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106
Rev. T. D. Whitaker, LL.D. F.S. A.

[Feb. «To complete the picture of this small ground, at an expence of 870l. more than a but venerable oratory, the churchyard was moiety of which was defrayed by Dr. Whitsurrounded, and the windows darkened by a aker, and it was consecrated by Bp. Cleaver, grove of sycamore trees swarming with July 29, 1794." rooks, so that when there was any competition of voices at all, cawing drowo'd the parson's saw, though, as we have seen, the Epitaphs by Dr. Whitaker, on his

The three following. elegant Latin fooks were for 200 years almost the only Parents, his Daughter, and his eldest orators of the place. “In 1788, the old chapel growing ruin

most lamented Son, are on marble ous, was pulled down, and rebuilt on higher tablets in the Chapel at Holme.

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PARENTVM. SPES . ET . DELICIAE
ANTE. DIEM . XI. EQVO. LAPSVS . MORTEM , OBIIT

IV. CAL : SEPT. A. S. MDCCCXVII.
ANNOS, NATVS. HEV. PAVCOS. XXXI. MENSES. VII. DIES XXVIII.

RELICTA. CONIVGE. MOESTISSIMA
CVM. FILIOLO . VNICO. MOERORIS. EXPERTE

PROPE. GERMANAM . CARISSIMAM
ITA, ENIM. MORIENS. IPSE. IUSSERAT

FRATERNO. CORPORE . DEPONENDO.

HAEC . CITRA . SESQVIANNI . SPATIVM . BIS . ORBVS
IN . IMMENSI . DESIDERII . SOLAMEN . QVALECVNQVE

SCRIPSI . PATER."

The following interesting anecdote has been communicated to us by a friend :-"In the year 1809, on the occasion of the consecration of Grindleton Chapel, a party consisting of the Rev.

Thos. Starkie, the Rev. T. Wilson, Dr. Watson, Bp.of Landaft, and Dr. Whitaker, met at Browsholme Hall, the hospitable seat of Thomas Lister Parker, est. The Bishop, whose powers of

conversation arguments

1922.)
Antient Sphinx found at Colchester,

107 conversation and retentive memory senting “ A Sphinx holding between were conspicuous on all occasions, was her paws a Victim,” being discovered so forcibly struck with Dr. Whitaker's at Colchester. profound learning in divinity, that he The following is a description exafterwards observed to Mr. Parker : tracted from Mr. Hay's pamphlet : • Though I have so long filled the “ Your beautiful relick of the Antique Professor's chair, yet I was obliged yes- Splendor of Camulodunum, was found lying terday to go to my fourth, nay even to upon its right side, at two feet from the my fifth shelf, to cope with the Doc. surface of the soil; being about ten paces tor's knowledge of the old and learned distant from the West wall of the Hospital, Authors in Divinity.”

and about fifty-five paces from the London Dr. Whitaker had never recovered road. I dug up close to it a considerable the attack of paralysis he had in 1820, fragment of the Tibia of the right leg of a brought on by constant alarm and fa- human being, from its strength appearing

to be that of a man; and from the sharptigue during the Radical disturbances : it terminated in a nervous asthma, action) was, no doubt, the limb of one who

ness of its angles (produced by muscular from which, after experiencing inces- had undergone a life of much fatigue. sant sufferings for some months, he “ The Group is of Freestone, of probably was relieved by dropsy, the sure har- rather a loose texture; although indeed it binger of dissolution. His mind had may have put on this appearance, from the also suffered; and the fine imagination, effects of the soil under which it must have retentive memory, and other faculties, lain buried for so many ages. were indeed in ruins before the body “ It was found in a perfect state, with decayed; though intervals also oc- some few exceptions of slight or immaterial curred to the last, in which, like the fracture; as, upon the mouth of the Sphivx, remains of those venerable structures upon the chin of the man, upon the lower he has so nobly described, his former parts of the Figure on the left side, and a brilliance seemed to return, as an arch base. There are also certain marks of fric

fracture of a bone upon the right side of the or column erect amidst desolation, to tell how magnificent the structure had lower part of the left arm and its fore paw;

tion, which have considerably injured the been.

as also the lower part of the hind leg." He was himself long conscious of the manner in which his disorder must terminate; and before he left the Holme for the last time, he who had shivered to cross a stream, or descend a hill, for fear of death, walked calmly into his woods, and setting his back against a master-tree of his own planting, compared its bulk with his own, and ordered it to be cut down and hollowed 10 form his coffin, which was done accordingly. In this he lies interred in the Holme Chapel, attended to the grave by all the Clergy, and most of the Gentry, of Blackburn, Whalley, and the neighbourhood.

The King has not living a more true and loyal subject, the Church a more useful and zealous Minister, or the Literary world a more distinguish- The high character assigned to the ed ornament.

EDIT. figure, and the observations flowing

from its association, are of sufficient

importance to call for an examination ANCIENT SPHINX FOUND AT of some of the postulata assigned by COLCHESTER.

Mr. Hay a3 grounds for deciding upon A

LETTER to the Committee of the statue, as a genuine Roman repre

the Essex and Colchester Gene- sentation of the Theban Sphinx. There ral Hospital has been published by are many peculiar difficulties connectMr. Hay, as well as reinarks in the ed with the point itself, which do not Quarterly Journal of Science for 1821, appear solved, and as the circumstance upon the subject of a group repre- has excited considerable interest, those

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108
Antient Sphins found at Colchester.

[Feb. arguments upon which Mr. Hay rests politan or Assyrian sculptures. The his proof will be candidly examined..

group in question also exhibits a First, he suggests, that a Roman compound totally distinct from either Temple dedicated to Claudius, was, the Egyptian or Persian; and in its according to Tacitus, erected at Ca- whole representation is hitherto unmulodunum, and most probably on known in Sculpture, Mr. Hay citing the identical spot wherein the Sphinx no examples of it but in Gems. Perhaps was found.

a further examination of the subject Secondly, that the Sphinx group, may draw forth the notice of some therefore, formed an accessary orna- one conversant with the rich stores of ment to the entrance of this Temple. the Vatican and of Florence, wherein

Thirdly, a Sphinx appears on the may be found groups of a similar British coins of Cunobelin found at character. This analogous fact would Colchester; and as this British prince assist Mr. Hay's opinion. But if this was much favoured by Augustus, and figure remains in an entirely isolated that emperor's favourite seal was a state as to its compound existing in Sphinx signet, therefore it most likely any parallel piece of sculpture, -if became the appropriate emblem of this there is a great difficulty of proving city:

the scite of the Temple Mr. Hay supHaving thus stated Mr. Hay's poses it to have been associated with, grounds for associating the Sphinx as -if its entire irrelevancy, with the an emblem with Colchester, in the chosen Sphinx emblem of Augustus is notes of his pamphlet as well as in the widened from its different character, remarks published in the Quarterly and the connexion with the ancient Journal, he further suggests the idea Persepolitan Sculptures proved erroof the Egyptians borrowing the symbol neous, - it certainly follows that some of the Sphinx from the Babylonian fresh grounds of elucidation must be and Persepolitan Sculptures. Also, resorted to, whereby to try and prove further considering that variations in the genuine character of this group its compound form, even as materjal as as a specimen of Roman sculpture; those of the Theban character, would as well also as the probable use for in no degree impugn or weaken the which it was designed. reasoning which supports its associa- And first:-in considering the Detion with Temples and Religious edi- scription furnished to the publick by fices. The remarks in proof of these Mr. Hay, on the subject of the ideas are somewhat undefined in their Sphinx recently discovered at Col. general bearing. It is very hypothe-chester. Some important links in the tical, and mere conjecture, whether the chain of conclusions, settled by him, Temple of Claudius stood on the scite will require further illustration ere where this group was discovered. The they can be deemed satisfactory as stones and rubbish found there, may establishing the first and essential prebe traced similarly in most parts of Col. liminary ; namely, the authenticity of chester. The spot itself was one which the claim put forth to its classic origin, the Parliamentary Army made great whether essentially Roman, or even use of in the siege of the city Sir of a higher era. As proof of this, Thomas Fairfax; and the materials some stress seenis to be laid on condisclosed to view are represented as necting its scite with a temple, remore resembling confused rubbish than corded by Tacitus to have been erected those substructions and foundations at Camulodunum, in honour of the Emlikely to remain of a stately edifice, peror Claudius. Without some associathe soil of which had remained so un- tion with a building of sufficient magnidisturbed for nearly 17 centuries, as tude and consequence to possess such an to allow of a figure, like the Sphinx in attribute, Mr. Hay evidently anticipates question, to rest undiscovered at a very some difficulty of establishing its antrifling depth under the surface. If tique claims.' The first step, therethe ornamental statue reposed unburt, fore, he has to encounter, is the clear what could dig up and derange the proof that Colchester is the same as massy foundation walls of the temple? the ancient Camulodunum, upon

It is also worthy a few remarks, to which point doubts always have exevidence how unlikely it is that the isted, as Malden equally claims that Egyptians borrowed their national honour, and upon some respectable emblem of the Sphinx from the Perse- grounds; but granting this as a fact,

the

1899.]
Antient Sphinx found at Colchester.

109 the next step is, the requisite proofs the soil, and therefore not establishing that the Temple to Claudius, which any leading proofs of the supposed Mr. Hay manifestly clings to as a Temple, as connected with the statue. strong corroborative testimony, was The next difficulty which Mr. Hay placed upon the identical spot where seems in some degree to have 'antici the Group was discovered. This is pated, but has not thoroughly cleared, described in the pamphlet as “ laying is that no ancient writer demonstrates about two feet under the surface of the that the fable of the Theban Sphinx, soil, which apparently had not for cen. and the victims of her cruelty, fornted turies been disturbed beyond the depth at any place, as a group, the ornaof the plough-share ;" in fact which ment of ancient Temples! Every inhad remained undisturbed with this stance that Mr. Hay has adduced, is slight covering of earth from the era grounded on its representation on of Boadicea, in the first century, until gems, wherein this association can be this very time. Bricks, tiles, relics traced ; and their re-appearance, even of bronze, and masses of loose stone tenfold more than is cited, would lay around it; but assuredly it would merely show that the Edipean Tale have been far stronger proof of a was a favourite subject of imagination Temple having stood in this spot, if with the ancient Artists, just as the decided traces of foundations or walls “ Marriage of Cupid and Psyche," or had existed, and which may be deem- “ Chiron teaching Achilles,” evied very likely to survive ihe violent dently were. The only connexion but hasty destruction of the building. evidenced in the pamphlet, with a We are informed, that “ the British, Temple, is in Pausanias's short acindignant at their oppressors, pursued count, extracted, of the Sphinx's apthem to this temple, carried it by as- pearing on the base of the Olympian sault, and razed it to the ground ; and Jupiter ; wherein his words prove they in the general confusion, this statue were merely accessary ornaments, was buried amid the rubbish, and has sculptured on the statue ; and, thereever since laid concealed.” To ren- fore, they do not supply a testimony of der this inference perfectly correct, all this description of Sphinx, in its com that remained undestroyed in the time pound character, ever being associated of Boadicea would now equally appear, with Temples or Religious edifices. as well as the statue itself; and conse- It appears very material to establish quently, its proximity to the surface these two positions --- as its size also is would show that it was slightly co- of some consequence to be considered, vered : and there is ample room to being between the proportions which conjecture that remains of foundations we will term monumental—that is, of and of walls, which must have been bulk so as to form of itself a feature of carried as great or greater a depth to Architectural ornament—but, on the support a stately pile, in conformity other hand, rather 100 massive for a with all the Roman usages of building, sculptured decoration. The point of would also present themselves to our view must be on the level of the eye, search, if the statue so found ever was or its parts would escape notice; and connected with a temple or antique in general it would appear that decora. building on the spot.

tions of this scale formed the subject To convect the argument, as stated of Relievo groups. It certainly does by Mr. Hay, we must deem the de- require a serious investigation into the struction made by the Britons to have arguments that arise on numerous been hasty and violent; but evanescent, points of this sculpture, ere it should and solely confined to the burning be deemed of undoubted authenticity. down and demolishing the structure, Another feature of presumptive evinot razing its foundations, as this relic dence made use of is, that because Aulaying so very near the surface, must gustus chose a Sphinx as his seal, and inevitably have in this case been dug the British prince Cunobelin stood up, and shared the fate which is high in his favour, that therefore Cuawarded to the pile itself. The corro- nobelin adopted the same emblem, borative testimony of foundations suit- and accordingly that it would be a ed to a Temple, apppear wanting; and favourite representation of the city of the rubbish and remains discovered Camulodunum. All these inferences are such as might be found in any may be facts; but yet the emblem of part of Colchester, upon excavating Augustus would not advance the au.

thenticity

110
Antient Sphinx found at Colchester.

(Feb. thenticity of this statue one step, it typified by the Lion, is in transit bes being the Egyptian Sphinx," a most tween these two signs. The character materially different emblem from that of these mythological representations of the Theban monster; as the Egyp- would, therefore, by no means infer tian Sphinx expressed mildness, repose, they are copied from, or derived from strength, and fecundity—not cruelty, each other. The probabilities of Hisand was possibly selected by that wise tory are also against the Egyptians and politic prince as an emblem of the copying from Persia or Babylonia. In secrecy required in public trusts and the first place, the monuments of dispatches; as well as the distinguished Egypt accord more with Chaldea, the emblem of the kingdom and Sovereign land of Shinar, which are widely apart of Egypt, whose conquest made him in Chronology from either of the more Emperor of the World, which put modern empires of Iran or Babylon. the lifeless corpse of his rival Antony There is no one historical sculpture in into his power; and by possessing him Persia that appears as ancient as the of the person and treasures of Cleo- Zodiac of the portico of Esné, which patra, added the highest lustre to his has internal evidence of being copied triumph. The emblem, therefore, of from a planisphere of the heavens Augustus, was in no feature associated soon after the deluge, having only 360 with the Theban type; and whatever days, the intercalary days being a later sign he used, we may safely infer was improvement of Astronomy. Now, the exact representation adopted by his according to the probabilities of Hisvassal Cunobelin, and such, indeed, tory, Persepolis was not in existence it appears upon whatever coins have when this' Zodiac was framed, but hitherto been found of his era.

arose during the period of that great The grounds are in no degree clear first Iranian empire which ruled the upon which Mr. Hay advances the East from about 800 years after the idea of the Egyptian Sphinx being food until within a few centuries of taken by that people from the Assyrian the Christian era. Egypt, as a kingSphinxes, or from the Mithraic repre- dom, however, was known in the time sentations of Persepolis. It is mate- of Abraham ; and, therefore, was rially narrowing a question of universal settled most probably equally early extent in the history of symbols, to be with the first colonization of Iran, and referring their origin to any one people is not likely to have borrowed her or spot, when the cosmogony of every emblems thence, but to have taken the land, and the traces of every moulder- lead in the great manifestation of the ing monument, attest their use among Arts, which her Obelisks and Sculpall the settlers of the earth.

tures display-whereon her favourite The sculptures of Persepolis display symbol the Sphinx is universally prea compound hieroglyphic of a Buii sented to our view. If it was not Man with wings, and a Bull Lion. taken from Persia, still less would it These all are contained in that curious be from Babylon, which was compawork the “ Zenda Vista,” and con- ratively modern ;-as this city owed dense their traditionary accounts of the her greatness and monuments entirely Deluge, and the Earth being re-peopled to Nebuchadnezzar; for Babylon, as by the Bull Man Albordi, and the Rome, may be deemed to have had second Taschter, combining all those two stages of existence a mytholotraditions that appear in every country. gical and an imperial state. These sculptures refer, therefore, to If the former be meant, then indeed their own mythology. No history the whole earth partook of its charms; evidences that the Egyptians borrowed and the idolatrous cup of her depraved their compound symbol of the Sphinx mixing, has been, and is still of the same from this origin, which was the male ingredients as present themselves in principle of all things. Now Hesiod the practices and corruptions of every says, the Sphinx was a compound of pagan people on the face of the Globe. the Virgin, the Lion, and the Eagle, From the Tower of Babel, and the and designated the Great Mother of general dispersion, Aowed to every the Human Race. A less complex land the principles of paganism, and compound, the Virgin and Lion, has every people framed and suited them with great plausibility been considered to their own conceptions and peculiar typical also of the rise of the Nile, combinations. But in all the ruins of which takes place when the Sun, ancient Babel, in the curious bricks

and

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