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XI. Account of the Quantities and Values of the principal Articles of British Produce and Manufac
ture exported to Russia during each of the Five Years ending with 1811.
€ Beer and ale
463 8,909 5191 10,818 3,834 10,858 3,785 10,3181 Books, printed
54 Coals, culm, and cinders tons 58,738 18,280 68,051 20,128 78,034 25,300 93,370 28,014 77,132 23395 Cotton manufactures, en
tered by the yard yards 1,126,539 47,793 1,719,018 59,137, 1,706,578 61,397 2,114,029 59,292 1,241,665
5,870 twist and yarn
Int. 24,108,593 1,612,936 19,794,501 1,236,551 18,849,506 1,215,671 16,884,418 1,082,912 17,508,1421,01 114 Earthenware of all sorts - pieces 252,722 4,135 189,391 3,745 210,1721 4,260 183,213
4,054 213,754 Hardware and cutlery cwts. 6,021 35,0.30 7,082 36,830
34,707 7,231 39,764 5,897 30,909 Iron and steel, wrought and unwrought
802. 16,461 1,929 20,411 Lead and shot
1,729 29,686 1,677 32,419 3,097 57,179 1,896 34,727 3,076 57,7131 Machinery and mill-work
29,6 bushels 1,292,710 23,232 1,358,547 25,053 1,513,192
28,329 1,581,900 23,132 1,495,510 Sugar, refined
29,121 36,0) 69.00 Tin, un wrought
7,610 29,825 3,102 21,992 2,790 1,7731 Wollen and worsted sara
190,8111 27,613 144,308 22,321 141,934 23,350 166,039 25,655 123,896 17,672 Woolien inanufactures en.
tered by the piece pieces 36,813 95,912 36,923! 89,745 48,293 117,047 57,488 120,400 33,419 95,176 Ditto by the yard 50,278 6,901 46,053 4,2911 $1,760 7,617 70,439
7,845 100,039 7,437 All other articles
XII. Account of the Quantities or Values of the Principal Articles of Russian Produce and Manufacture
imported from Russia into the U. Kingdom during each of the Five Years ending with 1847. -- (Parl. Paper, No. 583, Sess. 1848.)
. lbs. 1,724,370 1,777,916 1,908,169 1,904,711 1,278,570 Corn, Wheat
101,523 33,768 204,8.39 843.142
43,852 69,377 148,347 238,174 959,151
1,089,386 1,112,024 859,627 740,396 651,167 Hemp, undressed
463,061 653,954 60,3,286 620,6,56
2,996 Linen, plain and diaper
312,614 448,393 323,309 404,312 3.53,4)
37.624 115,835 59,059 deals, battens, &c., sawn or split
136,413 164,583 186,706 147,486 100.131 Wool, sheep and lambs'
lbs. 3,511,916 5,402,098 9,705,754 4,765,957 2,949,776
8,582 42,160 Wheat
30,377 101,003 22,347 163,604 462,897 Flemp, undressed
6,281 needs, linned and flaxseed
quarters 64.529 140,310 208,813 147,518 235,710
PEWTER(Ger. Zinn, Zinngeisserzinn; Fr. Elain; It. Stagno; Sp. Estano, Peltres Rus. Olowo), a factitious metal used in making plates, dishes, and other domestic utensils. It is a compound, the basis of which is tin. The best sort consists of tin alloyed with about 1-20th or less of copper, or other metallic bodies, as the experience of the work. men has shown to be most conducive to the improvement of its hardness and colour, such as lead, zinc, bismuth, and antimony. There are 3 sorts of pewter, distinguished by the names of plate, trife, and ley-pewter. The 1st was formerly much used for plates and dishes ; of the 2d are made the pints, quarts, and other measures for beer; and of the ley-pewter, wine measures and large measures. — (Ure.)
PHILADELPHIA, a large city and sea-port of the United States, in Pennsylvania, near the contiuence of the rivers Delaware and Schuylkill, lat. 39° 57' N., lon, 75° 10 591 W. Population, in 1850, 409,353.
Harbour, Light-houses, Pilotage, &c. – Vessels of the largest burden ascend the river as far as New. Castle, but those drawing above is or 20 feet water cannot reach Philadelphia, on account of a bar a little below the city. The entrance to the magnificent bay formed by the embouchure of the Delaware, has Cape May on its north, and Cape Henlopen on its south side. The former, in lat. 38° 37' N., lon75 47' 45' W., is a sandy headland, rising about 12 feet above the level of the sea. It has recently been surmounted by a light-house 60 feet in height. The light revolves once a minute; an eclipse of 50 seconds being succeeded by a brilliant flash of 10 seconds. It is seen in clear weather from 20 to 25 miles off. Cape Henlopen, marking the southern boundary of the bay, is in lat. 34° 47' N., lon. 75° 4'48" W. A little south from it is a hill, elevated about 60 feet above the level of the sea, and on it is erected a light-house, 72 feet in height, furnished with a powerful fired light visible in clear weather 10 leagues off. To the N, of this principal light, and close to the extremity of the cape, a second light-house has been constructed, 36 feet above the level of the sea, which is also furnished with a fired light, which may be seen about 6 leagues off. The channel for large ships is between Cape Henlopen and the banks called the Overfalls. The navigation is, however, a little difficult, and it is compulsory on ships to take pilots. The latter frequently board them at sea; but if not, as soon as a ship comes between the capes, she must hoist the signal for a pilot, and beave to as soon as one offers to come on board. - (Coulier sur les Phares, 2d ed. See post, for regulations as to pilotage.)
Trode. – The trade of Philadelphia is very extensive. She communicates by various canals (one of which, 3954 miles in length, unites her with Pittsburg, on the Ohio) and railways with the interior, and is the grand dépôt for the coal of the Union. The increase of the coal trade has, indeed, been quite unprecedented. Previously to 1825 no coal had been sent down the Schuylkill, and in that year only 5,306 tons were brought by that channel to Philadelphia, whereas in 18-16 the quantity amounted to 1,143,583 tons, exclusive of about as much more supplied by other channels. Very large quantities of this coal are sent coastwise to other ports of the Union. Exclusive of coal and iron, the exports principally consist of wheat and wheat four, Indian com, of which immense quantities have latterly been sent to England, and other agricultural products, timber, and various species of manufactured goods. The principal imports are cotton, woollen, and silk goods ; sugar, coffee, and tra; wines, branddies, spices, dye-stuffs, &c. In point of shipping, Philadelphia is the fourth port in the Union, being, in this respect, inferior only to New York, boston, and New Orleans. The registered, enrolled, and licensed tonnage belonging to the port on the 30th June, 1849, amounted to 183,087 tons, of which upwards of a half was engaged in the coasting trade, which is very large. The total value of the articles imported into Pennsylvania from foreign countries in the year ending the 30th of June, 1849, amounted to $10,645,500, and that of the exports to $5,343,421, of which $4.850,827 were domestic produce. The coasting trade of the port is, however, more extensive and of greater importance than its loreign trade.
There are numerous banks in Philadelphia, but they stand no higher in point of character than those in most other parts of the Union, and have over and over again suspended payments. The Bank of the United States had its head office here. Besides banks, there are numerous insurance companies, and joint-stock associations.
The following statement of the prices of shares in sundry banks and other public companies in Philadelphia, in September, 1836, and September, 1846, shows, better than any thing else could do, the vicious Dature of the foundations on which they had been established: -25.36. 1846.
1836. 1846. Lehigh Navigation shares
Northern Liberties Bank
734 Schuylkill Navigation shares
- 1625 295 Western Bank loans
Man, and Mechanics Bank t'S, Bank shares
50 . 58
97 Planters' Bank, Mechanic Bank
1184 Pennsylvania Bank
• 510 251 Grand Gulf Bank Farners' and Mechanics Bank 66) 421 Agricultural Bank
. 118) Coramercial Bank
54 Foreign Commerce of Philadelphia in the Years 1850, 1819, and 1848.
Arrival of Vessels at the port of Philadelphia during the years 1848, 1819, and 1850.
The value of the imports and duties received at the Custom-house, at the port of Philadelphia, have been as follows:
The annual inspection of ilour and meal at Philadelphia for five years, have been as follows:
ISO 1849 1818 1947 1946
Bush. 63.205 61,116 46.900 78,972 30,529
Bush. 70,229 27.612 62,534 38,210 40,539
Bush. 401,596 421,316 347.734 369,171 359,912
The following is a statement of the amount and value of the leading articles of domestic produce,
$ 3,003,706 Total value in 1845 $ 1,574,502
which entered the Port of Philadelphia from the 1st of January, 1825, to the 1st of January, 1840.
In Pennsylvania, the dollar is worth 7s. 6d. currency; so that 11. sterling = 11. 138. 4d. currency.-
Weights and Measures same as those of England,
5 feet is 10
14 67 5!
16 0 6
35 33 15
48 67 171
52 0 18
If the fasts of vessels when moored at a wharf shall extend Every vessel arriving from, or bound to, a foreign port, is
signing his name to said report in the warden's book.
Every pilot detained more than 48 hours by the ice, after he
Every pilot is required, under a penalty of 12 dollars, to mate
Rates of Commission recommended for general Adoption, and allowed by the Philadelphia Chamber of
Commerce, when no Agreement subsists to the contrary, established at a siated Meeting on the 10th of March, 1823.
Per Cerc. Per Cent.
Merrlan lise, sales
Pershup and shipment, or accepting bills for purchases
Prounn front or chartering to proceed to another port
Paying outfit or disbursements.
When the premium exceeds 10 per cent.
Adjuting and collecting losses without litigation
Adjusting and collecting loskes -
solvent estates -
on gross amount.
Ou bills ronitted for collection under protest for non-acceptance or non-ment, commision to be charged.
On a snient of merchandise withdrawn or re-shipped, full commistin to be charzed to the extent of advances or rezonai, litics incurred, and 4 commission on the current value of the residue.
On sales f merchandise originally consigned to another Hars, but withdrawn, and where no responsibilities are incurred, only cominission to be charged on the current value.
The current value in all cases to be settled by certificates of 2 respectable merchants, auctioneers, or brokers.
The above commissions to be exclusive of guarantee, brokerage, storage, and every other charge actually incurred.
The risk of loss by fire, unless insurance be ordered, and of robbery, theft, and other unavoidable occurrences, if the unual care le taken to secure the property, is, in all cases, to be borne by the proprietor of the goods.
PHOSPHORUS, a substance of a light amber colour, and semi-transparent; but, when carefully prepared, nearly colourless and transparent. When kept some time, it becomes opaque externally, and has then a great resemblance to white wax. It may be cut with a knife, or twisted to pieces with the fingers. It is insoluble in water; its specific gravity is 1-77. When exposed to the atmosphere, it emits a white smoke, and is luminous in the dark. When heated to 148° it takes fire, and burns with a very bright flame. When phosphorus is inflamed in oxygen, the light and heat are incomparably more intense ; the former dazzling the eye, and the latter cracking the glass vessel. -( Thomson's Chemistry.) PIASTRES, OR DOLLARS, Spanish and American silver coins in very extensive
LARS, circulation. Value, at an average, about 4s. 2d. sterling.—(See Coins.)
PILCHARDS, fishes closely resembling the common herring, but smaller, and at the same time thicker and rounder. They are rarely found on the British shores, except on the coasts of Cornwall and Devon, particularly the former, where they are taken in great numbers from the middle of July to the end of November, or even the middle of December. It is a saying of the Cornish fishermen, that the pilchard is the least fish in size, most in number, and greatest for gain, taken from the
Pilchard fishery. This is carried on along the coasts of Cornwall and Devon, from the Bolt Head in the latter, round by the Land's End to Padstow and Bossiney in the former. Its principal seats are St. Ives, Mount's Bay, and Mevagissey. The fish usually make their appearance in vast shoals in the early part of July, and disappear about the middle of October ; but they sometimes reappear in large quantities in November and December. They are taken either by seans or by drift nets, but principally, perhaps, by the former. A sean is a net, varying from 200 to 300) fathoms in length, and from 10 to 14 do. in depth, having cork buoys on one edge and lead weights on the other. Three boats are attached to each sean, viz. a boat (seun boat), of about 15 tons burden, for carrying the sean ; another (follower), of about the same size, to assist in mooring it; and a smaller boat (turker), for general purposes. The number of hands enployed in these 3 boats varies from about 13 to 18, but may be taken, at an average, at about 16. When the shoals of fish come so near the shore that the water is about the depth of the sean, it is employed to encircle them; the fishermen being directed to the proper places for casting or shooting the nets by persons (huers ) stationed for that purpose on the cliffs and in the boats.* The practice is to row the boat with the sean on board gently round the shoal ; and the sean being, at the same time, thrown gradually into the water, assumes, by means of its buoys and weights, a vertical position, its loaded edge being at the bottom, and the other floating on the surface. Its 2 ends are then fastened together; and, being brought into a convenient situation, it is moored by small anchors or grapnels; sometimes, however, one or two smaller $fans are employed to assist in securing the fish. At low water, the enclosed fish are taken out by a tuck nei, and carried to the shore. A single sean has been known to enclose at once as many as 4,200 hogs
* The tiny fish in the Archipelago was caught in a similar way:-"Ascendebat quidam (Anglice huer, Grecè thunoscopos) in altum promontorium, unde thunnorum gregem specularetur, quo viso, signum piscatoribus dabat, qui retibus totum gregem includebant." - (Bishop of London's Notes on the Persie of Eschylus, quoted by Dr. Paris, in his Guide to Mount's Bay, p. 150.)
hearls (1,2 tons) of fish! But this was the greatest quantity ever taken, and it is but seldom that as many as 1,200 hogsheads are caught at a time. The "iake," in fact, depends on so many accidental circumstances, that while one sean may catch and cure in a season from 1,000 to 2,000 hogsheads, others in the neighbourhood may not get a single fish. In some places, the tides are so strong as to break the seans and set the fish at liberty. When the quantity enclosed is large, it requires several days to take them out, as they must not be removed in greater numbers than those who salt them can conveniently manage.
Drist nets are usually about | mile in length hy about 4 fathoms in depth ; they are shot in the open sea, and entangle the fish in their meshes in the same way as the herring nets. The fish thus taken are said to be superior to those taken by the seans, though it be doubtful, from their being strangled in the bets, whether they are so good for curing.
As soon as the fish are bronght on shore, they are carried to cellars or warehouses, where they are piled in large heaps, having a sufficient quantity of salt interspersed between the layers. Having remained in this state for about 3 days, they are, after being carefully washed and cleaned, packed in hogsheads, each containing, at an average, about 2.600 fisht; they are then subjected to a pressure sufficient to extract the oil, of which each hogshead yields, provided the fish be caught in summer, about 3 gallons; but those that are taken late in the season do not yield above half this quantity. This oil usually sells for from: 12 to 15 per cent. under the price of brown seal oil. The broken and refuse fish and salt are sold to the farmers, and are used as manure with excellent effect. The skimmings which float on the water in which the pilchards are washed are called dregs, and are chicfly sold as grease for machinery.
The fresh fish in a hogshead of pilchards weigh about 6 cwt., and the salt about 34 cwt. ; but the weight of the hogshead when cured and pressed is reduced to about 44 cwt.; including the weight of the cask, from 20 to 24 lbs. We subjoin An Account of the Exports of Pilchards during each of the Ten Years ending with 1842; specifying the
Places for which they were exported, the Quantity shipped for each, the Places at which they were taken and cured, and iheir Price at the Port of Shipment.
1833 18.14 1835 19.36 1837 19.38 1979 1810 1811
5.4. od. to 36a.
408. to 354.
1,425 366 3,882 3,632
9,921 783 4,140 4,999
30s. hhd. 1,199 1,157
25,081 2,929 8,009 12,118 1,728 5,281 2,122
23,511 8,375 4,8013 8.136 1,580) 827 5,060
15,361 138 1,134 13,592 400
7118. (04. 2,795
20,714 1,215 432 17,710 1,327 |Total - 8,291 32,048 6,446 57,598 61,245
1,356 166,984' 35,005 31,451 91,344 8,186 N.B. - Or the quantity sent to the Adriatic full 3-4ths have been sold in Venice, and the remainder chietly in Ancona.
The export of pilchards has been rather declining of late years. This has been ascribed to various causes, such as the withdrawal of the bounty of Bs. 6d. a hogshead formerly paid on their export, the relaxed observance of Lent in the countries to which they are principally exported, and the imposition of a heavy duty on their importation into Naples. The falling off in the demand of the latter bås, however, been in a great measure compensated by the increased demand at Venice.
Pilchares are not used in England, except in Cornwall and Devon, where about 3,000 hhds, a year may at present be made use of. We believe, however, that their consumption in these counties has begun to increase with considerable rapidity.
The sean fishery employs about 1,500 bands regularly throughout the season, and a vast number more when any considerable shoals are inclosed. There are at present (1843) about 260 scans afloat, of which no fewer than 186 belong to St. Ives. The first cost of a sean on the South coast is about 4501 ; but a St. Ives sean does not cost above 3001. The drift fishery employs, during the season, from 900 to 1,000 men, and about 230 boats; the cost of each boat and nets amounting to about 2004. The labour in the cure of the fish may be taken at about 58. a hogshead. The total capital embarked in the fishery, in 1832, was estimated by those engaged in it at from 200,0001. to 250,0001., and it has not varied materially in the interval.
The drift fishermen employ themselves, when not engaged in the pilchard fishery, in the mackarel, herring, and hook-line fisherieg. The sean fishermen consist principally of agricultural labourers, miners, &c., attracted to the business in the expectation (in whichi, however, they are not unfrequently disappointed) of making a comparatively large sum by a few weeks' exertion. But there are always 3 or 4 individuals of the crew of each sean who are regularly bred, expert fishermen,
Four fifths of the persons employed on shore in the salting, curing, packing, &c. of the fish, are women.
The wages of those employed in the fishery are made sometimes to depend on the number of fish taken ; but in other instances they are independent of any such contingency.
The fishery at St. Ives is carried on under a particular act of parliament, passed in 1841. The exaction of a tithe of the fish is a very serious burden on the fishery; sometimes it is taken in kind, but is more generally compounded for. - (Dr. Paris's Guide to Mount's Bay and the land's End, 2d ed. pp. 146156.; Beauties of England and Wales, vol. ii. p. 471.: but we are principally indebted to private information obtained from the most authentic sources, and obligingly communicated, by Mr. Coulson, of Penzance.)
PILOTS AND PILOTAGE. The name of pilot or steersman is applied either to a particular officer, serving on board a ship during the course of a voyage, and having the charge of the helm and the ship's route; or to a person taken on board at any particular place, for the purpose of conducting a ship through a river, road, or channel, or from or into a port.
It is to the latter description of persons that the term pilot is now usually applied; and pilots of this sort are established in various parts of the country by ancient charters of incorporation, or by particular statutes, The most important of these corporations are those of the Trinity House, Deptford Strond; the fellowship of the pilots of Dover,
+ Mr. Pennant inadvertently states the number of fish in a hogshead at 35,900.- (British Zoology, iii. 344. ed. 1776.) Trusting to his authority, we fell into the same error in the 1st edition of this work.