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The imports of oysters are very various, sometimes amounting to several thousand bushels a year; but in the majority of years none are imported.
The stealing of oysters, or oyster brood, from any oyster bed, laying, or fishery, is larceny, and the offi-nder, being convicted thereor, shall be punished accordingly; and if any person shall unlawfully and wilfully use any dredze, net, &c. for the purpose of taking oysters, or oyster brood, within the limits of any oyster bed or fishery, every such person shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and, upon being convicted thereof, shall be punished by fine or imprisonment, or both, as the court may award , such fine not to exceerd 201., and such imprisonment not to exceed 3 calendar months. It is provided, that nothing in the act shall be conatrued as preventing any one from catching floating fish within the limits of any oyster fishery, with any net, instrument, or engine adapted to the catching of such fish. -- (7 & 8 Geo. A. c. 29. 436.)
P. PACKAGE, SCAVAGE, BAILLAGE, AND PORTAGE, were duties charged in the port of London, on the goods imported and exported by aliens, or by denizens being the sons of aliens.
During the dark ages, it was usual to lay higher duties upon the goods imported or exported by aliens, whether in British or foreign ships, than were laid on similar goods when imported or exported by natives. But according as sounder and more enlarged principles prevailed, this illiberal distinction was gradually modified, and was at length wholly abolished, in so far at least as it was of a public character, by the 24 Geo. 3. c. 16. This act, after reciting that “ the several duties and restrictions imposed by various acts of parliament upon merchandise are, by the alterations of the trade now carried on between this kingdom and foreign states, in some cases become an unnecessary burden upon commerce, without producing any real ailvantage to the public revenue, and that it is expedient they should no longer continue,” enacts, that the duty commonly called “ the petty customs,” imposed by the 12 Car. 2., and all other additional duties imposed by any act upon the goods of aliens above those payable by natural-born subjects, should be no longer payable. The act then goes on to provide, that nothing contained in it shall “ alter the duties due and payable upon goods imported into or exported from this kingdom in any foreign ship, nor the duties of package and scavage, or any duties granted by charter to the city of London;" and then follow provisions to prevent the city being defrauded of such duties by false entries of aliens' goods in the name of a British subject. --(Chitty's Commercial Law, vol. i. p. 160.)
The duties thus preserved to the city were not very heavy; but the principle on which they were imposed was exceedingly objectionable, and their collection was attended with a great deal of trouble and inconvenience. Not being levied in other places, they operated to the prejudice of the trade of the metropolis. For these reasons, we observed, in the first edition of this work, that " if the funds of the corporation will not admit of their following the liberal example of the legislature, by voluntarily abandoning this vexatious impost, it would be good policy to give them a compensation for relinquishing it." And we are glad to have to state that this suggestion has since been carried into effect. The act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 66. anthorised the Lords of the Treasury to purchase up the duties in question from the city. This was done, at an expense of about 110,0001., and the duties were abolished. There is a Table of the duties in the first edition of this work.
PACKETS. See New York, PASSENGERS, and Post-OFFICE.
PALERMO (anciently PANORMUS) a large city and sea-port, the capital of the noble island of Sicily, on the north coast of which it is situated, the light-house being in lat. 38° 8' 15" N., lon. 13° 21' 56'' E. Population, 170,000.
The bay of Palermo is about 5 miles in depth, the city being situated on its south-west shore. A fine mole, fully of a mile in length, having a light-house and battery at its extremity, projects in a southeriy direction from the arsenal into 9 or 10 fathoms water, forming a convenient port, capable of containing a great number of vessels. This immense work cost about 1,000,0001. sterling in its construction ; but the light-house, though a splendid structure, is said to be very ill lighted. There is an inner port, which is reserved for the rise of the arsenal. Ships that do not mean to go within the mole may anchor about a mile from it, in from 16 to 23 fathoms, the mole light bearing N.W. W. A heavy sea sometimes rolls into the bay, but no danger need be apprehended by ships properly found in anchors and chain cables. In going into the bay, it is necessary to keep clear of the nets of the timny fishery, for these are so strong and well moored, as to be capable of arresting a ship under sail. – Smyth's Sicily, p. 70. and Appen. p. 4.)
Memey.-- Since 1818, the coins of Sicily have been the same as those of Naples, their names only differing. ---( See NAPLES.) The ducat, = 35.5 2d. sterling, is subdivided into 100 bajocchi and 10 piccioli ; but accounts are still generally kept in oncie, tari, and grani: 20 grani==I taro : 30 tari=1 oncia. The oncia = 3 ducats ; and 1 carlino of Naples = 1 taro of Sicily. The Spanish dollar is current at 12 tari 8 grani.
Wrights. - These are the cantaro grosso, subdivided into 100 rottoli grossi of 33 oncie, or into 110 rottoli sottili of 30 oncie; and the cantary sottile, subdivided into 100 rottoli sottoli of 30 oncie, or 250 lbs. of 12 oncie. The rottolo of 33 ounces = 1.93 lbs. avoirdupois = 2:31 lbs. Troy = 873 hectogrammes = 1.77 lbs. of Amsterdam = 1.8 lbs. of Hamburg. The rottolo of 30 ounces = 1.75 lbs. avoirdupois = 2.13 lbs. Troy = 7.94 hectogrammes = 16 lbs. of Amsterdam = 1.61 lbs. of Hamburg.
100 Sicilian pounds of 12 ounces = 70 lbs. avoirdupois = 85-11 lbs. Troy = 31.76 kilog. = 64-23 lbs. of Amsterdam = 65-58 lbs. of Hamburg. Measures. — The salma grossa = 9:48 Winch, bush.: the salma generale = 7.62 Winch, bush.
The principal liquid measure is the tonna, divided into 4 barili, cach equivalent to 9j wine gallons. 1 barile = 2 quartare ; i quartara = 20 quartucci. The catfiso of oil = 41 Eng, gallons.
The yard or canna = 8 palmi ; 24 palms = 1 yard Eng. - (Nelkent, ccher, Smyth, p. 62. App.)
Tares.-Coffee, indigo, pepper, and dye woods, 2 per cent. and weight of package. Cinnamon, 6 rottoli per seron, with I wrapper, or 8 rottoli, with 2 wrappers ; cocoa, 2 per cent. weight of package, and 3 per cent. for dust; cod-fish, 3 per cent.; herrings, 12 per cent. ; tin, 13 rottoli per barrel; wax, weight of package, and 3 to 4 per cent. extra allowance ; Havannah sugars, 16 per cent. ; Brazil do., in short cases, 18 per cent., and in long cases, 20 per cent. ; crushed sugar, weight of cask, and 5 per cent., or 13 per cent. in all, at the option of the buyer ; East India do., in bags, 8 rot. to 10 rot. per bag. I rottolo taken as weight of bag, for coffee and cocoa in bags.
Charges on Goods.-- The regular charges on the sale of goods consigned to Palermo, are - commission, 3 per cent. ; brokerage, \ per cent.; warehouse rent, i per cent.; and porterage and boat hire; with 2 per cent, del credere, - imports being almost always sold on credit. The charges may occasionally vary
to 1 per cent., and imports are frequently sold duty paid; the prices, however, so obtained, fully compensate for the tribing increase of charges.
The charges on goods exported are — 3 per cent. commission ; brokerage, so much per cantaro, salma, &c., generally amounting to about per cent., except on fruit, on which it is equivalent to from 2 to 3 per cent.
Imports and Erports. - The great articles of export from Sicily are – olive oil, grain, particularly wheat and barley silk, briinstone, wine and brandy, barilla, lemons and oranges, lemon juice, manna, shumac, linseed, fruit, salted fish and salt; with argol, liquorice, pumice stone, rags, skins, honey, cotton wool, saffron, &c. Wheat is largely exported. It is of a mixed quality, hard, and is generally sold from the public magazines, or caricatori (see post), by measure, without weight. But the best hard wheat, grown in the neighbourhood of Palermo, is sold by the salma of 272 rottoli = 476 lbs. Eng. ; the difference between weight and measure being made good by the seller or buyer, as the case may be. Wine is principally shipped from Marsala ; lemons, oranges, and lemon juice, from Messina ; salt, from Trapani ; and barilla, from the southern coast. But all the articles to be found on the cost may, for the most part, be had at Palermo; unless, however, the quantity required be small, it is usually best to ship them from the outports, the expense of their conveyance to Palermo being very heavy. The crops of barilla and shumac come to market in August; but brimstone, salt, oil, wine, rags, &c. may generally be had all the year round. The first shipments of lemons and oranges may be made in the beginning of November. Purchases of produce are always paid for in cash, generally
on making the purchase, and the other on delivery, when in Palermo, and on receiving order for delivery, on the coast.
The imports consist of cotton yarn, wool, and stuffs ; sugar, coffee, cocoa, dye stuffs, iron, earthen. ware, spices, tin, hides, Newfoundland cod, timber for building, &c. The best of the old accounts of the trade of Sicily that we have met with is contained in Swinburne's Travels in the Two Sicilies, 4to ed. vol. ii. pp. 401-413. But the infornation in this article has been principally derived from the elabo. rate and valuable reports of Mr. Consul Goodwin, one of the most intelligent of that class of functionaries, The subjoined Tables show in detail the trade of the island and of Palermo. Account of the Quantities and Values of the Articles exported from and imported into Sicily in 1842, exhibiting the quantities and Values of those exported to and imported from the United Kingdom and all other Countries.
Articles exported from and imported into Sicily in 1812 – continued.
£ Copper cwts. 1,000 5,600 1,264 7,192
2,264 12,792 Copperas
300) ('ouls tons 12,200 13,180
12,200) 13,180 Du boards
459,975 21,108 459,975 24,109 Drus ant colours
1,197 23,985 Fish, od
25,000 15,0) 30),322 19,580) herrings
1,522 2.0728 cwta.
470 1,010 Hides
9,703 27,850 19,0.53 56.220 29,7.36 81,120 Iron
4,266 2,189 53,627 29,117 Lend
8,427 7,618 her 19
810 l'itch and tar
2.497 2,216 Stpetre
9.57 2,015 3,6569 bales
22 Stationery and books
195 5,019 Steel
3,1125 3,940 Tin in bars
1,3 4,435 Tin plates box 4,00
2,673 4,931 11,645 6,368 11,318 Wax
3,416 16,90 3,516 17,79) Wiol
926 Other articles
838,736 Account of the Quantities and Values of the Articles exported from and imported into Palermo in 1842
exhibiting the Quantities and Values of those exported to and imported from the United Kingdom and all other countries.