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nature, of accident, defect, excrescence; the second found the stamen which connects character with the central form; the third raised the whole and the parts to the highest degree of unison. Of genius I shall speak with reserve, for no word has been more indiscriminately confounded; by genius I mean that power which enlarges the circle of human knowledge, which discovers new materials of nature, or combines the known with novelty; whilst talent arranges, cultivates, polishes the discoveries of genius.' P.I.
We shall not repeat the trivial and common-place accounts of the origin and progress of painting. In p. 26, &c. our author enters into a dispute with M. Falconet concerning the sacrifice of Iphigenia painted by Timanthes. Falconet thinks that the circumstance of her father's face being concealed is rather objectionable than laudable, and savours of sophistrythe chief object of art being to overcome a difficulty. This question we shall not stop to examine ; but when we reflect that Falconet's statue of the Russian czar has been allowed, even by prejudiced spectators, to excel in novelty, grandeur, and effect, we could not repress indignation on observing our Swiss professor style it the ridiculous colossus of Peter the Great. It is a vulgar but sensible remark, that a man who has a glass head should not throw stones; and as Mr. Fuseli uses such unwarrantable freedoms, we must beg leave to inform him that this statue will be greatly admired in the year 2000 ; at which time his ridiculous pictures, whether colossal or dwarfish, will be sold at mean prices by the brokers, or perhaps collected by some crack-brained connoisseur, who may arise to emulate the famous Sicilian prince in a new collection of monsters.So much for the retort courteous, and so much in revenge of insulted genius.
After this fatal proof of want of taste, or, what is perhaps worse, the sacrifice of common candour to a trifling literary question, we shall not stop to examine the rest of our author's opinions, though many are extremely controvertible ; and in the progress of the work we meet with singularities of style which evince that Mr. Fuseli is not master of the English language, or is resolved to violate its dignity as much as his paintings do that of nature. The character of Salvator Rosa may be given as another proof of candour and taste.
The wildness of Salvator Rosa opposes a powerful contrast to the classic regularity of Poussin. Terrific and grand in his conceptions of inanimate nature, he was reduced to attempts of hiding, by boldness of hand, his inability of exhibiting her impassioned, or in the dignity of character : his line is vulgar: his magic visions, less founded on the principles of terror than on mythologic trash and caprice, are to the probable combinations of nature what the paroxysms of a fever are to the flights of vigorous fancy. Though so much extolled and so ambitiously imitated, his banditti are a medley made
up of starveling models, shreds and bits of armour from his lumber room, brushed into notice by a daring pencil. Salvator was a satyrist and a critic; but the rod which he had the insolence to lift against the nudities of Michael Angelo, and the anachronism of Raphaël, would have been better employed in chastising his own misconceptions.' P. 76.
Equally ridiculous is the note (p. 78) on portrait-painting, in which the writer shows a total unacquaintance with its very nature and principles. But our author is a most determined critic; and few names have escaped his censures, either direct or oblique. If we remember rightly, sir Joshua Reynolds was accustomed to blame by his silence alone ; and surely nothing can be more indecent than to convert the chair of a professor into the tub of a satirist. But Mr. Fuseli's satirical turn seems connected with the bias of his taste ; and never is malignity accompanied with true genius. This, however, is only another violent posture ; and the whole is of a piece. It would form a good subject for a Hogarth, to delineate Mr. Fuseli in the professor's chair..
Art. X. — Sermons on various Subjects. By Edward Pye.
Waters, A. B. &c. 8vo. 75. Boards. Whites.
IN the first discourse we meet with the following, among other questions of similar import. • Has not a whole powerful and civilised nation, assembled in council, impiously decreed that there is no God?'-The nation to whom the preacher alludes most assuredly never did; and the late rebellion in Ireland is, with an equal ignorance of facts, termed 'a dire union of atheism and bigotry. But allowing the representations of the preacher to be true, what good end could it possibly answer to divert the attention of an audience, on a Sunday, from truths of the highest importance, inculcated by Scripture authority, to the affairs of France and Ireland—subjects which every good man would wish to kecp removed from his sight on the day devoted to religion, to the ennobling intercourse between himself and his Maker? --- Equally injudicious are the ensuing queries. "Where are we to look for pure and undefiled religion ? Is it within the pale of the established church ?-Most assuredly there, if any where,' is the answer promptly given by the preacher to himself, forgetting the maxim of Scripture, . Let another man praise thee, and not thy own lips. The proper reply would have been, that true religion is to be found only in the word of God; and that men may profess to be members of any church, may boast of being within the pale of the church of England, of Rome, or of Scotland-all established churches,--and yet be strangers to the church of Christ. But we must allow something to an orator ;-and his panegyric on the church is drawn up under a happy figure.
There is in religion, as in the circumstances of society, a golden mean; and as the happiest climate of the world lies between the ex. tremes of heat and cold, so also in religion is there a temperate zone, equally distant from the fervor of enthusiasm and the coldness of infidelity, most kindly to the growth and produce of religious knowledge, and favorable to the encouragement of every good and pious affection. In this temperature is situated the church of Eng. land, thus established in the remotest point from every extreme : therein have the truths of religion been the most securely and profitably studied, and therein have fourished the fairest examples of ar. dent faith and unsullied righteousness.' P. 16.
In another sermon we lose the preacher entirely, and seem to see the orator on the treasury-bench in St. Stephen's chapel.
. It is from the influence of the eternal principles of justice that the people of Great-Britain have assumed the commanding and majestic character of the restorers of the long-lost tranquillity and honour of Europe. It is on elcse principles that they demand, not 30 much indemnity for the past, as security for the future ; and seek, through such prodigious and continued efforts, not aggrandisement for themselves, nor their allies, but the real happiness and Bober prosperity of those whom she has been compelled to call and treat as enemies. It is in support of the same cause, in support of our dearest rights, that we have successfully exerted ourselves in resisting our internal enemies, who have laboured with unwearied perseverance and undiminished hardihood to introduce the same dreadful scenes of anarchy into this country which have laid France in blood and ruin, and that we have arrested the progress of rebellion, averted the overthrow of our long-tried establishments, civil and religious, and escaped the plunder and desolation which attend all sweeping innovations. It is by the preventing power of these principles that our reason has not been sophisticated, nor our hearts corrupted by a foolish, proud, and savage philosophy-a philosophy which we have discovered to be as ignorant as it is presymptuous, when it would teach us that government can have any other foun. dations than religion and morality: as absurd as it is ungenerous, when it would induce us to forget our obligations to our ancestors, and disregard our duties to posterity ; as delusive as it is barbarous, when it would persuade us to display our courage, by braving our consciences; our humanity, by wading through blood for speculative and contingent advantage; and our justice, by trampling on all established rights. And, above all, it is by the intervention of these principles that we have not yet, by a national act, denied the existence and defied the power of our God, refused the gracious offers of salvation brought unto us by our Redeemer, and haughtily rejected
the benign influence of the Holy Spirit ;-in a word, that we have “ walked humbly with our God.” P. 179.
So entirely, indeed, have the weakness, the baseness, and the atrocity of the modern revolutionary doctrines been unveiled, that if any man remain still inclined to adopt them, we must either pity his blindness, or shudder at his wickedness. We must not, how. ever, relax in our opposition to the emissaries of rebellion and anarchy ; since, as long as there are weak and unprincipled men in the world, so long it will be necessary to associate in defence of good order and religion.' P.181., . We cannot too much reprobate this mode of preaching. Let' the pulpit be, dedicated to higher strains of instruction; let no worldly thoughts interfere to give the hearer an opinion of his own superior righteousness : the church is not the place for comparisons between one audience and another; the great and everlasting Gospel is not to be debased by temporal occurrences or speculations on human affairs.
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Art. XI. -- General View of the Agriculture in the County of * Perth : with Observations on the Means of its Improvement. By
James Robertson, D.D. Minister at Callander in the County of Perth. Drawn up for the Consideration of the Board of Agricul. ture and internal Improvernent. Svo. Morison, Perth.
AGRICULTURE, though more lately practised in any great extent, has been carried on with more scientific precision, and more philosophical discrimination, in North than in South Britain. The reason perhaps may be, that the middling class of yeomen or renters is little known. Those who did not pos. sess estates in their own right were in general servants; and agriculture, thus in the hands of the higher and better educated ranks, has been more carefully and judiciously promoted. It is. perhaps for a similar reason that the best gardeners in England are from the north, and that thence also we have received the results of experiments conducted with more exactitude, and planned with greater ability, than in our own part of the country. Perthshire is a county of considerable magnitude, and it occupies nearly the centre of the kingdom; bordering on the Highlands westward, and on the maritime districts in its eastern frontier. . :- The land to which the following survey refers seems to divide that part of Scotland on the south, which is generally adapted to the raising of grain, from that on the north; which, with few exceptions, is more fitted for pasture. . ...It is also singular that the county under review divides those
parts of the kingdom on the north, where firs abounded in former times, which are still found in the mosses, from those in the south, which carried oaks and a variety of other wood, but no firs, as far as I have ever heard. Nature herself, which never errs, appears to have clad our bleak mountains with a mantle, which is for ever green; while she had planted trees, which shed their leaves, where ornament and shelter were less necessary, lest perhaps the verdure of the ground would be too much intercepted from the eye of man.
In this county is the boundary between those parts of Britain where coal has been discovered, and those where coal has not bitherto been found that useful fossil, which is so necessary for the confort of the southern districts, being less requisite in the north, where extensive forests of the pine, the best of all fuel, formerly grew, and still grow spontaneously.
. Here is also the division betwixt the granite and the free-stone; there being no free-stone north of us, and the granite less frequent than the free-stone on the south. · Our hewing-stone quarries gradually harden as you approach the Grampians.
"Ślates, that beautiful covering for houses, are found in few parts of Britain south of this county
• Another distinguishing feature of this county is, that it contains more oak-woods than are to be found in all the other counties of NorthBritain. P. xix.
We greatly regret the want of a map of this county, in which the different soils might be laid down as in many of the agricultural reports of England. Without this assistance it is almost impossible to form or to convey any adequate idea of the soil. It is in general clay, or a rich loam, in consequence of the overflowing of brooks; and the soil consists of carses (the clay) and haughs, the regions occasionally overflowed. We shall add the author's bold outline from the topographical description in the Appendix.
• In a surface so extensive, it may naturally be supposed that the country exhibits an appearance very much diversified. The grandest object which attracts the notice of a stranger, traveling northward from Edinburgh or Glasgow, is the boldness of the Grampian mountains, piled upon one another in huge masses, which extend not only the whole length of this county, but reach across the island, from Aberdeen on the German Ocean to Cowal on the Atlantic. The southern front of these mountains, which runs from south-west to north-east, has in many places a gradual and pleasing slope into á champaign country of great extent and fertility ; and notwithstanding the forbidding aspect, at first sight, of the mountains themselves, with their mantle of heath and rugged rocks, they are intersected in a thousand directions by winding valleys, which are watered by rivers and brooks of the most limpid water, clad with the richest pastures, sheltered by thriving woods that fringe the lakes and run along the streams, and are accessible in most places by roads unquestionably the best in Britain. These valleys, where there is such a rich variety of natural beauty, form a contrast to the ruggedness of the surround.