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ill conduct is rather a proof than an excuse of the crimes and follies of former reigns, in which, from neglect of the opportunities of correcting evils when every reform would have been accepted as a favout from the monarch, the power was thrown into hands incapable of exercising it with temper and discretion.
The sovereignty of the people, which has been treated with so much folly and rancour among ourselves, is shown to be only an inno. cuous sound. "The phraseology honours the government at least as much as it flatters the people;' for
• It cannot be denied but that all governments, whether they be free or despotic, owe their strength and their security to the consent of the people. If they did not originate from their choice, they must be maintained by their consent. For no government can long stand if the people will its destruction. Their will, therefore, is sovereign; and is the real and essential base of all political sovereignty.' P.41.
This question being settled, the good of the people is maintained to be the end of government; and that good cannot be neglected by any ministry without a violation of justice and humanity. Hence the real sovereignty, to which both princes and people are bound to submit, consists in the laws of religion and morality; and when they are neglected, the days of St. Bartholomew or the days of Robespierre are the necessary punishments for the wickedness of those who break the higher laws of Providence. Our author, after such observations, proceeds to the important question of reform, particularly of a religious reform in his own country; on which head the scandalous advertisements for the sale of livings, and the stock-jobbing traffic in preferments, are reprobated with due severity. Some obnoxious parts in our otherwise excellent Liturgy are censured as deserving of erasure ; and a tempes rate alteration in the Articles is recommended. Tithes are judiciously defended, and a church establishment praised. The reform in the representation of the people is made to rest upon property; and these various reforms are recommended with great propriety to the present minister. The following observation will show the impar. tiality and sound sense of the writer.
i I am neither the foe nor the partisan, neither the panegyrist nor the calumniator, of the minister nor of the opposition ; but truth compels me to declare, that there has been a great and prominent tendency in some late measures of taxation to depress the middle orders, and totally to extinguish mediocrity of fortune. Such measures accelerate the progress of a country towards slavery and wretchedness, and are ominous indications of wasting happiness and expiring freedom: for the middle classes are the only safe and solid rampart against arbitrary power on one side, and tumultuous disorder on the other. P. 98.
Arr. I.-Traité de Minéralogie, par le Citoyen Hauy, Membre
de l'Institut National des Sciences et des Arts, &c. Publié par le Conseil des Mines, en Cinque Volumes, dont un contient
86 Planches. 8vo. Paris. 1801. Treatise on Mineralogy, by M. Hauy, Member of the National In
stitute of Sciences and Arts, &c. Published by the Council of Mines. 5 Vols. with 86 Plates. Imported by De Boffe.
THIS work claims our attention on many accounts; and to examine its object, and plan is more than sufficient for å single article. Should we not be prevented by an English translation, we shall return to it in another Appendix. Let us however observe, that, if such a version be in contemplation, we would recommend adding to it the Abstract of Werner's Orictognostic Classification of Minerals by M. Daubuisson. It is more clear and intelligible than the original, which, nevertheless, with more than common precision and minuteness of di. stinction, contains much valuable information, though in a style that must disgust and even repel a reader of common resolution.
The abstract is not without its repellent powers; but they may be conquered by a little exertion. To return however to M. Hauy's Treatise of Mineralogy.
ding, onerals by al, whicho.ess of
* At the moment of writing this part of our article, we received the first volume of an Elementary Treatise of Mineralogy, by M. Brochant, engineer of mines. We have looked it over cursorily, and think it possesses considerable merit; and perceive that it is spoken of with great respect by M. Hauy. We now mention it not only to announce the publication, but to remark that it unites the precision of the school of Werner with M. Hauy's geometrical accuracy. It coutains a more copious and correct view of Werner's language and manner of description than even the translation of Madame Picardet. It must indeed be remembered, that the translation which we noticed in a former volume of our journal was fronti
App. Vol. 34.
In our 62d volume, O.S. (p. 55), when examining a distinct treatise of Romé de l'Isle on the exterior character of minerals,' we noticed the different classifications, and particularly adverted, as the work led us, to the form of crystals, as a constant unchangeable character. We resumed the subject in our review of Daubenton's Tableau de Minéralogie,, and have since noticed it in every work where it has occurred. Unfortunately, the form of the crystals has been little attended to by any English author ; and even Mr. Kirwan, in his last edition, though he has adopted the language and much of the precision of the school of Werner, has not noticed the form and the angles of crystals, and has even spoken of crystallography with contempt. It has been observed, and the remark has been often repeated in this journal, that the two contending classes of mineralogists--those who depend chiefly on external charac: ters as the means of distinguishing minerals, and those who think that the distinctions must be drawn from chemical analysisshould naturally yield to each other, and unite their powers. We particularly pointed out this union in our review of M. Daubenton's Table, where the advantages of the union were particularly conspicuous; and we now find our ideas coincide with those of M. Hauy, the chief supporter of the system of crystallisatio:l, the most striking of the external forms. To chemistry, he observes, must belong the determination of species. It may be more proper to say that it completes this determination, in showing us the “ principal molecules," of which the “integrant molecules," the crystals, are assemblages. We can already perceive, and we shall in future find many examples of this truth, how important it is that the inquiries respecting these two kinds of molecules should be directed to one common object, that the chemist and mineralogist should mutually assist each other, and that the goniometer, which furnishes the data requisite to the calculation of crystalline forms, should be joined with the balance which weighs the product of the analysis.
In this system, M. Hauy follows that of the chemical minesalogist ; but the varieties are distinguished by the crystalline form, which in our author's hands is a science almost wholly new; and we believe he is right in asserting, that no varieties have been determined by the crystallographer which analysis has not confirmed.
an early work of Werner; and that, the German mineralogist has extended his Janguage wiib the eolargement of the science, in consequence of new discoveries. Only the first volume of M. Brochant's work has yet appeared, and it contains the earths and stones,' though an appendix to these will be added. He speaks as if the other classes were to be comprised in another volume; but this is iin. practicable,
"The theory employed to develop these laws (viz. of crystallisation) rests on a fact which has been hitherto supposed rather than demonstrated. It consists in this, that the minute solids which are the elements of crystals, and which I call the integrant molecules, have, in every individual belonging to the same species, an invariable form; the planes of which are, in the direction of the natural joints, pointed out by the mechanical division of these crystals, whose respective angles and dimensions are ascertained by calculation joined with observation. Added to this, the integrant molecules relative to different species are more or less pointedly different, except in a very few cases, where the forms have regular characters, and constitute the connexion between different species. The determination therefore of integral molecules has a considerable influence on that of species; and this consideration has often conducted me, either in subdividing into many species a group which in the common methods created one alone, or in uniting the scattered limbs of a single species, of which many distinct ones had been made.'
dimensionsded to this, the less pointed regular ch
• The result of my labours, supposing them to be as complete as possible, can only be regarded as an introduction to the study of nature. The different substances of which this globe consists, placed in their respective positions by the concurrence of the causes, whose actions the Supreme Being has direcied to the end which seemed most suitable to his wisdom, offer a spectacle wholly new, even to the eye most experienced in viewing minerals brought from their native beds to our cabinets. Here we behold them arranged and disposed in a systematic order ; but nature, on every side despising the artificial limits traced by our systems, separates what we have united, and confounds what we have chosen to separate. On one side she disjoins, by striking contrasts, substances which touch and adhere to each other; on the other, she manages those progressive changes from one substance to another, those successions of shades, which say to an attentive and enlightened observer, Here we no longer belong either to this fossil or that.'
M. Hauy next explains his own plan of arrangement, and the circumstances which influence him in forming his genera from species and varieties. We own that we wished to have enlarged on ti.is subject; to have shown that Buffon had in this place committed a fundamental error in his celebrated canon -- that science formed species; and that Werner's mes thod was equally erroneous. The method of determining species, the most important part of classification, employed by botanists and zoologists, cannot here be practised ; and the philosopher must, in part, be directed by his own opinions,
perhaps by his fancy. M. Hauy's system is the least exceptionable of any. He adopts, as we have said, in his more extensive arrangements, the chemical analysis ; but, in species, the more constant and obvious characters, particularly the form of the crystals : yet, as this is the most distinguished part of the present work, it is necessary to enlarge farther on it, especially—we speak it with regret—as this part of mineralogy has been too much neglected by English mineralogists.
Minerals have nothing constant in their external aspect; and, to recognise species concealed under an uncommon form, much ingenuity is often required. M. Hauy's dexterity demands our praise. An accidental observation led him to subdivide the hexaëdral prism of carbonated lime in the direction of his laminæ ; and he discovered a rhomboidal nucleus similar to the bodies called Iceland spar. Other calcareous crystals, examined in the same manner, afforded a 'similar result. From these observations, combined with many others on minerals of very different kinds, he concluded that crystals belonging to the same species contained a nucleus, which was a solid that might be styled the primitive forin. On subdividing the different nuclei determined from observation, he ascertained the form of what he calls the “ integrant molecules,' which, in every known mineral, are only three in number, and of peculiar simplicity; viz. the regular tetraëdon, the triangular-prism, and the parallelopiped. In studying the progressive structure of what may be called the secondary forms, he conceived that they might result from a superposition of laminæ, which, departing from the primitive structure, might decrease by a regular subtraction of one or more ranks of integrant molecules. This departure may sometimes take place from the sides of the nucleus, and sometimes from its angles. To these subtractions he gives the appellation of laws of decrease ;' and from this point begins a series of rigorous geometrical calculation, which we cannot abridge. This calculation conducts him to a precise determination of the angles, planes, and solids, of the secondary forms; and the constant agreement between the angles, · produced by calculation and by observation, is the best demonstration of the truth of the laws. A general formula thus becomes, in the hands of the author, an instrument, by means of which, without any difficulty, with the assistance of some undoubted facts, he determines not only the forms hitherto known, but all those which can occur, and of which many certainly exist in nature; thus anticipating future discoveries. His inquiries into the nature of crystals have conducted him to this general principle,---- that all those which belong to the same species are composed of similar integrant molecules, the form and dimensions of which are determined by observation, assisted by.calculation. From the consideration of these molecules, he