Imatges de pàgina

iron, of 100 tons burthen or upwards, the building of which shall have been commenced since the 29th of August, 1916, and the owner of every steam vessel built of iron of less burthen than 100 tons, the building of which shall have commenced after the passing of this Act, except vessels used solely as steam tugs, shall cause the same to be divided by transverse water-tight partitions, so that the fore part of the vessel shall be separated from the engine room by one of such partitions, and so that the after part of such vessel shall be separated from the engine room by another of such partitions ; and it shall not be lawful for the officers of H. M. customs, or for any o:her person, to grant a certificate of British registry to, or to clear out or grant a transire to, or allow to proceed to sea, ang iron steamer of 100 tons burthen or upwards, built since the said 2ath of August, 1816, or to any iron steamer of less burthen than 100 tons built after the passing of this Act, except as aforesaid, unless the same be divided as aforesaid; and if any steamer required to be so divided proceeds to sea without being so divided, the owner shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding 1001. - $ 20.

Steam Vessels to carry Safety Valves out of control of Engineer: -- After the 31st March, 1852, it shall not be lawful for any steam boat, of which surveys are required by the provisions of this Act, to go to sea, or to steam upon the rivers of the U. K., without having a safety valve upon each boiler, free from the care of the engineer, and out of his control and interference; and such safety valve shall be deemed to be a necessary part of the machinery, upon the sufficiency of which the engineer surveyor is to report as herein provided. - $21.

Sea-going Vessels to be provided with Boats. - No decked vessel, except vessels used solely as steam tugs, shall proceed to sea' from any port or place in the U. K. unless it be provided, according to its tonnage, with boats duly supplied with all requisites for their use, and not being fewer in number nor less in their cubic contents than the boats the number and cubic contents of which are specified in the following table; provided that the said limits of dimension be not considered applicable to vessels engaged in the whale fishery :

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Note. - In the case of steam vessels, two paddle-bor boats may be substituted for any two of the boats in Column 3. And no such vessel carrying more than ten passengers shall proceed to sea unless, in addition to the boats herein-before required, it also be provided with a life boat furnished with all requisites for use, or unless one of its boats herein-before required be rendered buoyant after the manner of life boats ; and do such vessel shall proceed to sea with passengers as aforesaid unless it also be provided

with two life buoys, to be kept ready for immediate use : provided, that the enactments with respect to boats and life buoys herein contained shall not apply in any case in which a certificate has been duly obtained under sect. 9. of 12 & 13 Vict. c.33. --- $ 22.

No Steamer to proceed to Sea without being provided with a llose and Signals. -No steam vessel, except vessels used solely as steam tugs, shall proceed to sea unless it be provided with a hose adapted for the purpose of extinguishing fire in any part of the vessel, and capable of being connected with the engines of the vessel, nor, if carrying passengers, without being provided with the following means of making signals of distress, that is to say, 12 blue lights, or 12 port-tires, and I cannon, with ammunition for at least 12 charges, or, in the discretion of the master or owner of such vessel, with such other means of making signals as shall have been previously approved by the B. of T.--$ 23.

Penalties on Masters, fc. neglecling to provide Boats, &c. If any such steam or other vessel as aforesaid proceed to sea without being provided with such boats and other equipments as are required for such vessel, or if any of such boats or other equipments be lost or rendered useless in the course of the voyage through the wilsul fault or negligence of the owner or master, or if in case of any of such boals or lile buoys being accidentally lost or injured in the course of the voyage the master or other person having charge of the vessel wilfully neglect to replace or repair the same on the first convenient opportunity, then and in every case where the owner shall appear to be in fault he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding 1001., and in every case where the master or other person having charge of the vessel shall appear to be in fault he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding 501.-$ 24.

Officers of Customs not to clear out Vessels not complying with the above Provisions. - It shall not be lawful for any officer of customs to clear out, or to grant a transire to, or allow to proceed to sea, any steam or other vessel, unless the same is provided with such boats and other equipments as are required for such vessel ; and in any case in which any vessel is delayed by reason of non-compliance with any of the provisions herein-before contained the tide-waiter left on board shall be maintained at the expense of the master or owner of such vessel until such provisions are complied with.- 25.

Admiralty to mahe Regulations as to Lights. ---- The Admiralty shall from time to time make regula. tions requiring the exhibition of such lights, by such classes of vessels, whether steam or sailing vessels, within such places and under such circumstances as they think fit, and may from time to time revoke, alter, or vary the same, and they shall cause such regulations to be published in the London Gazette, and to be otherwise publicly made known, and such regulations shall come into operation on a day to be named in such Gazette, and they shall cause such regulations to be printed, and shall furnish a copy therrosto any owner or master of a vessel who applies for the same, and production of the Gazette containing such regulations shall be sufficient evidence of the purport and due making thereof; and all owners and masters or persons having charge of vessels shall be bound to take notice of the same, and shall, so long as the same continue in force, exhibit such lights, and no others, at such times, within such places, in such manner, and under such circumstances as are enjoined by such regulations ; and in case of default the master or other person having charge of any vessel, or the owner of such vessel, if it appear that he was in fault, shall for each and every occasion upon which such regulations are infringed

forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding 201.: provided always that all regulations made by the Admiralty, under the authority of the said recited Acts or either of them, and in force at the passing of this Act, together with the penalties applicable thereto, shall continue and be in force as if the same had been made under this Act, until the same be revoked.--- 26.

Rules to be observed by Vessels passing each other. - Whenever any vessel proceeding in one direction mrets a vessel proceeding in another direction, and the master or other person having charge of either such vessel perceives that if both vessels continue their respective courses they will pass so near as to in volve any risk of a collision, he shall put the helm of his vessel to port, so as to pass on the port side of the o: hér vissel, due regard being had to the tide and to the position of e ch vessel with respect to the dangers of the channel, and, as regards sailing vessels, to the keeping of each vessel under command; and the master of any steam vessel ravigating any river or narrow channel shall keep as far as is practicable to that side of the fairway or mid-channel thereof which lies on the starboard side of such vessel; and if the master or other person having charge of any stiam vessel neglect to observe these regulations or either of them, he shall for every such offence be liable to a penalty not exceeding 504. -- $ 27.

Oloners not entitled to compensation in certain Cases of Collision. - If in any case of a collision between 2 or more vessels it appear that such collision was occasioned by the non-observance either of the foregoing rules with respect to the passing of steamers or of rules to be made by the Admiralty with respect to the exhibition of lights, the owner of the vessel by which any such rule has been infringed shall not be entitled to recover any recompence whatsoever for any damage sustained hy such vessel in such collision, unless it appears to the court before which the case is tried that the circumstances of the case were such as to justify a departure from the rule; and in case any damage to person or property be sustained in consequence of the non-observance of any of the said rules, the same shall in all courts of justice be deemed, 'in the absence of proof to the contrary, to have been occasioned by the wilful default of the master or other person having the charge of such vessel, and such master or other person shall, unless it appears to the court before which the case is tried that the circumstances of the case were such as to justify a departure from the rule, be subject in all proceedings, whether civil or criminal, to the legal cousequences of such default.- $ 28.

Accidents to be reported to Board of Trade. - Whenever any steam vessel (other than a ship of war) has sustained or caused any accident occasioning loss of life or any serious injury to any person, or has received any material damage affecting her seaworthiness or efliciency either in her hull or in any part of her machinery, the owner, master, or other person having the charge of such vessel shall, within 24 hours after the happening of such accident or damage, or as soon thereafter as possible, transmit through the post office to the B. of T. hy letter signed by such master or other person, a report of such accident or damage, and the probable occasion thereof, stating the name of the vessel, the port to which she belongs, and the place where she is; and if such master or other person neglect so to do he shall for such offence be liable to a penalty not exceeding 501.-- 29.

Notice to be given of apprehended Loss of Steam Vessels. - If the owner of any steam vessel have reason, owing to the non-appearance of such vessel, or to any other circumstance, to apprehend that $110h vessel has been wholly lost, he shall as soon as conveniently may be send notice thereof in like manner to the B. of T., and if he neglect so to do within a reasonable time he shall for such offence be liable to a penalty not exceeding 501.-30.

Board of Trade may send Inspectors on board l'essels whenever necessary. -- The B. of T. may from tiine to time, whenever it seems expedient to them so to do, appoint any of the surveyors to be appointed by them as aforesaid, or any other fit person, as an inspector, to go on board any ship or vessel, to report to them whether the provisions of this Act, or the regulations made under or by virtue of this Act, have been coinplied with, and also whether the hull and machinery of such vessel, if the same be a steam vessel, are sufficient and in good condition, or to report to them upon the nature and causes of any accident or damage which such ressel has sustained or caused, or is said to have sustained or caused. - $31.

Powers of Inspectors. - It shall be lawful for any such inspector, and also for any person being a member of the naval department of the B. of T., to go on board any steam vessel at all reasonable times, and to inspect the same or any part thereof, or any of the machinery, boats, equipments, or articles on board thereof to which the provisions of this Act or any of the regulations to be made by virtue thereof apply, not unnecessarily detaining or delaying the vessel from proceeding on any voyage ; and in all cases of accident or damage such inspector or other person may make such inquiries, and require answers or returns thereto, as to the nature, circunstances, and causes of such accident or damage, as he thinks fit, and may, by summons under his hand, require the attendance of all persons whom he thinks tit to call before him upon any question or matter connected therewith or relating thereto, and may administer oaths, and examine such persons upon oath, and may require and enforce the production upon oath of all log books, accounts, agreements, or other papers or writings in any wise relating to any such matter as aforesaid, or in lieu of requiring and adıninistering an oath may require any person to make and subscribe a declaration of the truth of he matters respecting which he has been examined or interrogated: provided that no person shall be required, in obedience to any summons from such inspector or (ther person, to travel more than 10 miles from his actnal abode at the time of receiving such summons, unless such reasonable allowance for expenses in respect of his attendance to give evidence and of his journeys to and from the place where he may be required to attend for that purpose be made and tendered to him as would be allowed to any witness attending on subpoena to give (vidence before any of II. M. courts at Westminster; and in case of any dispute as to the amount of such expenses the same shall be referred by such inspector, or other person, to one of the masters of H.M. court of Quren's Bench, and such master shall, on a request made to him for that purpose under the hand of such inspector or other person, ascertain and certify the proper amount of such expenses. -932.

Penalty for obstructing Inspectors. --- If any person wilfully impede such inspector or other person in the execution of any part of his duty, whether on board any ship or vessel or elsewhere, every person so cffending, and all persons aiding and assisting therein, may be seized and detained by such inspector or other person, or by any persons called by him to his assistance, until such offender can be conveniently taken before some justice of the peace or other officer having proper jurisdiction; and every such offindor, and also every person who refuses to attend as a winess before any such inspector or other person), when required so to do, in the manner hereby directed, or who refuses or neglects to make any answer, or to give any return, or to produce any document in his possession, or to make or subscribe any declarations which such inspector or other person is hereby empowered to require as aforesaid, sbor for cach offence be liable to a penalty not exceerling $1. --33. The rest of the clauses relate to the legal proceedings which may be carried on under the Act. SUGAR.

The use of sugar in breweries was authorized by the 10 Vict, c. 5., and its use in the distillation of spirits by the 11 & 12 Viet. c. 10'.

An Account of the Quantities of the different Descriptione o Segar entered for Consumption in the

United Kingdon during each of the 19 Years ending with 18:0; with an Account of the Amount of Duty received on the same, the average Price of Muscovado Sugar in Bond, á€.

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For an armount of the former rates of duty, which have varied very greatly, see art. SUGAR in DI TIONARY. The present duties are given in the art. TARITT.

TOBACCO TRADE.- A few years ago, the American government, at the suggestion of the tobacco planters, sent an agent to Europe to make inquiries into the state of the tobacco trade, in the view of procuring increased facilities for the introduction of the tobacco of the C. States into this part of the world. Mr. Dodge, the agent, has since published an interesting and elaborate Report; a summary of which appeared, a few months ago, in a New Orleans paper. And we now take leave to lay this summary, with but little alteration, before our readers, Holland. -- By the Dutch taris of 184), the im'ort duty on unmannfactured tobacco of the l'. States is equal to 28 American cents per 100 kilox (2211.), with a transit duty of I cant per 100 kilog. This transit duty is a matter of great consideration ; for in contence of the many facilit es of intercommunication, a large portion of Germany obtains supplies through Holland, and, consequently, a low rate of transit duty is very desirable. The exports of unan' furtured tolacio from the u. Statexto Holland, from 1st October, 141, to 30th June, 1944, 45 years, were 133 134 hhds., valid at 5,643,173 dol-average ing annually 29.08) bhde., of the value of 1,195,91 dol. It is estimated, that the indirect imports of American tobarco into Bollard, for the sanne period, was 5,000 hhds, annually, - making a total annual average import of 31,391 hirds, which is an increase since 1835 of 10,023 hhds, a year. This immense trade is carried on principally in Ainerican bottins. The growth and manufacture of tobacco are very much encouraged.

Belgium. - The duty is 47 c. per 224 lbs. avoirdupois. For 44 years, from 1841 to 1846, our exports, direct and indirect, to Belgium, amounted to 32,653 hhds., giving an annual average of 6.574 hhuis., and showing an annual increase since 1835 of 4,*!! hands. These exports are made in American bottons. The cultivation is free, and likewise the manufacture is open to any one upon payment of a small patent tax. The tobacco manufacturers are numerous, and the greater part of the manufactured tubaceo is smuggled into France.

Denmark. - The duty is equal to 1 dol. 4 c, per 100 lbs. The export to Denmark averages, 208 hhds. a year, which shows a diminution in the trade. The cultivation, manufacture, and sale of the articles are free.

Sweden and Norway. According to the tariff of 1833, which is still in force, the duty on tobacco is 12 c. per Ib. This is an enormously high tax, yet the trade has slighily increased. For the period before mentioned, from 1841 to 1846, we exported direct to Sweden and Norway, 7,397 hhds., making an averige of 1,555 hhds. Most of the imported tobacco is required for the consumption or manufacture of the country; very little is exported.

Russia, - At one time the consumption of tobacco in this country was capitally punished; but the use of it has been rapidly on the increase since the French invasion in 1915. Thr direci export of our tobacco to Russia for 44 years, amounted to 801 bhds., being an annual average of 169 hhds. ; the indirect importation into the country, by way of England, is considerable. The duty on tobacco is very severe, bing 3 dols. 75 c. per 36 lbs. ; but, not withistanding this discouraging duty, the use of tobacco is annually increasing, and the manufacture of the article augmenting.

England. - During the 41 years, from October 1, 1841, to June 30, 1946, the imports of tobacco into England, Scotland, and Ireland, from the U. States, were 151,293 hhds, making an annual average of 31.851 hhds. It is estimated, that about 12,060 bhus. are annually exported to the Continent, making the consumption in Great Britain about 20,000 bhxs. a year, which is an increase of 2,000 hhds. over the aver: ge from 1*30 to 1835, We give the following extract from Mr. Dodge's report upon the legislation of England upon this article: --The net produce of the customs and excise was as follows:

Tollars. Leaf tobacco (average of 13 years, from 1820 to 1832)

15,160,64 Manufactured and cigars (average of 10 years, from 1924 to 1833) Snutt from 1524 to 1953, 10) years) Licenses to manufacturers (1533)

2,179 Licence to retailers (1533)

15, 17,072 The total annount of net revenue to the British government from tobacco, not including the excise was in 1836, 3,397,1021. sterling; and in 1837, 3,417,6032. sterling : 11-121hs of which are derived from iue tobacco of the U. States.

The following statements are contained in an address made by a tobacco conventiou held in Washing. ton in May, 1810, to the tobacco planters of the Union :

The annual average consumption of our tobacco in Great Britain for the said three years ending the 1.t day of October, 1838, was about 18,000 hhds., which cost here an average of 9 dols. per 100 lbs., and


197,1 g

paid to the British crown a tax of 38. sterling. -'equal to 72 cents per Ib., or 800 per cent. duty; that is to say, I hhd. of tobacco, weighing 1,200 lbs., for which you received 108 dols. for growing, preparing, and transporting to market, pays a direct tax to the British government of 873 dols. for the privilege of being sold to her citizens, besides other taxes which she exacts from her own citizens for manufacturing and retailing it to the consumers. And the official tables show the gross amount of revenue derived by the British government from 18,000 hhds, of our tobacco, imported in the year 1837, to have been 16,653,466 dols., which is about the sum derived by the U. States from import duties, on imports of every description, from the whole world.

Our diplomatic agents have since 1837 been sedulously endeavouring to urge upon England a reduce tion of her high duties upon tobacco, but as yet without success.

Mr. Dodge, in 1840, stated that the revenue which Great Britain obtained upon 18,000 hhds. of American tobacco, “was more than enough to pay seven important items in their civil and diplomatic lists," viz:


d. 1. Civil List

414.065 IS 3 2. Annuities, and pensions for civil, naval, military,

and judicial services

579,966 4 2 3. Salaries and allowances

194,012 S2 4. Diplomatic salaries and pensions

I»,140 16 0 5. Courts of Justice

674,152 17 3 6. Miscellaneous

331,789 14 9 7. Interest on exchequer bills

936.687 17 10

3,348,144 IS 3 which, at 4 dols. 85 c. the pound sterling, is equal to 16,238,500 dols.

France.- Our direct exports to France for the period hefore mentioned, 44 years, were 89,576 hhds., making an annual average of 18,858 hhds. She also obtains large supplies from depots at Gibraltar and London. The purchase of tobacco is monopolised by the government, under the operation of the system of the regie. In 1837 this monopoly produced to the French treasury a revenue of 11,013,333 dols. To. bacco is cultivated to a considerable extent in six of the departments. Strenuous exertions bave been made by our governinent to obtain some relaxation of this system, but without any avail.

Spain.-- The same monopoly exists in this country; and the net product of the revenue from tobacco is estimated at 4,200,000 dol., being about hall its gross amount: all contracts by individuals or companies, for supplies, are made with the regic. The quantity exported from the US States to Spain, for 4. years, was 16,433 hhds., being 3,460 hhds. a year. 'Large quantities are smuggled into the country through Gibraltar.

Austria. – Tobacco is here also a government monopols, which very seriously affects the trade. The quantity imported from us, for the period of time before mentioned, was, 8,928 hhds., or 1,800 hhds. a year.

Sardinia. - Here, also, the same monopoly, so restrictive of consumption, prevails. The annual exports from the u. States amount to 225 bhds., besides large quantities imported indirectly and smuggled.

The Hanse Touns. -- With these cities, Bremen and Hamburg, a large commerce is carried on, particularly the former, which engrosses nearly the whole tobacco trade. During the 47 years ending in 1846, thé exports of tobacco from the U. States to the Hanse Towns amounted to 200.040 hhds., worth 8,489,378 dols., making a yearly average of 42,114 hhds., of the value of 1,787,238 dols. - The amount consumer in Bremen and Hamburg annually is about 1,000 hhds.; learing 41,000 bhds. for the consumption of the interior of Germany (Austria excepted) of American tobacco.

Unremitting but unsuccessful efforts were made by Mr. Dodge to induce the Zollverein to modify their tariff of duties on our tobaccos, which averages about 75 per cent. on their first cost.

We have some interesting facts, as the result of Mr. Dodge's investigations. The duty on tobacco in every country of Europe (except in the Hanse Towns, where only 1,000 hhds, are consuned), is specific, being the same whether the tobacco costs 1 dol. or 5 dols. The exports of tobacco from the U. States to Europe in 1845, were 147,168 hhds. of the value of 7,500,000 dols., and the revenue derived from it by the several European States, was about 59.857,984 dols., being about 600 per cent. on the first cost of the article. " The duties range from 75 to near 2000 per cent. upon the cost of the article in our ports, and furnish a commentary upon the theory of free trade as understood in Europe, showing that their professions of reciprocity mean, if any thing, that they will obtain all they can from us, and grant us nothing in return."

In striking contrast with this enormous revenue from duties on tobacco, are our duties on imports from Europe. The whole amount of imports in 1815 was 117,254,564 dols., and the duties levied upon that amount were 26,653.809 dols. net -- not 20 per cent.

From a table compiled from the records of government, showing the exports of unmanufactured tobacco from 1821 to 1817, the value, number of hogsheads, and average value per hogshead, we condense the following account for periods of 7 years, beginning with 1821 and closing with 1847:Average. hhds.


Value per hhd. 81,003

Second 7 years


73 53
Third ; vears


Fourth 3 years

7,961, 94

53 98 We have shown that the foreign duties on 7,900,000 dollars' value of tobacco, amount to 59,257,000 dols.

According to Mr. Dodge, of the 36 States of Europe, there is in 24 freedom of competition in every species of industry exercised in the article of tobacco. The following States have adopted the system of monopoly or regie, viz.; France, Spain, Austria, Sardinia, Roman States, and the Duchy of Parma. In Britain, Spain, Sardinia, and Parma, the cultivation is absolutely prohibited; in the other States it is only restrained. In the States subject to the regie, the manufacture, sale, and import, are absolutely interdicted to individual enterprise. Portugal, Naples, Tuscany, Poland, and a part of Switzerland, have adopted the farming system.

The effect of abolishing the monopolies, and reducing the duty to a moderate standard, would be, it is supposed, to increase the consumption fourfold. Mr. Dodge is of opinion, that 422,344 hogsheads would be exported to and consumed in Europe, under a moderate system of duties. Account of the Quantities of Tobacco imported in 1818 to 1949, and of the Quantities entered for Con

sumption, and of the Revenue accruing thereon in these years :


First 7 years

85 92

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WHALE-FISHERY. – We borrow from Hunt's Commercial Magazine the following details with regard to the Whale Fishery of the U. States in 1847, and previous years.

Importations of Sperm and Whale Oil and Whalebone into the U. States in 1847.
Ports. Sperm 011.Whale Oil. Whalebone. Ports. Sperm Oil. Whale Oil Whalebone.

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Bols. BWS,

Libe. New Bedford 56,437 98,735 1,568,200 Bristol


130 Fairhaven 12,032 11,280 91,700 Warren

1,441 5,106

10,900 Mattapoisett

574 3,600 Providence

514 8,854

127,500 Sippican

Newport -


1,148 Wareham 1,019 1,644 5,900 Stonington


18,460 146,900 Westport : 1,883 1,485 13,100 Mystic

840 11,414 59,600 Holmes's Hole

2,902 32,700 New London

4,755 76,310 382,500 Edgartown

2,410 3,9.39
39,900 Bridgeport

230 1,365 4,000 Nantucket

2,021 8,000 Sag Harbor

3,257 51,599 279,900 Barnstable



9,880 80,422 Provincetown

Cold Spring


2,797 31,158 Boston

445,100 New York

68 1,742 2,000 Lynn


8,000 Fall River


120,753 313,1503,341,680 We here annex a Table of the Imports, &c., for the Seven previous Years, for the purpose of com

parison :

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Tonnage of Vessels employed in the Whale Fishery, January 1. 1848.


Exports of Whale Oil from the Port of New Bedford to Foreign Ports.

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10,144 The Exports of Whale Oil from the Port of New Bedford in 1847, were - to Prussia, 3,347 bbls.l; to Holland, 6,797 bbls. In 1846, the Exports of Oil from this Port were 3,841 bbls. of Sperm, and 31,894 bbls. of Whale. WINE AND SPIRITS. Account of the Number of Gallons of Foreign Wine imported, of the Quantities upon which Duty has

been paid for Home Consumption, and the Quantities exported ; also the Quantities retained for Home Consumption, after deducting the Amount exported subsequently to the Payment of Duty, for the Year ended 5th January, 1851, distinguishing the different Varieties of Wines, with the Quantities of each Sort remaining in Bond on the 5th January, 1851.

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