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G. Ch. Lichtenbergs Vermische Schrifften. Miscellaneous Works of G. Ch. Lichtenberg. Published" after his Death by L. C. Lichtenberg and Fr. Kries. 2 Vols. Göttingen.-The miscellaneous works of Lichtenberg were lately published at Bareuth; but these contain the hitherto inedited pieces of this singular author. Many are unfinished ; and we shall only transcribe a passage or two.
*Hypochondria is the talent of drawing from each event of our lives the greatest quantity of poison for our own use.'
• People in general lose by the combat of the flesh against the spirit;-the man of letters by the combat of the spirit against the fesh.'
• The difference between the man of the world and the man of letters consists only in a species of perception, or in the art of making a book.
HUNGARY AND TRANSYLVANIA. Jacobi Josephi Winteri Prolusiones ad Chemiam Sæculi 19. Introduction to the Chemistry of the Nineteenth Century. 8vo. Buda.—This work, we have reason to believe, is not to be purchased. We are informed that seventy copies only have been printed, and presented to different chemists. From one of these gentlemen the copy from which this account is taken is derived.
The great object of the author, who, by the way, considers the century to have begun in the year 1800, is to announce the discovery of a new carth, universally diffused, which he calls andronia. Thus, barytes is a compound of lead and andronia ; steel is iron saturated with andronia ; molybdäna of copper, kali of lime, and tin of tungsten, with the same earth respectively, Tin however is supposed to contain a third substance hitherto unknown. On this subject we can offer no opinion, because the author gives no leading experiments to elucidate the discovery, but appears anxious only to raise a system on it. We must therefore wait till he choose to explain himself more fully.
Ambrosii Simigiani Historia Rerum Hungaricarum et Transylvanicarum, &c. Ambrose Simigianus's History of Hungary and Transylvania, from the Year 1490 10 1606, in Four Books, with Notes. Edited by 70s. C. Elder. Book I. 410. Herinanstadt. -The name of the author, stript of its Latin form, is Ambrose Snornogyi : he was the notary of count de Snolnoz, and obliged, by the entry of the imperial troops, to quit his retreat at Dès, and retire to Bistritz, where he employed himself on the present work. He has not, in any part of the ancient history, quoted his authorities, so that we cannot appreciate the value of his information. With respect to the more recent events in Transylvania, he was an eye-witness, and often actively engaged in them. Much of the ancient history we find copied from Jovius: and we must remember that the author was the decided enemy of the Germans, or rather of the Austrians, whom he consider ed as the oppressors of his country.
M. Eder has accompanied each chapter with notes and observations, in which he has endeavoured to supply the omissions or imperfections of Snornogyi; so that the present work will be a valuable history of Transylvania, from the year 1527.
These additions have been printed faithfully from the originals; even the archives, and the numbers in which they occur, have been pointed out. The editor's religious impartiality is accurately kept up. It is remarked with justice, and he proves, that, from the year 1527, the race styled the Saxon, in Transylvania, has always been the active partisans of the house of Austria. The present volume extends only to 1541, and will not be very interesting to modern readers.
SWITZERLAND. Salomon Gessners Briefwechsel mit seinem Sohn. The Core respondence of S. Gesner with his Son. 8vo. Berne. — We insert this solitary volume, alınost the only publication of Switzerland in a period of no little extent-if we except political ones. Such is the unfortunate state of this once literary country! such the consequences of French protection! The letters before us relate chiefly to the fine arts, and were written from the year 1784 to 1788, while his son, a distinguished artist, resided at Rome.
The editor, Gessner's second son, remarks that this correspondence was not designed for public view, and should be considered only as the conversation of a father with a son on the fine arts, and the means of cultivating them. The letters have not been corrected; they are characteristic of the author ; and furnish a portrait from his own hands.
S. Gessner has left a large collection of designs and studies from nature, in a greater or less degree of perfection, which will be published by his son.
HOLLAND. A. Ypey Introductio in Materiam Medicam. Introduction to the Materia Medica. 8vo. Leiden.-Our author has been less anxious to display his erudition than to give solid information. Though confined, in the title, to the Materia Medica, he mixes pathological observations and remarks, founded on practical experience. The description of the plants used in me. dicine is very exact, though, in this respect, he falls short of the minute accuracy of Bergius in one view, and of Murray in
another; yet, on the whole, inistakes are guarded against with 'sufficient care. Specifics are considered with great attention;
and the directions for their use are given with a scrupulous caution. Why have not we a work of real merit on this subject in our own language?
Gerardi Sandifort Tabule Anatomicæ. Anatomical Tables. Large Folio. Leiden.—The anatomical labours of the Sandiforts are well known, and this is not an unworthy scion from a respectable stock. The present collection will contain proba. bly the morbid changes in the state of the body; and the two plates, of which the present number consists, represent an aneurysm of the internal iliac artery, which produced symptoms of nervous sciatica. The drawings, we perceive, are by the author ; and the engravings are very neatly executed. No time is fixed for the appearance of the succeeding numbers.
C. Plinii Cæcilii secundi Epistolarum Libri decem. Pliny's Epistles, with Notes. By G. E. Gierig. Vol. I. Amsterdam. -Pliny's Epistles are not with us a very favourite work ; and perhaps more labour has been bestowed on them than was necessary. The edition of Gesner was sufficiently satisfactory in every respect. Having, however, looked over the present volume, we must admit its superiority to Gesner's edition, as well as to that of Korte, which preceded it. The difficult passages are better explained, and the characters introduced more satisfactorily developed. The editor has endeavoured to ascertain with precision the sense of his author, and pointed out his defects as well as his beauties. He has added various philological observations, and the contents of those letters which were not so miscellaneous as to prohibit an abstract.
The dissertation prefixed to this volume, De Plinii Epistolis, is designed to show the influence of the classical authors on the moral characters of youth. The editor published an essay of this kind about two years since, on the Life, the moral Character and Literary Merit of the Younger Pliny,' in which he has attempted to prove, though we think with little success, that these letters contain a method, not difficult in pracrice, of rendering the manners of society more perfect and correct. The dissertation prefixed to the present volume is followed by à chronological view of the life of Pliny, froin Mason; and the prolegomena are concluded by a literary abstract of the manuscripts and editions quoted in the notes. The present volume contains the first five books, and is accompanied by a plate of the model of Pliny's villa, drawn by Krubsacius, an architect at Dresden.
Ricerche sulle Cause, et sugli Effetti del Vajulo, &c. Inquiries into the Causes and Effects of the Small-Pox of Cows, known by the Name of the Cow-Pox, by Dr. Jenner. Accompanied with Notes, and the Relation of the Small-Pox observed among the Cows of Lombardy. By Dr. Luigi Careno. 12mo. Pavia. We had determined to pass, unnoticed, the various publications on the cow-pox on the continent, as it was the same tale repeated, ad fastidium usque ; yet we have altered our resolu. tion with respect to this work, that we might extend the knowledge of a striking anomaly, or give occasion to the explanation of some error.
Dr. Carenó of Vienna published some time since a Latin translation of the works of Dr. Jenner and Dr. Pearson; and the present volume is an Italian version of the same tracts. To this is acided an account of a variolic eruption often observed on the udders of cows in Lombardy. It appears that the cows of Italy are exposed to this disease but once in their lives ; that they even communicate it to other cows, who have not been be. fore affected with it, but not to children who have not had the small-pox. It cannot therefore be employed for the inoculation of the vaccine.
Della Economia Fisica degli Antichi nel costruire le Città. On the Physical Economy of the Ancients in the Structure of their Cities. By Gaëtano of Angora. 800.- The present work is little known beyond the confines of Italy, and we cannot pay it the attention it merits ; for the author renders an abstruse subject interesting ; and, from the learning displayed in the illustrations, it becomes also instructive.
Our author considers, first, the general motives for the esta.. blishment of cities, and, when the population has become too numerous, the conduct of those who guide the emigrants or the colonists. These are the subjects of the introduction, which are expanded in the work itself. In the first chapter he treats of the investigation of springs and rivers, and of attempts to render sea-water potable. Contrary to the opinion of Vitruvius, he maintains that the discovery of springs has contributed more to social life than that of fire. This he proves by the existence of some hordes of savages who are not yet acquain:el with fire. The indispensable necessity of water haş, he thinks, occasioned many quarrels, and may have frequently been the origin of war. "The denominations of many cities
contribute to support bis hypothesis. The means of discovering springs is the subject of the rest of the chapter ; and the second relates to the quality of the air, the temperature of the climate, and the winds. For the characters of a salubrious climate, the author refers to Pliny. The third, fourth, and fifth chapters are more interesting, as they combine modern discoveries with the ancient doctrines drawn from Pliny and Vitruvius. They relate to the causes of the alteration of climates, the infection of the atmosphere, and the means of remedying it, as well as of precautions to be observed in the choice of soil. .
Roads, ports, walks, and public places, furnish numerous observations for the seventh chapter. The roads were always dic rected towards the cardinal points; and the ports were well chosen, because, in the coasting navigation of the ancients, every bay and its advantages were known. Brundusium, Carthage, and Alex. andria, were constructed by the ancients; and light-houses were generally established. The construction of piers, as an artificial security, followed. At Ostia and Civita Vecchia we find some ancient remains of this kind. The public places and markets were usually covered, surrounded by galleries also covered. The stations or asylums for the poor were furnished with benches, couches, fire-places, and other conveniences. They were in time frequented by others also, and then were styled scolæ, in which warm liquors were sold, as in the thermopolia, an establishment not unlike our coffee houses. These scolæ soon gave place to hospitals, which were built near the temples, and became sacred asylums. The sick, who recovered, left accounts of their diseases and remedies, from which tablets our author supposes that Pliny and Hippocrates derived a great share of their medical knowledge.
The two last chapters treat of the interior distribution of the houses, the furniture, &c. with the methods of keeping the cities clean. The ancients generally inhabited the ground floors, not to be obliged to mount the stair-cases, which were often uncovered, and to be near the galleries and entrances. The houses were separate, so as to be better ventilated, and in less danger of fire. Our author thinks that the ancients know the property of pointed rods to guard against the effects of thunder. We shall pass over minuter arrangements, to speak of other methods of keeping the streets clean. The streets were raised like our causeways, with ditches on each side to carry off impurities ; and religion came in aid of cleanliness, by rendering the person impure who had touched a dead body or any thing putrid. The same impressions led them to remove from the city every manufacture which could cause impurities, or produce disagreeable