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Lie there! possess the land thy valour gains,
And to his mates thus in derision called :—
And breast (what could we more?)-propounded terms
As they would dance; yet, for a dance, they seemed
If our proposals once again were heard,
209. All forms of implied meanings-irony, reproach, contempt, inuendo, retort-are best expressed by prolonged circumflexes.-Section 174.
So, then, you are the author of this conspiracy against me. It is to you that I am indebted for all the mischief that has befallen me.
He is my friend.—He? what! he? No, sir, you are deceived; he is not your friend; but he is your enemy.
Hamlet, thou hast thy father much offended.
Mother, you have my father much offended.
Thy integrity got thee absolved; thy modesty drew thee out of danger; and the innocency of thy past life saved thee.
You meant no harm: oh, no: your thoughts are innocent; you have nôthing to hide; your breast is pure, stainless, all truth.
210. Strong emphasis, of Tune, should be uttered with circumflexes. For Exercises, see Sections 194, 208.
211. There is, strictly, in the speaking voice, no unvaried repetition of the same tone; therefore Monotone, in its exact definition, is a term which cannot be employed in Elocution. What is called Monotone is an emphatic prolongation of the Continuative Tone, in which the Inflexions are subdued as much as possible. These Subdued Inflexions, judiciously introduced, especially in the lower notes of the voice, in prayer, and in solemn or sublime passages,-serve as the shades with which a skilful artist sometimes invests his principal objects. Subdued Inflexions (i.e. Monotones) may be used on any tone of voice.
212. The Guttural Monotone is principally used to express fear, terror, horror, or disgust. The Natural Monotone gives solemnity to descriptive passages. The Orotund Monotone should be used in solemn or sublime passages. The Falsetto Monotone, to give expression to violent despair, affliction, or anguish; it may be also employed to express distant voices or sounds.
The meagre by the meagre were devoured.
I conjure you, by the hearth profaned, by the home violated, by the canons of the living God foully spurned, save, oh! save your country from the crime, your fire-sides from the contagion, and all mankind from the shame, and sin, and sorrow, of this example!
High on a throne of royal state, which far
Methought I heard a voice cry "Sleep no more!
Still it cried "Sleep no more!" to all the house:
213. Modulative Inflexions are those suspensions or falls of the voice which are not regulated by sense, and which therefore may or may not be attended to. They cannot give force to words, but, when judiciously employed, they add much grace and melody. The principle of Modulative Inflexions is alternation; but, while they may be frequently introduced, they must never be allowed to supersede the Determinate Inflexions of Sense, to which they are altogether subservient. Nothing displeases the ear more than angularity or sharpness of sound; therefore the preparation for the primary Inflexions should be made as round or undulating as possible. This vocal wave, though very harmonious, should not be always used; else, the delivery will acquire a sing-song expression, and the Inflexions of Sense fall with little force on the ear.
214. Modulative Inflexions may be used as reciprocal to the Determinate Inflexions; that is, a marked Rising Inflexion may have, on the preceding syllable, an undulating fall, and the marked Falling Inflexion an undulating rise. The Inflexions of Sense are marked with double accents, those of Modulation with single accents.
Disappointment repeat"ed destroys' expectation.
To be marred in our hopes" is a check' we are born" to.
Where grows' not Happiness? If vain our toil",
And, fled from mon"archs, dwells', my friend', with thee".
215. The Inflexions of Antithesis, though regulated by sense, have a very pleasing modulative effect. The principle is, that opposition in sense is best expressed by opposition in sound; but the arrangement to produce this harmonious variety requires some care. The alternations must be so made that the proper Determinate Inflexions shall be heard at those places which the sense requires. Thus, a Rising Inflexion terminates the first portion of the sentence, according to the principle of Rule 1st; the corresponding second portion must be read with an opposite inflexion, so that the arrangement will be thus (Section 192) :—
(Single.) He can bribe", but he cannot seduce": he can buy", but he cannot gain": he can lie"", but he cannot deceive
Many men mistake the love" for the practice of virtue; and are not so much good" men, as the friends" of goodness. (Double.) Business sweetens pleas"ure, as la"bour sweetens rest".
(Triple.) A friend" cannot be known" in prosperity, and an enemy cannot be hidden in adversity.
He" raised a mortal to the skies",
She drew an an"gel down".
216. But as Falling Inflexions are more emphatic than the Rising, if the members of the Antithesis are positive or absolute, and negative or relative, the Falling will take place on the former, in whatever construction they may occur, and the latter will, according to the paramount principle of Antithesis, be read with the opposite inflexion; that is, the Rising.
You were paid to fight against Alexander, and not to rail" at him.
If his son ask bread", will he give him a stone"? if he ask a fish", will he give him a serpent?
Kill" me with your wea"pon; torture me not with your words".
(Compare Accent, and Paragraphs 137 to 142.)
217. Emphasis consists in giving prominence to words, clauses, or sentences, in contra-distinction to others either expressed or understood. Stress, or force, though usually mentioned as the only means for conveying verbal distinction, is very limited in its use; for words may be rendered prominent, or emphatic, by any one of the following seven specific modes, or by a combination of them :
218. I.-By TIME-in which the emphatic prominence may be effected either by a prolongation of the sound of the word, or by an abridgment of it. This may be used in combination with the emphasis of Pitch to give ironical effect.
219. II. By TUNE-in which words are rendered prominent by a superior degree of inflexion or circumflex. It is principally used to denote antithesis. In this form, the member or clause that is absolute, positive, affirmative, or imperative, requires a Falling Inflexion or Circumflex; and the member that is relative, negative, doubtful, or appellatory, requires a Rising Inflexion or Circumflex.-Section 156, &c.
220. III.-By FORCE-which consists in pronouncing words with increased stress of voice or of articulation. In Emphatic force, the chest is principally called into action.-Section 104. This emphasis, when confined to a single word, is always marked on the accented syllable, doubling, as it were, the accentual stress.
221. IV.-By PITCH-effected by changing the tone on the emphatic words. This mode gives peculiar signification, and is often employed to note a sudden or important change in emotion or expression.
222. V.-By ASPIRATION-in which the voice becomes harsh, broken, or whispering. It is used to express fear, terror, disgust, horror, &c.
223. VI.-By MONOTONE-by prolonging the voice on one key with limited variety of inflexion. It is employed to give expression to dignified or sublime passages.
224. VII.-By PAUSE-by separating the emphatic word from those parts of the sentence that precede and follow it. This is the most important of these various modes, as it may be employed in combination with all the others; and as it affords great relief and power to the speaker, by enabling him to replenish his lungs with air before and after its use.
225. The only rule that can be given for distinguishing the words that should receive emphasis is, to place it on those that directly convey the meaning, or that denote the antithesis: the parts of a sentence charged with the greatest degree of sense, should be pronounced with the greatest prominence.
226. The various kinds of Emphasis mentioned above may be employed on any kind of composition, but subject to the nature of the sentiment that is to be expressed.
EMPHASES OF SENSE AND FEELING.
227. Emphasis, generally, may be divided into two kinds, Emphasis of Sense and Emphasis of Feeling.
228. EMPHASIS OF SENSE determines the meaning, and, by a change of its position, varies the sense of the passage.
Is your friend dead? Do you ride to town to-day? Could you wish me to think unkindly?*
229. EMPHASIS OF FEELING is suggested and governed by emotion: it is not strictly necessary to the sense, but is, in the highest degree, expressive of sentiment:
you be so cruel? That sacred hour can I forget?
Then must the Jew be merciful.
On what compulsion must I? tell me that.
230. When the Emphasis is accumulated, or heaped successively with increasing energy, progressive force is given to the meaning.
I have thus shown, from the gentleman's own argument, that the doctrine advanced by him is not at present received; that it never was received; that it never can by any possibility
* In these sentences, as many meanings as there are words may be expressed by changing the emphasis.