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We find, first, a description of the country. Tunis 'and Algiers, however, have been described by Shaw, Poiret, Vahl, and Desfontaines. Morocco has not yet been examined by a botanist. Its climate is temperate, and its soil fertile. The most comfortable season of the year is the rainy. Excellent fruits are produced by cultivation, except apples, pears, and cherries, which do not succeed. Tobacco and hemp will grow with luxuriance; but the cultivation is in general neglected. The forests are composed of trees of a moderate height only, and sometimes are only thickets of shrubs. The large forests on the northern coasts consist of different species of oaks and firs: on the south are date-trees.
Among the indigenous plants, soine have not been described; and of these we shall mention a few. I. Salvia interrupta, (plate Ist.) festuca alopecurus, bromus longifolius, distinguished from the bromus ramosus of Wildenow only by its long leaves; 2. Arundo donax, employed in making pens; 3. Plantago stricta ; 4. Echium micranthum ; 5. Anagallis collina ; 6. Trachelium angustifolium ;, 7. Lonicera canescens; 8. Zizi. phus lotus, the fruit of which is said, by the author, to be the true Jotus of the ancients, from which they derived the name of lotophagi; 9. Eleodendron argan retz, a tree little known, whose fruit contains white kernels. These are dried, ground, and suffered to melt, in order to extract the oil of argan, used in cookery. The external shell is good food for camels and other cattle; 10. Illecebrum graphalodes ; salsola verticillata ; bupleurum canescens ; enanthe nodiflora ; pimpinella villosa ; thus albidum; linum virgatum ; leucoiuin trichophyllum; narcissus viridiflorus (plate 2.); 11. amaryllis exigua; 12. Scilla serotina, Mauritanica, Tingitana; 13. Juncus maritimus, differing from the juncus acutus by its less size and pointed capsules, equalling the calyx in length; 14. Lausonia inermis, a shrub known in Egypt, and cultivated here, to extract from its dried leaves, by means of acids, a fluid which dies the hands and feet of infants a reddish yellow.
Kongl Veteskcaps, &c. Memoirs of the Academy of Belles Lettres, History, and Antiquities. Vol. VI. 8vo. Copenhagen.The number of the memoirs is not so great as in the former volume, nor are they so extensive; vet some of them are interesting and important. The first, by D. Meleander-hielm, treats of the advantages of the study of astronomy in historical inquiries. These advantages relate to the geographical position, which if ascertained, the author thinks that some supposed discoveries will be found not to be so. He conceives that the Ophir of Soloinon was probably Peru, and that the Carthaginians were acquainted with America, which was the Atlantis of Plato. 2. A historical account of a convent of nuns near Aspenaes, by A. Schæneberg; a memoir of some importance in
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the history of Sweden. 3. Some explanations to assist the geographical description of the north of Europe, in the History of Orasius, by professor Porthan of Abo. This work was attributed to Alfred; and Daines Barrington published at London, in 1783, an Anglo-Saxon translation of Orasius, accompanied with an English version, some observations of Mr. Forster, and a chart. Our author has given a Swedish translation of this work, with many historical and geographical remarks. 4. A discourse on poetry, by M. de Engestroem. 5. Extracts from the registers of the academy, in 1791, respecting the prizes then proposed. 6. Designs of some medals to be struck in honour of soine celebrated personages in the time of Charles IX., by M. Kutstroem. 7. Discourse delivered by the secretary of state, Schræder-hielm, on the anniversary of the Academy, 24th of July 1791. This relates to the ancient court of Sweden, its diversions, music, tournaments, ceremonies of reception, and the gymnastic exercises of the times. In 1455, the king gave a dinner, in which 1400 silver plates were served. Under Charles IX. the first theatres were established, and the performances commenced in 1611. Queen Christiana contributed much to the progress of sciences and belles lettres : at the age of 65, she composed at Rome the opera of Endymion. Diversions multiplied during the first year of the reign of Charles XII., and the reign of Gustavus II. was the most brilliant æra of the Swedish court. 8. Extracts from the registers of the Academy of the 27th of March 1792. 9. A critical memoir on the antiquity of the provincial laws of Sweden, by M. Burmann. 10. Carinen in victoriam Helsinburgensem, 1710, auctore J. Lundblad, This poem, in honour of general Steenbok, received the prize in 1792. 11. A design of an inscription for a monument of Linnæus, and of some medals in honour of celebrated persons of the reign of Charles XI. 12, and 13. Two discourses of M. Rosenstein ; one delivered in 1792, on the presentation of the Academy to the king; and the other the 24th of July 1792, its anniversary. 14. Discourse on the progress of the belles lettres and arts among the Greeks, by Wilde. Our author examines the history of each, and shows that the belles lettres and fine arts have proceeded hand in hand. In Greece they were studied by persons of rank; in Rome, by slaves and freedmen; so that, on this account, the latter had no style of their own. In architecture they preferred solidity to ornament; they esteemed sculpture, but almost thought painting "ars honestis non spectata manibus. Lastly, M. Wilde defends the Goths and Aristotle from the imputation of having contributed to the decline of the fine arts. This was, he thinks, rather owing to the ignorance and despotism of the monks, who impeded their progress till the æra of pope Nico. las, and after the conquest of Constantinople, when the Greeks became again the instructors of the Romans. 15: The discourse of chancellor Engestroem, on his reception into the Academy, Aue, gust 28, 1793. We find in it some just remarks on the reform to which Gustavus Adolphus contributed so considerably. The volume concludes with three éloges, and some designs of medals and inscriptions. '
The Scandinavian Museum. No. I. Vol. III. Copenhagen.
We notice the publication of this number for the information of the lovers of northern literature, and shall add the contents from the coinmunication of our correspondents, though the number have not reached us. It contains an. Ode to Reason,' and two • lyric romances,' worthy of the muse of Baggesen ; a philosophical discourse on the utility of the study of the rights of Nature,' by professor Schlegel, author of European Statistics ;' and “Geognostic letters on the mountains of Königsberg,' by Esmark, with some other pieces of inferior importance.
The history of this periodical publication is singular. The Swedes and Danes, though so near neighbours, and equally descendents of the ancient Scandinavians, coalesce as little as the Spaniards and Portuguese, the Athenians and Lacedæmonians, the French and Germans, or the Parisians and English. The number of literary characters in each capital is nearly equal; and neither can assume the superiority. Of late, the difference of political interests has increased the opposition ; and the liberty of the press, lately established in Denmark, has caused no little jealousy in Stokholm, and a rigorous caution against the importation of Danish works. In spite however of these obstacles, some Danish authors formed a plan of uniting all the kingdoms of the north in a literary association. A journal was the first tie expected to unite the two nations; but this journal, the Nordia, soon failed of the supposed end, and only fortified the Swedes in their prejudice against Danish literature.
M. Hæst, the editor of the Nordia, was however suon employed in another attempt. Twelve literary men of each country United in publishing the Scandinavian Museum, and Hæst was the secretary; but literary cabal and political dissension soon checked the design; and the whole number of active members was reduced to about one half the original number of Danes. Two volumes were however the result of their combined labours. Indeed the plan was too vast, and embraced a range too extensive; so that to the learned it was not sufficiently interesting, and to the world in general not sufficiently attractive. If it had been divided into two works, it might have succeeded better. As it was, the bookseller (Seidelin) seems to have been the loser; and he declined the concern,
The Museum then appeared at an end, and M. Hæst published a Swedish Journal in 1799; but the first number of the third volume is now advertised-with what success, cannot yet be known.
Denk Würdigkeiten ans dem Leben des Kæniglich Denischen Staat Minister. Mimoirs of the Life of the Danish Minister
Count de Bernstorff: By C. H. D. d'Eggers. 2 Vols. 8vo. With a Portrait of the Count. Copenhagen. -An abstract of the life of count Bernstorff was lately published by professor Nyrap; but the present work is more complete. It is in a great degree drawn from a mánuscript which the minister put into the author's hands, and froin the information of persons intimately connected with the count.
The first volume contains the life of the count, and a considerable part of his diplomatic career: the second, a great number of official papers respecting the connexion of Denmark with other foreign powers. · We find, by these, that Bernstorff was the first author of the armed neutrality, in 1789; that he was often called to the administration, and as often forced to retire, by the intrigues of the court, till he was established in the office of secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, by the Prince Royal, when he assumed the government of Denmark, a post which he filled till his death in 1797. His country 'was indebted to him for many excellent institutions; among the rest, for the freedom of the peasantry, which he obtained by the protection and influence of the prince.
The author has introduced many important discussions, on the navigation of neutral vessels, on the effects of the liberty of the press, &c.; and in the notes adds the titles of the works which have appeared on the rights of neutral powers, on the arıned neutrality, and the freedom of the peasantry. On these subjects we cannot here enlarge, but shall be glad to return to this interesting work, on its assuming an English dress.
- SPAIN. Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum. Figures and Descriptions of Plants. By Joseph Cavanilles. Vol. VI. Part I.-We have often noticed this work in jos progress, and it is continued with a credit and splendor scarcely impaired. This part contains sixty figures and sixty-nine descriptions of plants, chiefly from New Holland. Among these we notice the Hakæa, Lambertia, Protea, and Banksia. The second part is in the press.
Seminario de Agricultura y Artes. Seminary of Agriculture and the Arts. 8vo. Madrid.-This journal, commenced under the auspices of the Prince of the Peacema title, by the way, by no means new in the Spanish history-is designed for the purpose of collecting all the discoveries and inventions of foreign countries, concerning agriculture, the arts, and manufactures. In the eighth volume, now before us, we find a general view of the cominon system of manures, on the best method of irrigation, and the remedies publicly employed in Asturia against the infection of the plague.
Anales de Ciencias Naturales. Annals of Natural Sciences. Madrid. -The commerce of science and literature berween
this country and Spain was never considerable; and the little which ever existed has been greatly interrupted by the late war. We find, at present, no little difficulty in renewing it. We must collect, therefore, what our correspondents transmit, without much discrimination. We may, on this occasion remark that the new system of chemistry gradually gains ground; and that, among the translations, we observe many military works, particularly the campaigns of Bonaparte.
This journal is published monthly, and, with the assistance of foreign philosophers, is not unentertaining. From the contents of the last number, we shall select the titles of the more important articles. 1. Botanical observations, by M. Brussonet. 2. Several mineralogical letters, by M. A. de Humboldt, to the minister of Saxony, baron de Forell, and to Don Joseph Clavigo; with a plan of a mineralogical history of Spain and her colonies. 3. Astronomical observations made at Madrid, Cadiz, &c. 4. A memoir on the Spanisha naturalists, and an advertisement of a botanical work on Hungary. " Suplemento, &c. A Supplement to the Quinologica, by D. Hipse lito Ruiz, and Don los Pacon. 410.—The memoir to which this is a supplement is sufficiently known. Its subject is the different kinds of bark found in Peru; and the supplement contains a de." scription of two new species, with an answer to a criticism of Jussieu on the Prodromus to the Flora of Peru and Chili.
Fisica del Cuerpo Humano, &c.; The Philosophy of the Human Body; or, Physiological Elements, accommodated to every Class of Literary Men. By Don Joseph Coll. Published by Don Bernardo Voguer. Madrid. --This is a translation from a work with a similar title, by Dr. Blumenbach of Göttingen ; and it apo pears to be sufficiently accurate.
Teatro nuevo Espanol. New Spanish Theatre. 3 Vols. 8vo. Madrid.—These volumes contain the best pieces of Molière and Destouches, with some of Kotzebue, who, by the way, has met with severe treatment from the Spanish critics. One of the most poignant satires is entitled the Muger Varonil, the Virago. It is principally directed against the sentimental comedies, the comédies larmoyantes of the French. .
El Fingal y Temora. Fingal and Temora, in Verse. By Don Petro Montengon. 4to. Madrid.- Translations, as we have al-, ready observed, are common in Spain. Among these, we find the Recreations of a Sensible Man, by Arnaud; the Studies of Nature, by St. Pierre ; Quintilian; and the second edi-, tion of Blair's Lectures. Of the present translation only the first volume has appeared, and its merit is not considerable. The same author has attempted a translation of Shakspeare also.