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right to have done every thing possible to have' avoided becoming parties in the present horrible conflict ; that we have committed a fatal error in linking ourselves with those whom our common religion has taught us to consider as devoted to destruction ; and that there fore no time should be lost in endeavouring to escape the danger we have brought ourselves intoma danger which, however things might seem at first, or however they may now appear to some, becomes, in the opinion of many, more and more threatening at every step we advance. P. 112. Art. 26.–An Apology for the Sabbath. By John Prior Estlin. ' 8vo. Is. 6d. Johnson. 1801.
. The puritanical observance of the sabbath which has long parti. cularly marked some of the sectaries in this country, excited among others a more rigid inquiry into the nature of the day; and, offended with the pharisaic scruples of the former, many of the latter ran into the contrary extreme, and either perverted the institution by appropriating it entirely to their pleasure, or, calling in question its utility as a period of public devotion, made no distinction at all between this and the other days of the week. Admirably useful, during the existence of this contest between opinions, is the sermon before us; it is addressed to the understanding; and the evidence which the subject requires is stated in the clearest and most dispassionate manner.
This will be conspicuous from the concessions made by the preacher in the commencement of his discourse.
• To prevent mistakes, I set out with allowing, in the most explicit manner, that the law of the Jewish sabbath is a law to the Jews only. I likewise grant that the practice now under consideration has not the sanction of any express precept of the New Testament. Whether there are not other grounds of obligation, is a point which remains to be considered.' Let truth prevail on which. ever side it lies." I speak as unto wise men ; judge ye what I say." P. 5. · The main argument for the observance of the sabbath is its utility, and indeed absolute necessity.' It is probable that it made a part of the patriarchal religion, and that the day which is now selected is the same which the patriarchs observed. This topic of time is well insisted upon, as it obviates the arguments used by those who call in question the Christian institution, on the ground of its nonconformity with the Jewish. The opinions of Selden, Limborch, &c. with their followers, Paley, Geddes, Evanson, are fully stated, and left to the judgement of the reader ; and it may be thought by some that too great concession is made in allowing part of the sabe bath to be employed, in case of necessity, in the works of the harvest. The whole question, however, evidently reposes upon the first chapter of Genesis, which is confirmed by the practice of Christians from she earliest periods; and no one who seriously reflects upon the present state of the world, the ignorance of the multitude, and the indifference of the higher classes to religious concerns, could wish for any innovation on so excellent an institution, even if it had not the sanction of divine authority.
• Rest, particularly to brute animals, 'which in this country are treated by many with disgraceful cruelty, and by most with a less degree of attention than is due to creatures who are susceptible of pleasure and pain, and to whose services we are so much indebted; rest, comfort, and moral improvement, to servants; the constant worship of Almighty God; reading the Scriptures and books of moral instruction ; partaking of the Lord's supper; the cultivation of every excellent disposition; and, above all, love to God, and love to man ;-these are the peculiar duties of the sabbath. Let us, my friends, practise them with undivided attention, with minds tuned to the employment, until we have learned to make every day a sabbath,--and then we shall not easily be induced to neglect them,and until we are qualified for that eternal sabbath which we hope to enjoy in the more immediate presence of God himself, with Jesus Christ, with saints and angels, and with the spirits of the just made perfect.' P. 47. "This discourse deserves to be put into the hands of all those, who, though they still retain a veneration for Christianity, are in danger of falling into the coldness of fashionable indifference, and who, if they neglect the means afforded them once a week, of cultivating an acquaintance with their own minds and their higher concerns, will soon be totally absorbed in the frivolity or traffic of the age, and become the mere drudges of pleasure or of Mammon. ,
Art. 27.-A Sermon preached at the Parish Church of St. Andrew by
the Wardrobe and St. Anne, Blackfriars, on Tuesday in Whitsan. Week, May 26, 1801, before the Society for Missions to Africa and the East, instituted by Members of the established Church, being their. first Anniversary. By the Rev. Thomas Scott. Also the Report of the Committee to the Annual Meeting, held on the same Day; and a List of Subscribers and Benefactors. To which is prefixed an Account of the Society. Printed by Order of the general Meeting. 8vo. 250 Seeley. 1801.
Far be it from us to propose the least obstacle to the excellent object which this sermon has in view-the promotion of religious knowledge among the heathens. It is on the contrary with the greatest pleasure we perceive a society is formed for sending missionaries for this purpose to remote corners of the earth, now sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. The society is said to be instituted by members of the established church, and we wish that. their number may be increased; yet upon looking at a list of their names, it evidently appears that it has taken its rise from the evan. gelical or methodistical party; and on this account a degree of watchfulness is necessary, lest, in the midst of zeal to promote the general truths of Christianity, the discipline of the church should be for. gotten, or very imperfectly regarded. To give a missionary epi. scopal ordination with reference to the heathens only, is impossible; and as clergymen are not easily to be found to venture upon such expeditions, the society has devised a mode of supplying that defect, by bestowing on its missionaries the powers only of an instructor, or, as they choose to term it, a catechist, Hence the missionary may
instruct, but he must not baptise or administer the Lord's supper : but when a congregation is formed, a minister is to be appointed, with proper powers from the bishop. Of this regulation we cannot fail to approve; but we could have wished that a farther security had been given to the church, by providing that no one should be sent as a missionary whose testimonials, signed by two or three clergymen, had not been inspected and confirmed by the bishop of London. Besides the exodus of missionaries, it is an object of the society to translate the Scriptures into the languages of various countries where they are not yet known, and to disperse translations of the Scriptures in those countries where Christianity has not hitherto been acknowledged. These intentions of the society are well inforced by the preacher; and the report, together with the appendixes-the one by Mr. Carlyle recommending an Arabic edi. tion of the Scriptures, the other by Mr. Mosely on printing them in Chinese and circulating them through Asia—deserves the attention of every serious Christian.
• LAW. Art. 28.-Collectanea Maritima; being a Collection of public Instruments, &c. &c. tending to illustrate the History and Practice of Prize Law. By Chr. Robinson, LL.D. 8vo. 35. sewed. Buttere worth 1801.
These documents, which are to be continued, show that the right of search has been acknowledged, and made part of the naval ceconoiny, of the last three centuries. The present treaty of peace will place this right, most probably, on a better footing than it has hitherto stood; for as to the Aing at the trimness of modern theories,' we cannot see why men in these days are not as well qualified to understand and settle this subject as the persons who drew up the documents anterior to us. The technical man of law is generally however tied down to musty rolls of parchment, and detests every thing that alters the practice to which he has been accustomed. If a thing happen to have been done a hundred years ago, with him it must be wise, and every modern improvement is folly ; yet men will specil. late and improve, because the acts of their ancestors, which might in their time have been founded on consummate wisdom, cease in the course of ages to be practical or beneficial. We shall be happy to see the right of search restricted to those warlike stores only which shall be specified between the parties; and if privateering should hereafter be considered as piracy, mankind will be benefited, though Doctors' Commons should suffer by the new theory. . ART. 29.— Inquiries into the Nature of Leasehold Property; in which
the relative Situations of Lellor and Lessee, Landlord and Tenant, are fairly considered. By a Gentleman of the Temple. 8vo. Is. 6d. Bickerstaff. 1801..
The writer wishes that the subject had fallen into better hands, as the importance of it well deserved. Our wishes coincide with his own. He seems not to be sufficiently aware of the nature of leases.' When the property is vested in the landlord, it cannot be doubted that another person has no right to occupy it; and if he will purchase the permission of occupying it, the terms must depend on the proprietor, and the lease is a simple contract, as in the case of any other bargain of hire. The endeavour to give a lessee, in church, or college, or hospital, or corporation, any sort of property-right in the soil, and to limit the proprietor's power in setting the fine of renewal, is too absurd to be admitted for a moment. The lessee, in this species of property, has generally his right in it subjected to the covenants in the lease or contract for twenty-one years, if land forty years, if houses. At the expiration of this term he has no right to complain on dismissal : and this cannot take place by surprise, for at the end of the first seven years he must expect it, if his lease be not renewed ; and the renewal of the lease is and ought to be solely in the breast of the landlord or proprietor. Art. 30.-Ait of Grace, &c. explained to a Man of singular Charac
ter and Consequence, now a Prisoner in a County Gaol. 8vo. 6d. Parsons. 1801.
From this work we learn that a great number of debtors in the Fleet prison have signed a petition to the king, praying that he would exert his royal interference, and induce the other two branches of the legislature to consent to their release.' Every humane man must lament the state of so many of his fellow.creatures who are more severely punished for misfortunes than others for real crimes ; yet we would rather see their release effected by a total change in the laws respecting debtor and creditor, which, according to this work, evidently want revision, than by an act of royal favour. The whole question lies in a narrow compass. Is insolvency a crime, or not ? If it be a crime, let it be examined by a grand and petit jury, and proper punishment be inflicted on the offender. If it be a misfortune only, what iishumanity as well as folly it is to preclude a man from the use of all his powers, and thus to aggravate his misfortunes! The present system offends against every dictate of sound sense, which prescribes proportion in the punishment of crimes ; while in this case no proportion at all is observed. The fraudulent stand the best chance of escape; the honest and unfortunate see no end to their miseries. We recommend this pamphlet to both debtor and creditor.
AGRICULTURE, &c. .. ART. 31.–National Irrigation, or the various Methods of watering
Meadows; affording Aleans to increase the Population, Wealth, and i Revenue of the Kingdom, by an Agricultural, Commercial, and general
Economy in the Use of Water. By William Tatham. 8vo. 95. Boards, Carpenter. 1801.
Though we do not greatly approve of our author's language, and in some instances doubt of the correctness of his views, yet his general principle deserves our commendation,--particularly his recommendation of uniting canals, with the projects of draining or
of irrigation. Our author, too, should have pointed out more di stinctly what lands require irrigation, and what water is advantageous when conducted over lands. Every soil and every spring are by no means suitable. He has however collected much valuable information on the subject from the practice of different counties, particularly from that of Aberdeenshire, where barren heaths are said, by this method, to be converted into fertile fields.
The practice of irrigation, though long neglected, was very an.. cient, and is mentioned by various authors. Mr. Tatham has only given an imperfect sketch of its history. How could he have overlooked this common line? It may serve as a motto for his second edition :
• Claudite jam rivos, pueri : sat prata biberunt.' Art. 32.- A Letter on the Drainage of the East, West, and Wildmore
Pens : addressed to the Proprietors of Rights of Common on these Fens, and to the Proprietors of Estates in the North Marshes, in the · County of Lincoln. By Thomas Stone, Land-Surveyor. Svo. is.
Cawthorn. ' ..
We have lately had occasion to say much of Mr. Stone and this county. We have always thought him a man of abilities and judge. ment, and this letter tends rather to confirm than alter our opinian.
MEDICINE, &c. Art. 33.-Cases of Phthisis Pulmonalis, successfully treated upon the
Tonic Plan; with introductory Observations. By Charles ́ Pears, F.M.S, F.L.S. &c. 8vo. 25. 6d. Murray and Highley. 1801. Mr. Pears, evidently a young author, enters the lists with the first practitioners, and even with the experience of successive centuries, Wine, animal food, bitters, and tonics, are his remedies, with little discrimination of situation and circumstances. Like a sturdy Brunonian, he speaks with the utmost complacency of his own plans, and with little reserve of the conduct of others. Our faith and our tem. per have been lately put to severe trials. We began with doubt: farther inquiries changed those doubts into absolute disbelief; and the evidence on the contrary side became so strong, that, uncharitable as it may seem, we alınost suspected that some authors courted popularity by strong assertions which they knew to be false. Werecollected the strong sarcasm of Voltaire-il ne le croit pas ; il l'a seulement écrit,-and were led to apply it to authors who publish, as cures, cases which, in the moment even of publication, terminated fatally; who publish other editions, and other cases, without noticing the events which invalidated the former evidence. Such eagerness-we could give it a harsher name has greatly disgusted us, and must disgust the world, were it once known. Our preseut author does not come under these imputations. He is only sanguine and unexperienced; but he is much too confident; and, though some of our reflexions may seem severe, they are the milk of human kindness compared with his imputations.