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was sent into the county with directions to examine it anew, The
great warmth of his favorable and polite reception. It is certain, indeed, that he had Mr. Stone's former report, with ad-' ditions by many of those gentlemen among whom it was circu. lated; or we should have wondered how it was possible to have collected a body of facts, in general so extensive and interests ing, in this short period. On the other hand, Mr. Stone has some reason to complain that his survey was rejected without the imputation of any error; and we can scarcely suppose a man generally intelligent, and who seems to have lived in the county he was employed to survey, guilty of any material error, This conduct of the Board has drawn from the latter gentleman a critique on Mr. Young's work, in which, as was natural, he has magnified little errors, and caught at those trifling inaccuracies which must have arisen from the secretary's short stay, and his residence at only one period of the year. Indeed, in his eagerness to blame, Mr. Stone has in two or three in stances adduced inconsistencies, which, in the same, or the following sentence, are corrected. Thus Mr. Young says, that after the drainage of the Witham the lowlands were more aguish than before ; but he adds, when the drainage was completed, they were less so. This may be easily explained; for, while the land was draining, a tract of country, formerly under water, was, in part uncovered: when the drainage was completed, the whole was dry. This however is objected to, as an inconsistency. A great portion of Mr. Stone's work also is employed in stating differences of opinion between him and the secretary: which is sometimes done with propriety, but more often with petulance and sneering. The practice of agriculture very certainly requires being bred to the active exercise of it; but a judgement of soils, a knowledge of manures, &c. may be attained very accurately by a person whose early acquisitions were in a different line. Thus, we think Mr. Stone may be an excellent steward, though he may be no farmer; and indeed we can trace some agricultural errors in his present performance; and if Mr. Young's farm be not managed, as is hinted in the work before us, with peculiar skill, this will not detract from the merit we have uniformly ascribed to him, We certainly differ from Mr. Young in many points of agriculture, and in none more than a subject much enlarged on in Mr. Stone's review, viz. paring and burning, where we conceive most useful vegetable matter is sacrificed to the acquisition of a few ashes; yet we think highly of his talents, and warmly commend his application of them. These two works, together, will however render each perhaps more valuable; and on the whole they have greatly improved our knowledge of this county. We shall
first notice the agricultural survey, and then add a few remarks on some points controverted by Mr. Stone.
The county of Lincoln lies on the German ocean, and is bounded on the east by that sea. On its north is the river Humber, which divides it from Yorkshire; and on the south Northampton and Cambridge shires. The higher midland counties are on its west; from these are derived its more important rivers, the Trent, the Witham, and perhaps the Wela land. Some smaller ones flow from the higher wolds on the east, and the heaths in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. The wolds were perhaps, at one time, the projecting cliffs which confined the sea; for the low ground at present forms a very imperfect barrier, and was once seemingly covered by it. This low ground is pretty extensive in the southern part of the county, but more contracted in breadth, particularly at the south-eastern range of the wolds in the neighbourhood of Wain. fleet, and on the north, where these hills almost project into the embouchure of the Humber.
We need not observe that Lincolnshire is in general a very low and wet county. Mr. Young, who speaks of some parts of it with much warmth of praise, saw it at an advantageous period. But though its flat grounds require careful and extensive drainage, these same lands, in summer, want water. The springs are deep, and not always easily met with. In three months, viz. from June i to August 27, the quantity of rain was 11 786 inches, which marks this county to be a wet one. The greatest and least heat may be between 81 and 25, but this depends on two observations only. Inclosing has proceeded rapidly in this county; and Mr. Young seems to approve of commutation for tithes in bills of this kind. The farms are usually moderate, and the rents low; but the smallness of farms as well as inclosing are not, in our author's opinion, either so favorable to agriculture or to population, as is commonly supposed. We know, in general, that small farmers are neither such good husbandmen as the occupiers of large estates, nor so happy as their own servants. They are subject to disorders from incessant toil, and seldom long-lived. These circumstances our political calculators and superficial declaimers on the subject have never taken into their account; but they deserve very ample consideration.
We have some curious remarks on buildings, and a long history of the process of making the stucco used in major Cartwright's house. Leasing is not common, though more so, according to Mr. Stone, than the secretary represents. On the subject of implements, we have some curious information, of which we cannot engage in the detail. The minute statement of the management of arable land in Lincolnshire is very extensive, but broken too much into separate facts, many of which might have been advantageously brought together. They are seem, ingly thus separated to enable the author to add his authorities. We cannot, on this account, offer any abstract of it, but shall select his conclusions respecting drilling.'
Such are the facts I met with in this inquiry; they confirm the general result through the kingdom. . Drilling is a practice which will be found to answer to a certain extent; and with a certain degree of skill and attention. But when a minute attention flags, and the scale is much extended, then it is found that the conclusions drawn from one or two fields were not applicable to a whole farm; that the necessary operations militate with other objects; and what was profit becomes loss. „Were all the men known who have tried this husbandry, and laid it aside, the advocates remaining would not figure by their number.' P, 141, . .
Of the crops less common, a singular one is that of woad (isatis tinctoria); and we have a description of major Cartwright's new buildings for its reception. They appear to be very complete : but we think, with Mr. Stone, that the expense of carriage will exceed any advantages derived from the permanent situation, and the vicinity of the parishes, calculated so that those who shall become chargeable in the manufactory shall not be a burthen on the parish where the chief part of the estate lies. Hemp is another of these"unusual crops, and well adapted to a deep 'strong soil, as it soon impoverishes a less fertile one. The rich grazing lands are however of the chief im
portance in this county; and a large portion of useful informa. . tion is collected on this subject, though, as usual, too much in
detail. In general, the quantity of stock fed per acre is almost incredible, and the profits equally surprising. The facts here registered contain such proofs of fertility as perhaps no other district in the kingdom can equal-certainly none of similar extent.
The plantations afford little that is interesting; but what our author observes respecting the wastes should claim attention. With his remarks, we would wish, however, to combine Mr. Stone's observations on the construction of drains, and the errors of some of the more important ones. In general, the fens and commons are by no means highly advantageous: the sheep rot, or in a wet winter are drowned; and the chief advantages are derived from the geese. The following short history of draining is peculiarly curious, and can be easily selected.
• Forty years ago it was all warren for thirty miles from Spilsby to beyond Caistor; and by means of turnips and seeds, there are now at least twenty sheep kept to one there before.
Every circumstance concerning so very large a tract as the undrained fens deserves attention. For the following particulars I amn
indebted to sir Joseph Banks, who knows more of them, perhaps, than any other person in the county. The east and west fens were drained by adventurers in the time of Charles I., some account of whose undertakings may be seen in Dugdale's History of Embanking and Draining; they were about that time actually inclosed and cultivated. It is probable that the undertakers and the king, to whom a share was allotted, had taken to themselves a larger portion of the fen than the county thought just and reasonable ; for in the time of the great rebellion, a large mob, under pretence of playing at foot-ball, levelled the whole of the inclosures, burnt the corn and houses, destroyed the cattle, and killed many of those who occu. pied the land. They proceeded to destroy the works of drainage, so that the country was again inundated as it formerly had been, After the restoration, the adventurers repaired their works, resumed their lots of property, and began again to cultivate them ; but the country, who always considered themselves oppressed, by trespass upon the grounds, compelled the adventurers to defend their rights by a course of law; in which it was determined, that the original agreement was not valid, and consequently the property of the whole level was vested in its original proprietors. From this time. the drainage was carried on under the court of sewers, principally by means of the adventurers' drains ; bur the river Witham being neglected, 'and nearly silted up, they became so much oppressed, that application was made to parliament in 1762, when an act passed, by which the present works have been made, which are probably sufficient to carry off the whole of the downfall waters ; but till a catch-water drain is made, to keep separate those that fall upon the hills from those which fall upon the level, and a proper outfall provided, to carry the hill waters separately to sea, the expense of which will probably be equal, if not exceed that of the Witham drainage, the land can never be considered as safe winter lands neither can it be thought advisable to divide and inclose it. These, fens, east consists of 12,424 acres, one rood, one perch. The undertakers' drains left only 2000 acres under water ; but I am cre. dibly informed that the outfall of Maudfoster, as that goat now lies, is capable of draining dry the deepest pits in that fen.' p. 225.
It gives us great pleasure to hear, that no obstacles will now be in the way of draining a vast extent of fen. We trust that, in the present auspicious period, the work may be commenced. Our author's observations on the authority of sir Joseph Banks, whose sincerity we believe no one will question, deserve the attention of the Lincolnshire improvers. We can only refer them to pages 233 and 234 of this volume.
The study of drainage is of peculiar importance to the farmers of this district; and some useful hints are offered on this subject. Sir Joseph Banks seems to have succeeded well on Mr. Elkington's plan. A source of moisture, not very usual, arises from the porous ground, which absorbs the water from the sea; and we should suspect that it is with difficulty
removed. Perhaps, as hinted in some of the remarks, its'entire removal may not be advantageous, as it refreshes and cools the ground in the dry summers, independently of the utility of its salts as a manure. Paring and burning is a practice warmly defended, and the subsidence of the ground accounted for from its increased, density. We cannot decide on this subject, as we have no experience in the agriculture of Line, colnshire. Within the district to which our own practice has, been confined, it is evidently injurious; and from reasoning we suspect it would be so in others. . .
On the subject of manures we find nothing particularly curious. Bones are found to be very advantageous, except perhaps for turnips. Burning straw on the ground is said to be particularly so, from its heat, as is supposed, rather than its ashes, which are in very small quantities. It may be doubted whether the hydrogen produced may not be again carried down and united with the earth, though this is not very probable. About five tons of straw per acre are sufficient; and the price of the straw is about 5s. per ton.
To a county which, like that of Lincoln, is gained in a great measure from the sea, the ocean must be an indefatigable and powerful antagonist. Embanking is therefore an operation of no little importance: but scarcely any thing is said of the construction and management of the banks. Warping is a singular operation, confined we believe to Lincolnshire. The streams tributary to the Trent are turbid, though the diffused matter is deposited before it reaches the sea. The operation consists in letting this water pass over the lands, so as to deposit the contents on the soil. It appears to be chiefly sand, but certainly mixed with clay. The quantity deposited is so considerable as to elevate the ground; and the new earth is abundantly fertile. Warping is about to be practised on a great scale. Watering the land has been only of late introduced, but promises to be, as it has been usually found, advantageous when properly conducted. : Of'live stock, cattle and sheep are of the chief importance, and many facts are collected on this subject. It is however impossible for us to engage in the detail; and the whole practice, at least so far as regards sheep, is in our opinion erroneous. In reality, we see some parts of the management that we disapprove, and some that we can perhaps not implicitly credit without farther explanation. The following remarks on the production of wool in this county we shall leave to the judgement of our readers,
! Upon the very remarkable facts, that the whole county carries a sheep and a half per acre, at glb. per fleece, I may observe, that if this is true, or near the truth, it is probably stocked far beyond