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Military Memoirs of John Gwyn.

[Feb. many years before it had any connec- little away from his command :-In tion with the parish.

the interim, the enemy fell upon his While upon this subject, Mr. Urban, post, and cut off most of his men beI may be permitted to observe, that fore he returned, and desperately ran respect for the dead has been a promi in amongst them with his sword in nent feature in the character of all the his hand, embroiling in blood, till great and virtuous nations of anti- they had mastered him with wounds, quity. The Egyptians, Greeks, and and offered him quarter, which he reRomans have left eternal memorials of fused to take, saying, "I will not outthe spirit by which they were actuated, live the day that shall make me be and we have all read the magnanimous hanged for neglect of duty”—and so reply of a hardy and primitive people, fought to death, as it was really renwhen retreating before a mighty in- dered unto him. vader, and taunted that they dared not Your Grace's most humble servant wait for the combat.

When we

and souldier, to command, approach the graves of our fathers,”

John Gwyn. said they, “ it will be then seen how 1. How the King, with his army at we can fight.'

Bramford, could not advance any furIn our days, be it remembered, that ther the purpose towards London the cemeteries of Paris were not laid than he did, whatever were the reports. open until the Revolution had extin- The very first day that five comguished every sentiment of honour and rades of us repaired from the Court at humanity, and the attention now paid Richmond to the King's Royal army, to the depositories of the deceased in which we met accidentally that mornthat country, may be considered as a ing upon Hounslow Heath, we had return to a natural and proper feeling. no sooner put ourselves into rank and Yours, &c. ANTI-SPOLIATOR. file, under the command of our worthy

old acquaintance Sir George Bunck

ley (then Major to Sir Thomas SalisMilitary Memoirs or John Gwyn.

bury) but we marched up to the A . 1. , ,

CORRESPONDENT having enemy, engaged them by Sir Richard that he had discovered a curious Manu- side, beat them to retreat into Bramscript in Dublin, relating the life and ford, beat them to the one Bramford adventures of Capt. John Gwyn, we (Brentford) to the other, and from shall now take the opportunity of pre- thence to the open field, with a resosenting a few extracts *.

lute and expeditious fighting, that after Prefatory Letter to his Grace the

once firing suddenly to advance up to Duke of Monmouth.

push of pikes and the butt end of

muskets, which proved so fatally to Sir

This small manuscript is in obe- Holles, his butchers and dyers, that dience to your Grace's late commands, killed and taken prisoners, besides

day, that abundance of them were and an account unto the king of my those drowned in their attempt to time spent in his service, where I have not only been a spectator to what was

escape by leaping into the river. done, but so frequent upon action, as

And at that very time were come a to gain the experience to know my both by land and water, from Windsor

great recruit of men to the enemy, own resolution so far, that before I would

be surprised by a neglect of and Kingston; and it happened that your Grace's commands, being my gineer, to blow up a barge loaden with

Sir Charles Lloyd, or some other enGeneral, my Captain, so great a master in arms, and already so famous in fearful crack it gave, and the sad

men and ammunition, which, as the heroic actions, I would choose rather to do as an old comrade of mine (one into the rest of the recruits, that they

aspect upon't, struck such a terror Aldersey) has done, who went but all vanisht, and we better satisfied

John Gwyn was lineally descended from with their room than their company. the Kings of Wales, and many years an

Nor can any thing of a souldier or an Officer in the Royal Guards, during the impartial man say, that we might reigns of Charles I. and II. These memoirs have advanced any further to the purwere written by himself, at the command of pose towards London than we did, in the Duke of Monmouth, but never published. regard of the thick inclosures, with


Military Memoirs of John Gwyn.

117 strong hedges and ditches, so lined accused for betraying of the garrison, with men as they could well stand one and condemned to die at Oxford. by another; and on the common road 3. How Reading was betrayed by and other passes, were planted their Fielding. artillery, with defencible works about When Col. Fielding treated with them, that there was no coming at the enemy for the surrender of the them any nearer, upon so great a dis- garrison, when there was neither advantage, to do any more than we want of men, provision, arms, or did, and withal considering that they ammunition, there was sent Captain were more than double our number; Whitehead, our scoutmaster-general, therefore, the King, withdrew and and with him went three more commarched off for Hampton Court, mission officers, for Oxford, to acwhere, for my farther incouragement, quaint the King with it. His MaI had the colours conferred upon me, jesty was surprised when he heard of to go on as I begun. I cannot omit it, knowing this frontier garrison to observing here, that had Essex his be of a grand consequence, and to right wing of horse, which stood upon have in it as many brave old commore ground than the King had horse manders as was thought to be in all to face them, wheeled to the left to the army besides, sent his positive and join with the foot that came from strict orders to the Governor and the Windsor and Kingston, and fallen on rest of the officers, that they should the King's rear, he might have gone take no furthur notice of whatsoever to London nolens volens.

conference past between them and the 2. How Sir Arthur Ashton, Governor enemy, relating to the garrison, but of Reading, came to be speechless to- that they should be in a readiness to wards the latter part of the siege, and stand in their own defence, if occaschat ensued upon it.

sion should require, and upon such a From Hampton Court his Majesty day (naming it, and as near as he marched for Reading, fortified it, made could compute it, the hour of two in it a garrison, and Sir Arthur Ashton the afternoon) he would come with Governor, who, upon receipt of a let- his army to the relief of us. To seter upon the Castle-hill guard, and cond and confirm this his resolution, looking about him, said, “ Here are he was pleased to send a packet by one none but I may safely communicate that swam the river to bring it to the the contents of my letter unto;" then Governor, who so much slighted it, as arose from his chair, broke up his let- not to give the least obedience to it at ter, and went out of doors to peruse it, either times ; nor when the King came when there was no necessity, as want punctually the day prefixed, with his of light or any thing else; but as his army, to the relief of us (and some hasty fate would have it, for he had hours sooner than was mentioned, for scarce a minute's time to look it over, the King had engaged the enemy by bat a canuon shot came through the nine or ten of the clock in the morna guard-house and drives the tiles about, ing, at Causam Bridge), yet Fielding that one fell upon his head and sunk was no more concerned at it than if him alınost to the ground before Col. he had been but a neuter to look on Lunsford and another officer caught and see them fight; and although they him by both arms, held him up, broke their truce with us on the other broaght him into the guard-house, put side of the town, in shooting thrice at him into his chair, then presently he our Royal sconce with their great guns, laid his hand on his head, under his yet he would not stir, nor consent to cap, and faintly said, "My head's make any opposition against them, whole, I thank God," and spoke no which is a sufficient demonstration more there at that time, but imme- that he designed to render up the gardiately was carried away to his house rison quietly to the enemy, as he did in the town, where, during the rest of some years after in the remote island the siege, he was speechless, and a of Shetland, upon a discourse with considerable time after, the garrison one Harvey, a Captain in Sir William was surrendered; then they broke their Johnson's regiment, under Marquis conditions with us, and plundered us. Montrose, who told me that at the Then Colonel Fielding, Deputy Go- siege of Reading he was a Lieutevernor, commanded in chief, who was nant in Essex's Life Guards, and had


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Military Memoirs of John Gwyn.

[Feb. the guard upon his tent two several tery against the bridge-end, and the nights, when he saw Fielding go into commanded party, in a forlorn hope it to him; and he assured me that of the King's army, desperately atthere was nothing more sure than that tempted to force over the bridge against the garrison was betrayed. That of the cannon's mouth, and great bodies Harvey's relation, I presume, was over of small shot, which cut them off as and above what was in the charge ob- fast as they came. jected against Fielding, when he was The King was highly troubled at it, condemned to die (though afterwards and to find that he was overpersuaded pardoned), nor would I instance it, to come the wrong way of doing any but for the inclination I have to good, drew off and marched away, render the great probability, that with the loss of two or three hundred there was as much corruption in the men, rather than to throw away any army as in the garrison (whatsoever more of his army upon impossibilities. they were that dissuaded the King 4. How we failed (as it was then from his own better judgment and generally reported) of the taking of conduct), for he was for coming to Gloucester, which was of so grand a the relief of the garrison, though consequence. Essex's army was 18,000 strong, and And it was much that Essex had engage the enemy the same side not shown more of his military art (if the river they were on, and take the he had it), and let the King's army conveniency of his own time, which march over the bridge, and draw up would have been a whole night's into bodies, or into what number he march; and the next day, possibly, pleased, for they must have been at might have been so near as to inter- his devotion, since he might have pose between several of their troops planted his artillery, upon a line, and and drawing up into any great body, make quick work with them that had because they were quartered far distant no work nor no kind of defence for one from another; and as it may be themselves than to expose their naked well supposed their artillery signified bodies against a whole train of artilbut little, for they could not be hur- lery, and an army of small shot; for ried over hedges and ditches so fast as they could bring their armies of horse to any purpose ; and then they must and foot in the rear of their artillery have wanted seven or eight thousand and force the town at once, for any of their foot, which was to man their danger in their flanks and rear, which works, and to line that wall of so large was as much advantage to them as a circumference to keep us in play they could well propose to themselves within: and by that and the like to have, if they understood it. Much means, it would have been very hope- more may be spoke to this, but, in fine, ful for the King to succeed against was ever known so gross and shame. them, and by preventing the unhappy ful an undertaking, under the notion event that followed by so much igno- of conduct, as to bring an army to the rance, if not altogether corruption; for relief of a place when it lay in the they brought the King to engage the power of one of the enemy to baffle enemy, and put the broad deep river of that army; for one man might have Thames between them, and so to con- cut down an arch of the bridge, or fine his army of horse, foot, and artil. unplank it, and so make it inaccessilery, to march over a narrow straight ble before the King, with his army, pass (not much bigger than a salley could come near it, and which way, port) of an old wooden bridge, which then, could he come over it, had it was within cannon shot of the enemy's been ever so advantageous to him, as works, and over which there could it was apparently destructive ? not march above five or six at the most 5. First engagement at Newberry. abreast, and would have taken the Newberry fight was not quite ended, remainder of this day to do it; and until, in the pursuit of Esser, we took then they must have drawn the van of Reading. their army close to the cnemy's works, I was at the siege of Gloucester, and the rear upon the brink of the ri, where then it was reported, that, had ver bank, and yet not have ground there been as much care taken in enough to draw up in an army, if it making one mine ready, as was in had been so done as it was not, for the making of the other two which stayed enemy raised a breast-work and a bat- for it, probably we had carried the


Military Memoirs of John Gwyn.

119 town, and consequently put a period 8. How we took Waller's army, to a great deal of further trouble; and which we engaged and beat. had not Essex come that very day he When the King marched with his did to the relief of it, the land flood, army from Oxford to Kedlington which, by a great glut of rain fell that Green, to attend Essex and Waller's night, had made all our labour in vain, motion, it appeared their design was and we forced to remain the next day. to go to the West, as they did, though

6. How the Devizes was taken, the they divided their armies and marched rather by the absence of those who were several ways, as they thought would be obliged to come unto it, and did not. most convenient for their better ac.

And when we drew off it proved to commodation, being asunder, yet be a most miserable, tempestuous, rainy still they followed one another Westweather, that few or none could take ward, and we followed after them, and rest on the hills where they were, and beat them one after another, which the ceasing winds next morning soon would have been a harder task for us dried up our thorough wet clothes we to do had they kept together, as it was lay pickled in all night (as a conve- admired they did not. °Two accidents nient washing of us at our coming occurred at this time to us :a party from the trenches); and we made of the enemy's horse marched among such haste in pursuit of Essex's army, us, as some of our own men, called Mr. that there was an account given of tif- Sackfield out of his quarters, mounted teen hundred foot quite tired and spent, him and stole him away ;-also a sulpot possible to come up to their co- dier's bandileer, who guarded the colours before we engaged the enemy, lours, took fire, and went in a heat, and a night or two before, we lost two which made an incredible confusion regiments of horse (Kentish men and among us. new-raised regiments) which were 9. Second engagement at Newberry, surprised and taken prisoners in their with the author's remarks thereon. quarters; and, what was worse, in At Crobedery Bridge, and theremost men's opinion, we were like to abouts, we overtook Waller's army, drop down every step we made, with which we engaged and beat, took want of sleep; yet, 'notwithstanding, Wemes General of their Artillery priwe marched on still, until the evening, soner, and withal took his leather we overtook the enemy's army at New- guns, which proved very serviceable berry town's end; then. our quarter- to the King. "The second Newberry masters, with their party, beat their fight at Doleman's house, and my goquarter-inasters and their parties of ing a volunteer with my worthy friend, horse out of the town, and very early Major Richard Lloyd, who was upon in the morning gave them battle. a commanded party, was worth to my

7. How 27 Officers and Reformads Lord Caulfield' his life that day, for went designedly ten miles upon the just as he came out of the mill, stripped Downs, lo charge the rear guard of an and wounded, a lusty souldier was arzy, singing and fighting:

fetching of a desperate blow with the I was in the garrison of the Devizes butt end of his musket, to make an where Fairfax and Cromwell were at end of him, which of a sudden I prea stand whether they had best meddle vented, and made him prisoner upon with us, until they came to understand the top of the hill by the windmill. that the horse in quarters thereabout He was examined before the King, were not come into it. Then they and declared he was Lord Caulfield's laid close siege. One or two soldiers son, of Ireland, and a cornet in the had run over the works to the enemy, Parliament service; and Wemes was and informed them how all things severely rebuked by his Majesty for stood with us, or they had not be- deserting his service, and to come in Heged us. The enemy, with inces

arms against him. mant peals of muskets, great guns, and 10. Third engagement at Newberry. mortar pieces, played upon us, that it Having thus cleared the way, we prest as all day and night at our line, arrived with less trouble into Cornwall, without the least reserve.

where likewise we routed Essex, took could do no more when we might all his army of infantry prisoners, with have done better with our expected arms, ammunition, and artillery, and number, we resigned.

sent him packing to sea, whereupon it

As we



valuable pages.

190 Remarks on Mr. Macdiarmid's Lives of British Statesmen. [Feb. was conceived to be far easier for us to complished Princess are unpardonable; have defeated his forlorn shattered ca- charity ought to have induced him to valry, being left to shift for themselves, admit at least that it was a disputed than it was to defeat them both in point, and therefore it behoved him their united strength, as we did, or at to have leaned to the favourable side; least to have forced them to embrace and if he has not seen these far-famed such conditions as was by capitulation and well-established works, his authomade in that country by Lord Hopton rity as an historian is worse than nu(Sir Ralph Hopton, see Ryder, v. 24, gatory. p. 9), and Fairfax, and

hen' it had Throughout the life of the great been impossible for them (like Hydras) and faithful Strafford, and in short to have so increased into three armies, wherever circumstances which took as they did when they met the King in place in the reign of that eminent his return from Cornwall, the second nobleman's much-injured and amiable Newberry fight.

Sovereign, are introduced, the author

gives a false colouring to almost every Mr. URBAN,

occurrence; so much is he misled by Feb. 4.

popular and political prejudices; which THE Lives of British Statesmen, by are in no instance more evident than

in his jaundiced remarks on the learnunder my notice; and as the work is ed and pious Archbishop Laud, who certainly entertaining, and likely to be is a particular object of this writer's put into the hands of many, especially hostility, and of whom Lord Clarenthe younger members of society, who don asserts, that “his learning, piety, may be misled by its apparent candour and virtues, have been attained by a and liberality, I trust you will allow very few; and the greatest of his inthe following remarks a place in your firmities are common to all

, even to

the best of men.” But Laud and The author appears to be a Scotch Strafford had their lot cast in evil Presbyterian, and from his political times; and the share they were oband religious prejudices, to be led into liged to take in the management of many gross mis-statements (particularly public affairs during those ill-fated observable in his Life of 'Lord Bur- days, has afforded materials for the leigh, as well as in various parts of the biassed misrepresentations of those second volume), wherever the Church party writers who have little or no reof England or its Clergy are intro- gard for what is sacred and venerduced. His frequent reference to able. Neale's partial and distorted History A gross mistatement also occurs in of the Puritans continually misleads this author's account of the ejection of him, and must have the same effect the puritanical ministers on the Reon many of his readers. He evidently storation, when the regular and orthois not aware of the elaborate answer dox Clergy, unjustly deprived for their to that insidious book, begun by the loyalty by the Rump Parliament, learned Bishop Maddox, and brought were replaced in their preferments: to a conclusion by the eminent Dr. an act of justice which confers imZachary Grey, a work now very va- mortal honour on the great and upluable and scarce.

right Minister of that day, and which Through his prejudices * Mr. Mac- ought to “be had in everlasting rediarmid is also much drawn aside membrance.” Did Mr. Macdiarmid from the truth in the case of the un- never hear of that justly-celebrated fortunate Mary, Queen of Scotland. work, entitled “Walker's Sufferings Can this, in the present day, be any of the Clergy,” &c.? which obtained other than a wilful error? Can he be ignorant of Whitaker's elaborate and very satisfactory defence of this much

* It is true that others of the puritaniinjured and murdered Princess? Has time, but this was in consequence of their

cal preachers were also removed at that he never seen the Memoirs of her pri- obstinate refusal to conform to the judicious vate life by his own countryman Chal- rubricks and decent ceremonies of our venemers? If he has, his misrepresenta- rable Church, which, in accordance with tions of the conduct of this very ac- the apostolic rule, requires that “all things

relative to the worship of God be done deSee pp. 259, 260. cently and in order."


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