Imatges de pàgina

any other in the kingdom. Instead of 1,848,000 acres, let us call it 1,600,000, allowing 248,000 acres for lands that do not probably come into the account at all; at a sheep and a half, there are then 2,400,000 sheep in the county ; producing 21,610,000 lb. of wool, which at only gd. per pound, or 810,000 l. amounts to ios. an acre over the whole. Such an account, or any thing near it, is not to be produced in any other district probably in the world. This fact shows the immense consequence to Lincolnshire of a fair price of wool; the manufacturers, in their evidence given before parliament, on the wool bill, stated what they called the rivalry of French fac brics of long wool, by means of smuggling it from England. Sup. posing the fact (which was directly the reverse), it has now certain. ly ceased, for the French manufactures have ceased ; add to this, that our woollen fabrics, as appears by their registers, and by the custom-house exports, are far more prosperous, yet the price of Lincoln wool was is. and it is now only 9d.; contrary to every thing that ought in such cases to take place. At a fair price, the wool of this county would sell for 1,080,000l. a year. The difference is a very material loss indeed !''P. 367.

Rabbits are not so advantageous as sheep. Geese are a profitable stock, as they require little labour: they are plucked four times a year, and each time the feathers are worth 4d, The goose itself is worth from 1s. 3d. to is. 6d. Fishing is not apparently much attended to.

The chapter on rural ceconomy, viz. on labour and provie sions, contains nothing very interesting for our present purpose. Wages are in general high.

The subject of political economy is considered under the sections of roads, canals, manufactures, poor, and population. The canals and manufactures are neither so numerous nor so important as we might have expected. Of the manufactures, spina ning is the most considerable branch; and from this county Norwich is seemingly supplied. A hank of woollen yarn, which by custom is estimated 156 yards, has by the ingenuity of miss Ives been spun to 168,000, or the length of above 95 miles.

The poor in Lincolnshire are numerous, notwithstanding their cottage system, which merits commendation. The women are represented as indolent ; and the high wages encourage dissipation. The idea is, that population has declined. From the accounts before us, we greatly doubt of this assertion. The army has certainly lessened the proportional number of men.

The miscellaneous chapter offers little that is interesting. We are glad to find, from Mr. Stone, that the rats which infested Deeping fen are drowned. The appendix is not of much importance. The chief article which merits notice is major Cartwright's method of covering corn-stacks with painted or oiled canvas,

· In this account of Mr. Young's survey, we have anticipated many parts of Mr. Stone's Review. He, in general, accuses the secretary of partial statements, and unequal attention in his inquiries. Much, it is alleged, has been picked up at ordinaries, and in common conversation. We know not that it is an error to glean from conversation ; nor can any inquirer always answer for his authorities. It is sufficient if, as Mr. Young does, he carefully produce them." : On the subject of drainage, Mr. Stone's observations are very judicious and intelligent. We do not transcribe them, because they are chiefly of local importance, and require a minuter knowledge of zhe situation than we can convey. On the subjects of paring and burning also we fully agree with Mr, Stone. We have examined the practice theoretically and experimentally; and, in each view, are convinced that it is in general injurious. Iu heavy stiff lands, where the soil is deep and much incorporated with coarse grass and furze, we have found it of service. In these, a diminution of the soil, and the destruction of the vegetable extractive matter," are compensated by the greater friability of the earth. Subsequent manuring, howa cver, with lime and dung, we have always found to be necessary, { if the ground be to be kept in heart for any number of rears. We shall select Mr. Stone's account of the soils where his practice is alone admissible. I . . IA

Paring and burning ought only to be allowed under the following limitations and restrictions:

Upon fen land lately drained, where it may be impossible to subdue a variety of coarse productions, and to level it any other way. ** Upon fen land with a clay bottom, and a superstrátum which requires dissipating and reducing in thickness, in order to allow the plongh to sink low enough to touch and bring up a portion of clay to mix with the fen mould,

• Upon strong clayey soils, where no other means can be resorted to, after draining, to render them more open and less tenacious.

." [I have seen the arrangement of soil of this kind totally changed by the process, and thus land qualified to produce turnips in success sion, which was impossible to be done upon the circumjacent land of the same original quality. But even in this instance I should prefer the plan recommended by lord Dundonald, “ to calcine the clay in clamps or kilns, and to spread it afterwards on the ground, either by itself. or mixed with lime.”

- Upon a loamy soil at a great distance from a home situation, and where neither marle, lime, clay, soil, manure, nor any means of improvement can be found. The occupiers to be limited and restrained, after this process, from taking two successive crops of corn or grain, and to return to the same 'land all thc inanure which its cropping has produced.

• But, upon a very light soil, this process, after the most cautious restrictions, will generally be found detrimental husbandry, botla for father and son. Upon soils of this kind, however, marle or clay, after the Norfolk system, will be found in the highest degree preferable. P. 228. . . · Whether Mr. Young have concealed or misrepresented any part of the evidence obtained in this tour, as hinted in the volume before us, is a circumstance that we cannot decide on.'

The observations on embanking and on warping are important, as apparently the dictates of genuine and unprejudiced observation. The very favorable view given of the subject in the survey does not appear to be confirmed by experience. On the topic of cattle, Mr. Stone claims the merit of the principal points of reformation adopted by Mr. Young, from his first teport. We shall not enlarge on the merits of the case, as we have professed a dislike to the whole Lincolnshire and Leicestershire system. On the other subjects we have enlarged sufficiently. Mr. Stone constantly finds something to object to, or to sneer at.

The appendix contains— • Observations on the principal subjects which are treated of in the late publication of lord Somerville, entitled “ The System fol. lowed during the last two Years by the Board of Agriculture further illustrated; with Dissertations on the Produce and Growth of Sheep and Wool, as well Spanish as English. Also Observations upon, and a new Plan for, the Poor and Poor Laws. To which are added Remarks on the Modes of Culture and Implements of Husbandry used in Portugal; and an Inquiry into the Causes of the late Scarcity, and Means proposed to remedy it in future.' P. 353.

In this appendix we perceive a little of the resentment suggested by the treatment of Mr. Stone's report; but there are many observations of real importance and value. Our article has been already so extensive, that we cannot transcribe them; , and indeed their minute and miscellaneous nature would have prevented it, had our limits been less confined.

ART. V.-The New Annual Register, or general Repository of

History, Politics, and Literature, for the rear 1800. To which is prefixed, the History of Knowledge, Learning, and Taste, in Great-Britain, during the Reign of King Charles Il. Part IV. 8vo. 145. Boards. Robinsons. 1801.

UNDER the late administration, every work in which the incense of adulation was not lavished on its principal became an object of censure; and to venture a prediction on the ill success of the which he had engaged us, or to animadvert on

ce with which in the preste.

On the

the unparalleled extravagance with which it was conducted, exposed the writer, as it is justly observed in the preface to this volume, to unbounded calumny and venal abuse. On the alteration of public sentiment in these respects, the editors of this work express a joyous triumph ;' and having been pertinaciously consistent in the avowal of opinions, of late too generally reprobated, but now once more acquiring an ascendency, they may be justly allowed to exult in the triumph which has been obtained. To the constitution of their country the editors declare themselves firmly attached, almost to idolatry; yet a mere declaration of patriotism is at present but of little weight; for the same assertion is advanced by every party; and those who have been most strenuous for the suspension of the habeas corpus, and the confinement of their countrymen in solitary cells upon bare suspicion of disaffection, for the transmission of money out of the kingdom unsanctioned by the consent of parliament,-for every measure, merely because it has been proposed by the ministry,are as loud in their asseverations of attachment to the constitution as if their whole conduct had been guided by the bill of rights, as founded at the revolution. Yet facts may be pleaded in favor of the assertion of our editors; and their prior volumes may be recurred to, as affording an unquestionable evidence. Public prejudice having in some measure subsided, it may be determined with ease what public cations have evinced the strongest attachment to the constitution; those which in supporting a disgraceful war have weakened some of its main pillars, or those which have been decided against the policy of the war from the beginning, and could not be brought to hug the new-fangled chains on the independency of the press and the liberty of the subject.

The work is arranged in the usual manner. The history of letters in the reign of Charles the Second occupies the first part; and excellent use is made of the copious materials from which a knowledge of that period may be obtained. Our versification began now to receive a degree of polish to which it had hitherto been unaccustomed; but poetry was disfigured by the perpetual attempts at that species of wit which was adapted only to the licentious manners and depraved taste of the court. In delineating or exciting the affections, the poets of this age were seldom successful;

-as they were wholly occupied in something unexpected and surprising, they had no regard to that uniformity of sentiment which enables us to conceive and excite the pains and pleasures of other minds. They never inquired what they themselves should have said or done on other occasions; their only aim was to say what had never been said before. They wrote rather as beholders than partakers of human nature, as beings looking upon good and evil impassive, and at leisure; as Epicurean deities, making remarks on the actions of

men, and the vicissitudes of life, without interest, and tion. Their courtship was void of fondness, and theii. of sorrow. Nor was the sublime more within their the pathetic, for they did not attempt that comprehens panse of thought which at once fills the whole mind, an the first effect is sudden astonishment, and the second racunal admiration.' P. xii.

Cowley, Butler, Roscommon, Rochester, Buckingham, Dorset, Waller, Otway, Phillips, Wycherley, pass in review before us; and those who have not the leisure to peruse their lives, in conjunction with the masterly criticisms of Johnson on their works, may, from this abridgement, form a good idea of their professional character.

The British and foreign history is compiled with great judge ment, though perhaps more attention than necessary is paid to many of the speeches of individuals in both houses of parliament. The book opens with the address from the throne on the 24th of September 1799, which must now excite a smile or a groan, according to the politics of the reader. “The deliverance of Italy;' and the expectation of success from the • efforts for the deliverance of the United Provinces ;' the éloge on 'our good and faithful ally the emperor of Russia,' and particularly on his wisdom and ' magnanimity,' afford tolerable specimens of the sagacity and foresight of the minister who could enforce such topics from so high an authority. The house, as usual, re-echoed the royal speech, and immediately afterwards proceeded, on the suggestion of Mr. Dundas, to new model, or, it might be said, to overthrow the system of the militia. Among the lords the same debates produced the same conclusions. The finances afforded opportunity for a few trifing discussions, in which, as usual, whatever was proposed by the minister was assented to with scarcely any resistance ; and of course, notwithstanding the enormous sums of money advanced, the suggestion by Mr. Martin that the terrace at Somerset-house should be accommodated to the use of the pub lic was rejected by Mr. Pitt with his accustomed hauteur. The reason assigned is too ridiculous to be mentioned that the vicinity of the public offices made such a precaution absolutely necessary;' but we may be allowed to observe that so beautiful a promenade would not at Paris, even under the old monarchy, have been locked up from public employment, and rendered, we might almost say, of no utility to any individual whatsoever. Mr. Dundas's India budget is detailed at sufficient length, and it was received with so little attention by the house, that even its introducer would have been flattered by a few remarks on either side with respect to his eastern operations.

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