the fortress which
subject which seems to admit of less the hard formerly commanded.”
prolixity. Of John Forster, or his In page 53, is a letter to his father, Treatise, we have not been able to
meet with any account, and believe it • This parenthesis is in a marginal note. to have lain dormant for upwards of a Gent. Mag. February, 1822.
Porster's “ English Happiness Increased." (Feb. century, notwithstanding the qualifica- to advance and set forward a work so genetions of scarcity and intrinsic value. It rally beneficial--beneficial to your Majesty, is an evil (although in many instances beneficial to all your Majestie's subjects, an unavoidable one), in the history of beneficial to strangers and foreigners of private families, that few materials are other nations ; to your Majesty, by a conextant for commemorating their ac
stant considerable annual revenue; to all your tions, nor is the most assiduous re
Majestie's subjects, especially those of the search able to recover any thing fur
meaner rank, by a cheap, profitable, and ther than their births, marriages, and
easie way of providing for and maintaining
of their families; to foreigners and strangers deaths : in this particular the Visita- of the more Northern climates, by yearly tions, the preservers of early genealogy, supplying and furnishing them with corn, convey little information, and the Ba- which
hereafter be spared ont of these ronetage of Arthur Collins cannot be your Majestie's dominions. Seeing, therecalled biographical. During the reign fore, that the benefit of this Plantation may of Charles 1. the Mercuries and Diur- be so great, be pleased, most mighty Mo- / nals furnish much matter of this sort;
narch, to vouchsafe it your Royal approbabút, the author before us was too young
tion and permission; it being a work of chato take any part in the troubles of his rity, in so large au extent, that not a few country, and his father died before only, but all the poor in general, throughtheir commencement*. He was a
out these your Majestie's dominions, will
receive benefit by it, will be so well proyounger son of Sir Guy Forster, knt.
vided for, that hereafter they will have no of Wolf's-place, in Hanslape, Bucks,
cause to complain of the hardeness of the and baptised there the 6th of July, years, or of the dearness of corn. Besides
, 1626 'Of his education and early life this project may be performed with very nothing is known; but it appears that little charge, and also in a short time; for he was intimate with Judge Tyrrell, in two years and an half, these Plantations of Hanslape, to whose marriage he will be finished, to the benefit of your Mawas a witness, February 22, 1654: jesty, and great good of the whole nation ; but his acquaintance with so versatile and in three years, all the charges (which is a character cannot place him in an
only to the planters) will be re-paid trebble. enviable light; it was in fact pro- and princely consideration (craving your
Thus, leaving it to your Majestie's wisdom duced by their relationship. After the gracious pardon for this presumption), I Restoration, we find him emerging into
do hear humbly take my leave, and remain literary life, and bringing forward a
your Majestie's faithful and loyal subject, plan of general utility, in endeavour.
John Forster." ing to provide food for the poor throughout the kingdom. The Dedi- vereign, we are altogether ignorant ;
Of the author's reception by his Socation prefixed to the pamphlet exhi- it is sufficiently probable that he was bits a fair statement of his views :
neglected, as no steps were taken to “To the high and mighty Monarch put his project into practice: it is not Charles II. by the grace of God, King of clear, however, that he could expect Great Britain, France, and Ireland, De
any different treatment. His views fender of the Faith, &c. “Custom, not necessity (most dread So
were extensive, perhaps too much so; vereign), seems to be the cause of most
and his expectations of general utility Dedications; 'tis otherwise in this ; the
too hasty: nor had he any fair reason subject and matter hereof being of publique scarcely settled in the kingdom, and in
to suppose that an administration, utility, requires one of publique authority to patronize it. Leaving, therefore, the more want of money to carry on their affairs, subordinate, I have presumed to address to could enter upon a plan of so great your Majesty as Supreme, humbly present- trouble and expense. Beneficial as it ing this my weak endeavour, this new was certain to prove, it was rather the Plantation, this most profitable invention, work of some spirited individual, than to the view and consideration of your most the Crown, and for householders than sacred † Majesty; a meaner patron not licensed planters. Impressed, perhaps, befitting, not being of authority sufficient with this idea, he admonishes his read* Captain Edmund Forster, a loyalist of
ers (in the preface) of the duty of every repute, the only person of this family who housekeeper to provide for his family'; was concerned in the civil wars, died soon
says; after their breaking out.
“ And since it hath pleased God to deli+ A quibble on the letters C. R. is pro- ver such a talent to my keeping, I was willbably meant here.
ing (not to hide it in the earth, or wrap it
1892.] Forster's “ English Happiness Increased."
123 up in a napkin, but) to improve it as « The roots being thus prepared, you well as I could, which I hope I have done, may make bread of them after this manner : by publishing of it, that thou, loving reader, you must take as much wheat or barley mayest know it, make use of it, and re- flower as your half bushel of potato meal ceive the benefit of it; desiring, from my weighs, and mix them well together with pains and labour herein, but thy kind ac- your hands ; then put to it as much warm ceptation ; which, if I shall perceive, I shall water, mix d with a little barme, as you be the more encouraged hereafter (accord- think will make it into very stiffe dough, ing to my powers and ability) further to and as much salt as is convenient; which serve thee, in whatsoever civility and hu- being doue, kneed it well, until it be exactly manity commands.—Thine assured friend, mingied, which will quickly be, by reason of John Forster. From Hanslop, in Bucks, the dryness and mealiness of the roots ; afJuly the 10th, 1664."
terwards make loaves of it, and see that it
be well baked.” P. 6. One thing is particularly remarkable throughout this Tract; the author From bread he proceeds to pastry; speaks of potatoes as but little known and gives receipts for making cakes, in England : the following passage paste, puddings, custards, and cheesmay serve to show his learning in the cakes, of potatoes; most which are generic and specific names, and proves needless, after he had once shown how that he had received a genteel educa- to make flour. His disposition was tion.
certainly congenial with that of King “Now there are divers kinds of potatoes, James I. inasmuch as he inveighs all which were originally brought from against “that narcotick Indian herb America. The first sort being those of the tolacco, which corrupts the breath, greatest request, are the Spanish potatoes, dulls the senses, makes many a good called of the latines, l'attata, camotes, amotes, wit sottish and stupid, many a rich igranes, and inhames. The second sort are
man beggarly and poor.” P. 19. the Virginia potatoes, called battata, and
His project for raising plantations baltatas Virginianorum, papas, papus, and throughout the kingdom seems to be poppus. The third sort are the potatoes of the result of cool calculation and expeCanada, called of the herbarists heliotropium rience; but it is a question whether it indicium tuberosum, flos solis piramidalis
, would prove successful to a great exesper peruvianus tuberosus ; and falsely in English, artechooks of Jerusalem. The
tent: had it been taken up in soine fourth sort (which are these I shall write of degree, the benefit would have been in this treatise, and are fittest for our pur- apparent to the present generation ; pose) are the Irish potatoes, being little dif- but as it now stands, is merely specuferent from those of Virginia, save only in lative. the colour of the flower and time of fouring." P. 2.
“My intention in writing and publishing He subsequently mentions that large have little or no estate, nor was ever brought
of this treatise, was partly that those who crops of potatoes existed in Wales.
up in any calling, should, by the planting of We now come to the most useful those roots, have a way to get a mainteportion of the treatise concerning nance for their families, which cannot be, bread. Aware that these roots were if every one should plant them.” P. 20. capable of being applied to various purposes, he attempted the making of John Forster died in December 1693, bread from them, and succeeded ac- and was buried with his ancestors at cording to his wishes. Had he stopped Hanslape, on the 9th. His life was here, we think mankind would have monotonous, as that of country genderived sufficient benefit from his la- tleinen during peace must necessarily bours; but he was emboldened by be; but a fate different to that of his success, and determined to proceed more inactive contemporaries awaited with his darling hope of rendering po- him. Had his plan been taken up by tatoes a substitute for corn. To carry the King, and put into motion by the on his projects, he increased his planta- people, he would have been commetions; and, after two years' experience, morated as a benefactor by Poets and "found that they might be put to di- Biographers, not to forget the tributes vers other good uses.” Of these we of subsequent Horticulturists; and shall speak hereafter. He advises, in Buckinghamshire would have found a order to reduce potatoes to meal, to prouder boast in his birth-place, than boil and afterwards rub them in a in the sepulchres of Hampden or Russiere, and then
[Feb Mr. URBAN,
Jan. 30. slightly noticed by Mr. D'Israeli, in THE Gentleman's Magazine has the Preface to his “Calamities of nutiæ literariæ of Scholars, -- men, information regarding it will, perhaps, whose due and regular education for not be unacceptable to that portion of the learned professions has put them your readers who have not abandoned into a very different course of reading, the Ancients, or the Demi-ancients, as and given them a very different esti- Le Clerc properly calls the Learned mate of books from those who now Authors at the revival of Literature. for the most part make up their tasks Joannes Pierius Valerianus was born for sale, and supply the press which at Belluno in 1475, and died at Padua, feeds the market with new publica- 1558, æt. 83. The best memoir of tions for the people.
him is given by Niceron, Homm. IlWe do not live in a learned age; lustr. XXVI. 345. and the clainorous force of popular This tract “ De Infelicitate” was opinion has gained entire supremacy not published till 1620, at Venice, in over the still, meek voice of Genius, small 8vo. It was reprinted at AmTaste, and Erudition. Men who are sterdam, in 1647, 12mo, with the utterly unacquainted with the pro- tract of Cornelius Tollins; again at cesses and results of other minds, set Helmstadt, 1064, 12mo; a fourth up to teach before they have learned; time, in the edition of the “Hieroand mistaking their own ignorant con- glyphics” of Valerianus, which was clusions for discoveries, are received as printed at Francfort, 1678, 4to; and sages because they Aatter vulgar pas- fifthly, in the “ Analecta de Calamisions and vulgar interests.
tate Literatorum" of John Burchard Authors are no longer a class of Menckenius, Leipsic, 1707, 12mo. men who write their own sentiments (See Res Literariæ, II. 54.) or their own matured conclusions, the Notwithstanding all these editions, fruit of cultivated talents, enriched by the book had become extremely rare. meditation, and controuled and polish- I am aware that this has been denied ed by discipline; but men pursuing a by those who might be expected to mercenary occnpation, whose busi- know; but I suspect that they were ness it is to produce goods, of which misled by an accidental oversight of a the sole end is vendibility. Now if it well-in formed bookseller. A copy of be admitted that there are twenty per
the “ Analecta,” which contains this sons without taste or learning for one Tract, was marked in Payne's Catawho possesses either of them, how logue, 1820, at 5s. The maker of the must the author shape his composi- Catalogue did not notice this Tract. cions, if his object is sale? This per
If a vain search for this Tract in vades the whole mass of modern Lite- catalogues and public libraries is a test rature, especially in the British empire: of rarity, I can affirm it to be rare. If and the misfortune is, that for the the authority of good judges is a test, I same reason Criticism, instead of con- am equally fortified in this opinion ; trouling it, follows it! He who sets for I have the testimonies of Manc. up his voice in the way of appeal, is kenius, Niceron, Volpi, &c. hooted down by numbers. Vox populi,
At length, I found all the editions, vor Dei! this is what they believe; except that included in the Hiero and this is the principle on which glyphics, in the richly-furnished Ange. they act!
lica Library at Rome; and subse. Thus in all ages the men of real ge- quently at ihe sale of the books of a nius and real learning are condemned princely house there, procured the orito infelicity: not because every age ginal edition of 1620. offends against them in the same way,
Esteeming this Tract to possess great but because whatever fashion the age intrinsic merit, I have reprinted an takes, it always turns against this un- edition, confined to 87 copies ; of happy tribe. They who are acquaint- which 12 are on large paper. 'Of these ed with books, know at least the title 17 have been distributed among Schoof a little work written by a very
lars on the Continent; and only three learned man on this subject, at the be- have been hitherto sent to England. ginning of the sixteenth century--I It may be well to cite the words of mean the tract“ De Infelicitate Lite- Niceron on the character of this book : ratorum," hy Valerianus. This is
“ Je ne sçai pourquoi Tollius a mis
1892.] Original Letters from Dr. Richard Grey.
125 Pierius Valerianus au nombre des Sçavans
ORIGINAL LETTERS TO THE malheureux Il est vrai qu'il est sorti
Rev. W. Green*. d'une famille peu aisée; mais cela n'a pas
(Continued from vol. LXXXIX. nui à ses études ; et il s'est trouvé pendant tout le cours de sa vie dans une situation
ii. p. 608).
“ To Rev. W. Green, Fellow of assez agréable. Ce qu'il dit qu'il fut obligé
Clare Hall, Cambridge. dans sa jeunesse de se mettre au service de quelques Senateurs de Venise, pour fournir “Sir, Hinton, Jan. 10, 1748. à sa mere et à ses sœurs de quoi subsister, est T my return out of Leicesterabsolument faux ; et il n'apporte pour ga
, rant de ce fait que quatre vers de Valerianus, sure of seeing your friend Mr. Broughqui ne signifient rien de semblable.
ton in good health, I received the fa« Valerianus a donné à son Ouvrage le vour of your obliging Letter, and am nom de Contarenils, parceque le premier glad if what I have lately published livre est un entretien de Gaspar Contareno, has given you any satisfaction, or is in Ambassadeur de Venise, avec quelques gens des lettres de Ronie, et qu'il est parlé de any degree acceptable to the learned lui dans le second. On y trouve un grand world. I by no means deserve the nombre de faits curieux, qu'on n'a point compliments you are pleased to bestow ailleurs; et c'est ce que cet Auteur nous a upon me; nor do I' pretend to any donné de plus interressant. Il servit à sou
other merit than that of a sincere dehaiter qu'il eût mis des dates aux faits qu'il sire to promote the study of the Holy rapporte; mais ce n'etoit point l'usage de Scriptures in such a manner as is most son temps."
likely to procure the veneration that is Niceron again, in his Memoir of jastly due to them; and to be as useJ.B. Menckenius, XXXI. 259, speak
ful that way as is in my power. But ing of the edition of Valerianus, in- you seem, Sir, to be sufficiently sencluded in the “ Analecta," 1707, to
sible that the general taste lies another gether with Josephus Barberius de Mi- way, and that very small encourageseria Poetarum Græcorum,-says,
ment is given to works of this kind.
This indeed is a melancholy reflection, “Tous ces Ouvrages meritoient d'être but there is no help for it. The world se-imprimés, à l'exception de celui de Barbe- will go on in its own way. I am not, rius, qui n'est qu'une miserable rapsodie."
however, unmindful of what you say See also Le Clerc, Bibl. Chois. vol. to me about an English Job; nor will XIV. 136, 137; Vossius, de Hist. I absolutely say that I have no inten. Lat. III. 623, &c.; and see “Moraltion to go on with what I have begun, Observations,” suggested by this Tract, provided I can do it without damage in "Res Literariæ," I. 214–221. to myself or my bookseller : otherwise
How far I hare done well or ill, in I believe nobody will expect it from endeavouring to bring a work pro
Sir, nounced by Vossius and other great
Your most humble servant, Scholars to be curious and interesting,
R. Grey." again within the reach of those read ers who are willing to extend their in- “Dear Sir, Hinton. Aug. 3, 1756. quiries beyond the trash of a super- “ I did not receive the favour of fcial and corrupt age, it is not for me yours dated the 13th of July, till last to decide. Some of my friends seem week; occasioned, as I suppose, by its to think that I am thus wasting my not being directed, as it should have time; that nobody now reads the Demi- been, to Hinton near Brackley. I am ancients; and nobody reads modern obliged to you for your kind enquiries Latin. So much the worse for Mr. after me, and am sorry Mr. Broughton Somelody! Without modern Latin, has left Leicester. As to the Sweet all history, political and literary, be- Singers, I am not determined whether fore the middle of the sixteenth cen- I shall give myself or the world any tury, must be taken at second-hand. further trouble of that kind in my lifeHe who is content to read, yet not time. I may possibly leave them betead the originals, must not set up for hind me in such a manner as, if there edition: and he who persuades him- should be occasion, they may self that he has got at the substance, lished by any other
person. You are anul that the Moderns have said all that
too partial to me, when you tell me their predecessors have said, and said it they can never be published to advaneally well, if not better, is an egre2100s self-deceiver !