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· Few children are selfish unless they are stinted in food or little indulgences; but when a child is so, the remedy is, we. fear, obtained with difficulty; for reason is useless. They soonacquire ideas of property, and seldom infringe on that of their companions. They have been considered as cruel, but this charge we think by no means well founded. They strike without knowing that they injure; and every feeling of their own is so transitory, that they cannot pity those in distress from a recollection of what they have suffered ; and they can form no other idea of either disease or pain.—But we are wandering from our author.
After some collateral disquisition, M. Struve gives general principles of education applicable to the early periods, the conduct to be observed during pregnancy, with some remarks on injurious and superstitious customs, handed down in succession among midwives. The whole of this might have been greatly shortened or suppressed, as even in the remotest provinces these customs are in a great degree obsolete. The chapter on the proper establishment of a nursery contains a few hints of importance; but that on the nutriment of children is not very applicable to our customs. Perhaps the old maxim of sanis omnia sana may be applied to them, if limited to plain meat, and, when the teeth have appeared, to animal food, in different proportions, once in twenty-four hours. . . .
The third chapter is on dress, and contains some singular fancies. In general no part of a child's dress should be tight; and the form is then indifferent, if easily put on. The chapter on walking and exercise, for the most part, is of more importance; and perhaps carrying the children in a basket, as is common in Germany, may be occasionally useful. Few authors have noticed the pernicious method of dancing the children. by supporting the breast-for if the child be in danger, the ribs are forcibly compressed to secure him, and, should he fall backward, there is no support. If danced on the left hand, the right should support him under the axilla, bringing the fingers over the shoulder, and in this situation the most active child could not spring out of the arms, nor could he receive any injury from firmly holding him.
The chapters on air and cleanliness merit our approbation. What relates however to bathing is not perfectly correct or clear. M. Struve is less accurate still in fixing the limits of the warm and tepid baths; and he is erroneous in confining the child to the latter during the first two years. The cold bath may be used, within twice two months, with moderate precautions gradually lessening the heat of luke-warm water, daily. The account of professor Pallas's cosmetic we shall select.
• The celebrated professor Pallas mentions, in his Travels through
the Southern Provinces of Russia, lately published in Germany (vol. i. p. 232), that a Mr. Zettler, an apothecary at Astrakhan, prepared, at his request, an admirable and harmless cosmetic of the flowers of the nymphea nelumbo, or, as it is called by the Indians, lilifar, which grows in great abundance in the inlets of the 'river Volga, and the fruit or nuts of which are searched for and caten with avidity by the natives, who regard them as sacred. “These flowers," says Pallas, “ have a very agreeable flavour; the water distilled from them has the fragrant and permanent taste of genuine ambra; and, used as a lotion, it imparts such softness and delicacy to the skin of the face and hands, that it deserves to be introduced as an innocent cosmetic into all the apothecaries' shops."-Although I do not approve of the learned professor's advice to introduce a general cosmetic, yet I think proper to inform the reader of a disam covery which, if applied to practice, might perhaps tend to banish from the toilette of our fashionable ladies the destructive compositions of lead, mercury, and other virulent metals.', P. 348.
The two last chapters are on juvenile employments and affections of the mind. In the first part considerabler improve1 ments have been made in England; which renders it less valu. able to the English reader. From the latter we shall select a specimen of the work. .
Avarice is the offspring of improper treatment: it originates from increasing the wants of children, by granting, whatever their : fancy induces them to demand, by overloading them with a variety of useless toys, and satisfying every wish. Thus the multiplicity of their desires, instead of being checked by prudent refusal, is constantly encouraged by the most extravagant indulgencer on the con trary, if they had remained yoacquainted with a number of unnecessary articles, which not only serve for' amusement, but lay the foundation for future convenience and luxury, they would never have claimed such unlimited favours. : In order to remedy errors of this kind, we must steadily and inexorably refuse their unreasonable applications, especially those made with a view to obtain play-thingsconducive to no end; because a different conduct will be productive of endless solicitations, and parents will at length become slaves to the caprice of their own progeny.
• Ambition is likewise the result of a defective education. When children are caressed and indulged in all their frivolous requests ;' when their orders are considered as peremptory; when we continually tease them with questions, and offer them new proofs of our fondness; in short, when the infant miss or master is provided with a separate attendant, who is exclusively at their imperious conimandhow can it be reasonably expected that such mismanagement is calculated to impress their susceptible minds with any other but ame; bitious and despotic ideas?
Curiosity is a laudable inclination; for a boy destitute of it affords no hope of eminent intellectual acquirements, and there is reason to apprehend that he will become an indolent and simple memberi of society. Fortunately, however, most children possess a considerable
share of that instinctive desire of knowledge ; so that we ought rad ther to guard against giving unqualified answers to their questions; than to rouse their inquisitive minds for premature reflexions. For this reason, our reply should always be clear to their comprehension; and if we are obliged, from the nature of their queries, to treat them with evasion, it would be more proper to divert their attention to some sensible object, than to intrude upon them a fictitious ex-" planation.
• Voracity, and a longing for particular dainties, are of artificial origin, and arise in children who are accustomed to excess in eating; or in whose presence adults frequently express a degree of pleasure on having partaken of delicious viands. Young people are not naturally addicted to either gluttony or epicurism; and if their nutriment be sweet and wholesome, they will not easily require a change, which might corrupt their appetite or impair their palate. Hence subtances which stimulate the latter and vitiate the former, such as spices, sweet-meats, or pastry, have a direct tendency to produce gluttons. It is however no difficult task to habituate our progeny to a frugal and simple diet, which, when diluted with plain and pure water, is most conducive to their health and future prosperity Thus trained up, under the inspection of judicious parents, they will not overload their stomach with a greater portion of food and drink than their tender organs can digest. Besides, it deserves to be remarked in this place, that the rearing of a voracious child is attended with double the expense, which might be more advantageously bestowed on the cultivation of its mental faculties: P. 393
The appendix relates to the periods of evolution during the age of childhood, and to juvenile amusements, with respect to their influence on health. These merit no great commendation, and offer no important subject of remark.
Art. VI.-The Maid of Lochlin: a Lyrical Drama. With Les
gendary Odes and other Poems. By William Richardson; A. M. &c. 8vo. 35. Boards. Vernor and Hood. 1801.
THE dramatic sketches of Dr. Sayer have long since proved by example how well the Runic mythology is adapted to poetry. The subject which professor Richardson has chosen permits him to contrast the savage Scandinavian belief with the superstition delineated in Ossian. His story is from Fingal. It opens with a scene between Agandecca and the queen of Lochlin her mother, in which the love of the princess for Fingal appears. Her father Starno had approved and encouraged the attachment, but, from personal and religious motives, had afterwards broken off all alliance with the king of Morven, who is now therefore returned to right himself by arms. A messenger entess with the tidings that the troops of Lochlin have fled, and
that Starno himself, having been vanquished in single fight, is reconciled to Fingal. The two kings return, and preparations are made for the marriage that is to confirm their friendship.
Act II. Starno and the priest of Odin plot the destruction of Fingal. Agandecca is summoned to the temple-Her father tells her that his life is endangered, and that it is she who must save him.
Agandecca. Hear me, ye powers !
Starno. What glory shall betide thee! how thy praise
d her love !"
Starno. My child, my gentle child, this alien prince,
Some impious caitif
Nay, his heart
Agand. Great and magnanimous, canst thou allow
• Starno. Go to ! he is thy lover! and thy tears,
That wins such loyalty of princely passion.
Agand. No joy, no comfort shall I ever know: .
• Starno. But thou hast sworn; and thy spontaneous oath
Save thy native land,
• Agand. With daring purpose, or with conscious will, Never have I incens'd celestial power.
Yet, holy seer ! if e'er, by reckless word,
I can chain
The horror of his doom. I with a breath