Imatges de pàgina

entrance is skirted by a double row of majestic trees, whose seeming boundless continuity fills the mind with an idea of something like infinitude ; for the line is extended not only along the whole of a very spacious plain, but up the distant hill, over whose summit it appears to curve, so that nothing like termination is discernible.” The eminence here mentioned commands a vast extent of country, of which Windsor town and castle, Eton college, Datchet, Harrow, Highgate, Hampstead, and Stanwell

, constitute the leading features. Near this spot is Cumberland lodge, a spacious edifice, where the last duke of Cumberland, and his illustrious predecessor, to whom it was given in the year 1744, formerly resided.

• The park is embellished with some rich forest scenery, and possesses great diversity and inequality of surface; but the circumstances through which it more peculiarly demands attention are the agricultural experiments now making in its different quarters under the direction of his majesty, by whom many improvements in the state and general appearance of the grounds have already been effected. The valleys and low parts have been cleared, to give a bolder effect to the woody scenes on the eminences; and several judicious openings have been contrived to remove the disgusting tameness of parallel lines, and separate the plantations that appeared heavy and formal. When the park reverted to the king, it was fonnd to contain about 3800 acres, abounding with moss, fern, rushes, and ant-hills, and rendered dangerous in many places by bogs and swamps. In this state its scanty produce hardly afforded suf, ficient nutriment for 3000 deer., Since that period “ the wet parts have been rendered firm and sound by the Essex mode of underground draining; the rushes weakened and destroyed, by draining and rolling; the moss and small hillocks extirpated by harrowing ; the large ant-hills cleared by the scarifier; the fern weakened by mowing; the irregular banks levelled ; the pits filled up; the valleys opened; the hills ornamented with new plantations ; the stiff lines of trees, the vestiges of hedge-sows, judiciously broken :" and the park, though now reduced to 2400 acres, supports

the same number of deer as before, in much better health and condition.” The remaining 1400 acres have been disposed into two farms, respectively denominated from the nature of the mode of husbandry by which they were intended to be brought into culture.

· The Norfolk farm consists of about 1000 acres of light soil, bordering on the extensive waste called Bagshot-heath, hitherto considered as too barren for cultivation, though large tracts of similar quality have long since been rendered useful in the south-west part of Norfolk. Half this farm has been allotted to sheep-walks ; the other is disposed in arable land, managed in a five-course shift of 100 acres in a class, and cropped in the following course : first, wheat or rye; second, vetches, rye, and potatoes ; third, turnips; fourth, barley or oats ; fifth, clover. The ploughing is chiefly per. formed with the Norfolk plough; and the ground, which in its former state was not worth renting at above five shillings an acre, now produces crops of more value than the original fee-simple of the land. This improvement in a great measure has been owing to the penning of the sheep on the fallows—from 600 to 800 Wilt hire

wethers being commonly kept as a folding stock. The irregularlyformed ground, which surrounds the beautiful lake called Virginia Water, has been disposed into a separate walk for Ryeland wethers, who are supposed to be best adapted to the coarseness of the herbage. The waste water of the lake gives motion to an overshot mil, which has been erected to grind corn for the labourers.

• In breaking up some of the land for this farm, it was found so coarse and tough, that it could not be cleared in the ordinary way without uncommon expense and labour. An experiment was therefore made, which, from the success attending it, seems worthy of insertion. “ In the early part of the winter it was ploughed to a full depth with a swing plough, whose mould-board was so placed as to lay the turf in an inverted position. This was well trodden with cattle, and rolled, and the sheep occasionally drove over it. In the spring it was harrowed and cropped with oats, which were no sooner off than the surface was again harrowed and dragged, so as to get a much loose earth as possible without bringing up the turf. Early in autumn it was sown with winter vetches, and the beginning of June ploughed crossways, when the turf turned up quite rotten, and the land was got into a clean state by the first week in July. Both turnips and wheat were afterwards sown, and succeeded ad. mirably."

• The Flemish farm contains about 400 acres, situated at the north extremity of the park, and originally intended to have been managed in exact accordance with the system employed in Flanders. This is a four-course shift, yielding an alternate crop for man and beast. The soil, however, being found strong and cohesive, the plan was in part relinquished, for the following more congenial mode : first year, wheat ; second, cabbage or clover; third, oats ; fourth, beans. The arable land on this farm is 160 acres.

The comparative advantages of the labour of horses and oxen have long divided the opinions of experimental agriculturalists. The practice of his majesty has induced him to decide in favour of oxen, which have been found “ to answer so well in his different farms, parks, and gardens, that not a horse is now kept” for the purposes of husbandry. The oxen kept on the farms, and in the park, are 200.

Forty are yearly purchased as succession oxen ; 40 are fatted and sold; and 120 are under work. The absurd practice of coupling the latter with yokes is abandoned, and collars only are used : in this state their step is more free, and their labour performed with much greater case. The kinds employed are suited to the soil and busiDess. On the light soils the Devonshire sort are used; on the strong and heavy the Herefordshire ; for carting, harrowing, and rolling, the Glamorganshire. The working oxen are mostly divided into teams of six ; and as one of that number is daily rested, no ox labours more than five days in the week. This treatment enables the animal to retain his strength with the ordinary keep. Harder labour and higher feed would be injurious ; for the nature of the ox will not admit of his being kept in condition, like a horse, artificially, by proportioning his food to increased exertions. Their summer food is only a few vetches, and what they obtain froin the leasowes or coarse meadows: in winter they have cut hay and wheat straw, one third of the latter being mixed with two-thirds of the former.

• Besides the improvements that have been effected in the park with respect to agriculture, several valuable plantations have been made on the high grounds, and the natural beauty of the scenery increased by the grand masses of wood which begin to overrun the eminences. Many parts display a pleasing variety of hill, valley, wood, and water, where the picturesque and romantic are the prevailing characteristics. From some points the views are pecuharly interesting their general composition bearing a striking resemblance to the celebrated scenery of the New Forest. Virginia Water terminates with a cascade, executed from designs by Paul Sandby, esq.

This was formed with large masses of stone, obtained from the sandy soil of Bagshot-heath, by boring to various depths. These are placed with some degree of taste and judgement, though the disposition of the whole is rather stiff and formal. The surplus waters How over the top, and are broken into several streams by projecting stones.' P. 266.

In forming artificial cascades, it might be advisable to have models taken from nature in Switzerland and other distant countries, so that any charge of formality might be obviated. The cascade of Virginia Water always pleased us; and, notwithstanding the common advance of this charge against it, we have seen natural cascades far more formal.

The account of Stoke Pogis becomes interesting from its having been the residence of Gray, perhaps the most strictly classical poet in the English language, and we must highly applaud Mr. Penn's taste and liberality in erecting a monument to that exquisite writer. Our readers will be pleased with the entire history.

• Stoke Pogis is a large scattered village, which obtained the appellation Pogeis from its ancient lords of that name. The heiress of this family, in the reign of Edward the Third, married lord Molines, who shortly afterwards procured a license from the king to convert the manor house into a castle. From him it descended to the lords Hungerford, and from them to the Hastings, earls of Huntingdon, and seems afterwards to have been the residence of the lord-chancellor Hatton. Sir Edward Coke having married an heiress of the Huntingdon family, became the next possessor; and here, in the year 1601, he was honoured with a visit from queen Elizabeth, whom he entertained in a very sumptuous style. It was afterwards the seat of Anne, viscountess Cobham, on whose death the estate was purchased by Mr. William Penn, chief proprietor of Penn-syl. vania in America, and now belongs to John Penn, esq. his grandson.

• The old manor house furnished the subject for the opening of Gray's humorously descriptive poem called the Long Story, in which the style of building and fantastic manners of Elizabeth's reiga are delineated with much truth.

• Gray, when a student at Eton, occasionally resided with his

aunt in this village, whose church-yard was the scene of his muchadmired elegy. It was also the place of his interment ; though neither friend nor relation raised a stone to his memory till the year 1799, when the genius of poetry animated the kindred bosom of Mr. Penn to perform the long-neglected task. The monument erected by this gentleman stands in a field adjoining the church, and forms the termination of one of the views from Stoke-house.

• It is composed with stone, and consists of a large sarcophagus, supported on a square pedestal, with incriptions on each side. Three of them are selected from the Ode to Eton College, and Elegy written in a Country Church-yard. The fourth is as follows:

• This monument, in honour of

Thomas Gray,
Was erected A. D. 1799,

Among the scenery
Celebrated by that great lyric and elegiac poet.

He died in 1771,
And lies unnoticed in the adjoining church-yard,

Under the tombstone on which he piously
And pathetically recorded the interment

Of his aunt, and lamented mother. Stoke-park is the seat of John Penn, esq. who within a few years has made it one of the most charming and magnificent residences in this part of the county. The house was built in the year 1789, from designs by James Wyatt, esq. since when it has experienced several judicious alterations and considerable additions. It is built chiefly with brick, and covered with stucco, and consists of a large square centre with two wings. The north, or entrance front, is ornamented with a colonnade, consisting of ten Doric columns, and approached by a flight of steps, leading to the marble hall. The south front, 196 feet in length, is also adorned with a colonnade, consisting of twelve fluted columns of the old Doric order. Above this ascends a projecting portico, of four Ionic columns, sustaining an ornamental pediment. The marble hall is oval, and contains four fine marble busts, supported on scagliola pedestals. The whole interior length of the south front is intended to be occupied by an elegant and well-stored library. Besides several good portraits by Lely and Kneller, the following pieces are deserving attention.

A large picture, containing four children of the Penn family, in a landscape, by sir Joshua Reynolds. This very fine picture may be classed with those which obtained our great English artist his deserved celebrity. The colouring is chaste and perfect, the composition is excellent, and the drawing correct.

· Three children of king Charles the First. There are so many duplicates of this exquisite picture, that we are led to suspect the originality of every one, except where it is accompanied with demonstrative evidence. The present picture, we are assured, is a true Vandyck, whose name it bears. "It is finely coloured, and in good preservation.

• William Penn, the founder of Penn-sylvania, a half length. This celebrated quaker was painted in armour about the age of twenty-two.

• The park, though rather flat, commands some very fine views, particularly to the south, where the eye is directed over a large sheet of water to the majestic castle of Windsor, beyond which Cooper'shill, and the forest woods, close the prospect. A large lake winds round the east side of the house, with a neat stone bridge thrown over it. The lake was originally formed by Richmond, but it has been considerably altered by Repton, who also directed the laying out of the park. About 300 yards from the north front of the house is a handsome futed column, sixty-eight feet high, lately erected from a design by Mr. Wyatt. On the top is a colossal statue of sir Edward Coke, by Rosa.'

Upon the whole, this is a very decent and pleasing work, and we wish the editors success in the progress of their design.

P. 394.

ART. VII.-The Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer; being a com

plete System of occult Philosophy. In Three Book: : containing the ancient and modern Practice of the Cabalistic Art, Natural and Celestial Magic, &c. showing the wonderful Effects that may be performed

by a Knowledge of the Celestial Influences, the occult Properties of Metals, Herbs, and Stones, and the Application of active to passive Principles :-exhibiting the Sciences of natural Magic; Alchymy, or Hermetic Philosophy; also the Nature, Creation, and Fall of Man; his natural and supernatural Gifts; the Magical Power inherent in the Soul, &C.; with a great Variety of rare Experiments in natural Magic: the Constellatory Practice, or Talismanic Magic; the Nature of the Elements, Stars, Planets, Signs, &c.; the Construction and Composition of all sorts of Magic Seals, Images, Rings, Glasses, &c.; the Virtue and Efficacy of Numbers, Characters, and Figures, of good and evil Spirits. Magnetism, and Cabalistical or Ceremonial Magic; in which the secret Mysteries of the Cabala are explained; the Operations of good and evil Spirits; all kinds of Cabalistic Hje gures, Tables, Seals, and Names, with their Use, &c. The Times, Bonds, Offices, and Conjuration of Spirits. To which is added, Biographia antiqua, or the Lives of the most eminent Phi losophers, Magi, &c. The whole illustrated with a great Variety of curious Engravings, Magical and Cabalistical Figures, &c. By Francis Barrett, F.R.C. Professor of Chemistry, natural and occult Philosophy, the Cabala, &c. &c. 4to. ib. 75. Boards. Lackington and Co. 1801.

IN vaiń do we boast of the progress of philosophy ;-for, behold! in the beginning of the nineteenth century appears a work which ought not to have surpassed the fifteenth. The prefixed portrait of the author seems rather to indicate weak

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